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I     I  t 

1      *  r 

/  ^ 





^lot.     e. 





I  • 




VOL.  L 


J.  Nichols,  Sod,  and  Bentley,  Printers, 
YU<I  Lion  Passage,  Fleei  Street,  Loijdon. 






°0F  THB 








VOL.  L 


AND  CO.;  J.  BOOTH;  J.  Hf  AWMAN ;  <lkLE  AND  CURTIS;  R.  H.  ETANS;  J. 

1812.  HR>    .     ^^~ 


XN  presenting  a  new  Edition  of  the  Biographical 
DicTiONARV,  more  voluminous  than  any' of  the  forr 
mer^  it  may  be  necessary  to  premise  a  general  sketch 
of  the  additions  and  improvements  to  be  introduced* 
It  appears  to  have  been  th^^^prigihal  plan  of  this  Dic- 
tionary to  comprise  an  acobunt  of  persons  of  all  na- 
tions^ ejninent  for  geniw/.learaing,  public  spirit,  and 
virtue,  with  a  preference,  as.  tpexteat  of  narrative,  to 
those  of  our  own  country.  Alid  this  plan  it  is  in^ 
tended  to  follow  in  all  its  parts,  with  the  exception  of 
«ome  articles  confessedly  iiiiproper  for  a  work  of  this 
kind,  but  with  the  addition  of  many  inore,  collected 
from  various  sources,  foreign  and  domestic. 

Many  of  the  years  which  have  elapsed  since  th^ 
publication  of  the  last  edition,  have  been  employed  in 
collecting,  materials  for  the  improved  state  in  which,  it 
is  hc^>ed,  the  Work  will  now  iappear ;  and  n^uch  pains 
have  been' taken  to  remove  the  objections,  whether  ctf 
redundancy  or  defect,  v^hich  bave  been  made  to  all 
|he:  preceding  editions.    During  the  same  ^pa^je^  ^ 



very  great  accession  has  been  made  to  our  biographi- 
cal stock,  not  only  by  the  demise  of  many  eminent 
characters  in  the  literary  world,  but  by  the  additional 
ardour  given  to  the  spirit  of  literary  curiosity.  It  is 
to  this  that  we  owe  oiany  valuable  memoirs  of  authors 
and  writings  unjustly  consigned  to  oblivion,  but  re- 
covered by  the  industry  of  those  who,  without  being 
insensible  to  the  merit  of  their  own  times,  are  impar^ 
tial  enough  to  do  justice  to  the  talents  of  remote  ages. 

Of  the  lives  retained  from  the  last  edition,  besides 
An  attempt  to  restore  <  uniformity  of  style,  there  are 
very  few  which  are  not,^  either  in  whole  or  in  part, 
re^written,  or  to  %vhich  it  has  not  been  found  neces** 
sary  to  make-  very  important  additions.  Nor  ought 
this  to  be  construed  into  a^  reflection  on  preceding 
Editors.  Bwography  was  of  later  growth  in  this  coun- 
try than  ill  aiiy  other;  and  cfvery  new  work,; if  per- 
formed with  equal  industry  and  accuracy,  must  exod 

the  past  in  utility  afid  copiousness. 

, »         «\  » 

'  V  '  T    ' 

'  As  from  i^orks  of  this  description  a  superior  degree 
bf  judgment  is  ecs^peeted,  which  at  the  same  time  is 
acknowledged  to-bie  ranely  founds  it  becomes  necessary 
to  advert  to  the  insurmountable  difficulty  of  making 
such  a  selection  as  shall  give  yniversal  tetisfaction. 
'The  f ule  to  admit  important  and  reject  ins^ifican^ 
lives,  wt>uld  b^  useful^^  were  it  practicable.  But  no 
individual.  Of  considemble  number  of  individuai^  can 
be  su{^sled  capaUe  of  determining  on  the  various 
merits  that  are  allotted  in  biographical  coUectioiisi; 
and^ten  where  We  bate  recourse  to  whicli 

ADVERTI6JSMS)9r^>.  y^ 

the  critical  plan  has  been  professedly  adopted^  them 
is  in  very  few  cases  that  decisive  poncurrence  of  opi- 
nion on  which  an  Editor  can  rely. 

r  ■ 

It  has  been  acknowledged,  however,  that  of  the 
two  grand  errors,  that  of  redundancy  may  he  com- 
mitted with  i|[iost  impunity,  not  only  because  curiosity 
after  the  works  of  past  ages  has  lately  become  more 
extensive,  and  is  nourished  by  the  superior  attention 
bestowed  on  the  contents  of  our  great  libraries,  as  well 
as  by  the  formation  of  new  and  extensive  libraries  by 
opulent  individuals ;  but  because  tliere  are  few  lives  so 
insignificant  as  not  to  be  useful  in  illustrating  some 
point  of  literary  history.  And,  what  is  more  impor- 
tant, it  has  often  been  found,  since  the  progress  of 
learning  became  to  be  more  accurately  traced,  that 
persons  once  considered  as  insignificant,  proved  to  be 
so  only  because  little  known.  Still,  as  there  are  some 
general  opinions  which  may  be  followed,  some  general 
inscriptions  of  fame  which  are  too  distinctly  legible  to 
be  mistaken,  the  most  ample  spaces  will  be  filled  by 
those  whose  names  are  most  familiar  to  scholars  of  all 
ages  and  nations. 

In  order,  likewise,  to  obviate  as  much  as  possible 
the  errors  of  selection,  it  is  intended,  in  the  present 
edition,  to  subjoin,  throughout  the  whole  series,  very 
copious  REFERENCES  TO  AUTHORITIES.  Thcsc  in  some 
similar  works,  particularly  on  the  Continent,  have 
been  either  wholly  omitted,  or  given  at  second-hand 
so  incorrectly  as  to  be  useless.  But  if  collected  from 
an  inspection  of  the  works  referred  to,  where  that  is 


pKicticable,  they  will  always  serve  to  point  out  to  the 
curious  reader  where  farther  information  may  be  found, 
and  at  the  same  time,  in  lives  that  are  sufficiently  co- 
pious, may  justify  the  Editor,  who  must  in  a  thousand 
instances  be  guided  by  opinions  which  he  has  it  not 
in  his  power  t6  appreciate. 

While  references  to  authorities,  however,  are  given^ 
it  has  not  been  thought  necessary  to  extend  them  to  a 
degree  of  ostentatious  minuteness.  In  referring,  for 
example,  to  such  a  work  as  the  Biographia  Britan- 
nica,  it  cannot,  for  any  useful  purpose,  be  necessary 
to  strip  the  margins  of  that  work^  of  those  minute  re-' 
ferences  to  a  variety  of  books,  pamphlets,  and  records, 
from  which  small  particulars  are  taken  ;  and  the  same 
remark  may  be  applied  to  Moreri,  the  General  Die- 
tionaiy  including  Bayle,  and  other  elaborate  compi- 
lations of  a  similar  nature.  At  the  same  time,  the 
reader  has  a  right  to  expect  that  the  original  and  lead-^ 
ing  authorities  should  be  carefully  pointed  out. 

Another  improvement  intended  in  the  present  Edi- 
tion, is  that  of  a  more  copious  list  of  each  Author's 
Writings  than  has  usually  been  thought  neces- 
sary. Whatever  may  be  the  case  with  our  con- 
temporaries, we  have  no  more  certain  criterion  of  past 
reputation  and  value,  than  frequency  of  reprinting, 
and  no  more  certain  method  of  estimating  the  learn- 
ing and  taste  of  past  generations,  thap  by  inspect- 
ing the  works  from  which  they  deri^ved  instruction. 
But  in  some  cases  over  which  oblivion  seems  to  have 
cast  her  deepest  shades,  it  may  bq  sufficient  to  refer 
to  original  lists,  and  avoid  that  minuteness  of  descrip^ 

tion  which  belongs  mote  stritftly  ta  the  ^rotinee  dT 

Ifi  dftf  fttt  (}f  Hm  pt^^ent  Hnd^rtaking,  it  ha»  hk)^ 
#iie  beeii  raccAiifneikkd^  wkh  gttat  J>iK>priety,  ttiM  tfa^ 
titles  of  Books  should  generally  be  giveb  kt  tilcfif  oftH 
GiNAL  i^ANGUAGES.  Much  dlBScul  ty  has  arisen  to  collec- 
hm  of  S«oks^  aM*  well  fl(8>  to  the  x'^adeni  ki  ptf  bli£  fibrttries^^ 
ift>m  kKkPkig  ^tfiiiskted  tilfe  6t^ly^  tthich  is  Dtefl  to  1S# 
feuntt  ki  cjMlcgtiesr^  noi^  ])ei^hdp»,  upon  <93ftf  deeofant^ 
eXMljr  r^oU«eted  by  librarian^.  It  is  hifeii^led,  ther6^ 
fcrt,  td  feAor4  this  necessiA^y  info^mtttioR,  Where  i« 
tm  he  printed ;  btrf  the  Editor  firtefe  «  Aie^  to  hfiiH 
8^  t4  acMv  tllM  be  ha9  tiot  Alwbysr  b^n^  so  Mcces^l 
iit  9de6V6rii|^  ttM^  prb^r  titles^  of  Wdrks^  aH  cisuy  hav^ 
Iteem  wisfcttfc  The  bidgraqphei^s  6f  thoiA  nations-  teWrtf 
khIlMffto  bc^W  ptnial  fo  ftMfslafedy  tod  frequeiiftfj;^ 
Afndpfi^iMiifi  aiid  wheelrei'  bis  insulted  the  French 
biographers^  in  particular^  must  be  sensibte  of  th^ 
great  inconveniencies  attending  this  plan^  as  well  as 
that  4t  tMttt^^\ng  di^  «faM£9  of  Authors,  ithkh  is 
fmfbiet&Af  dom  in  Mcti  a'  it^t^er  as  to  tMxU  cdnx^ 

In  ad^^rtitlg  fb  this  la^t  ^iKt^e  of  perplc^ify^  thd 
EdiOo^  of  ewry  niftW  cottection  of  Kyes,  must  hope  td 
fluid  Ai^exotM^  ft^  these  dlmost  uriavoidialble  errors  td 
vv4ti€lPl)»  Is'^S^^ided;  aild  particutarty  to  the  dai^gei*  of 
i^)iMfti^'th«  stAn^  fife  uii<S^r  tw6  apparently  different 
l»MM«.  Evett  itt  die  present  v6luTiie,  addn^otwith-* 
tfUfdit^  A#  daVe  that  has'  beeti  tdkfeft  t«  avoi<t 
tttoA^  of  tftis  >kiiid^  ALESiifv  Gabeas,  is  afferv^ardl* 

Vol.  I*  h 


riq)^ted  under  AlghIzi-Galeas^zo.  The  Editor  is 
aware  that  he  is  pleading  bad  example,  rather  than  ail 
excuse,  when  he  adds,  '|l|mt  he  was  led  into  this  err6r 
by  the  editors  both  of  the  Dictionnaihe  HiSTORictUE, 
and  of  that,  more  accurate  work  the  Biographie 

There  are  few  respects  in  which  works  of  this  kind 
have  been  more  encumbered,  than  in  the  admission 
of  Emperors,  Kings,  Sultans,  &c.  whose  lives  are 
merely  passages  of  history,  unintelligible,  if  short, 
and  if  prolix,  by  no  means  biographical.  Of  these  a 
few  have  been  formerly  admitted,  and  may  be  sup* 
posed  sanctioned  by  repetition ;  but  as  curiosity  seh*, 
dom  looks  to  biographical  collections  for  such  subjects, 
very  little  addition  will  be  made  to  this  series, .  except 
in  the  case  of  some  royal  personages  of  our  own  couU'* 
try,  whose  private  or  public  history  continues  to  be 
interesting.  < 

.  It  oiily  remains  to  be  noticed  that,  according  to  the 
oi^inft)  plan^  a  preference  will  be  given  to  the  Wor- 
thies of  oiir  own  country;  a  prefer^Qce,  however,  nofc 
of  selfish  partiality,  but  of  absolute  necessity,  as  all 
foreign .  cdlections  are  notoriously  deficient  in  the 
f^ngHi^h  series.  For  this  it  would  be  un&ir  to  aocQunt 
fither  from  want  of  learning  or  research.  A  more 
obvious  res^on  is^^^/that  most  of  the  foreign  bipgraphi- 
cal  coll^iops  have  been  made  by  Coolies, .  and  iu. 
Catholic  countries,  where  it  would  have  been  unsafe 
to  ei^ter  into  the  merits  of  Englishmen  of  reqowi^^. 
either  in  Church  or  State.    We  owe  i^  ho^evei*,  tft 

the  illastrious  founders  of  our  Learning  and  Religion^ 
we  owe  it  to  ourselves  and  to  posterity,  that  no  name 
should  perish  that  was  once  enroUed  oQ  the  lists  of 
just  and  honourable  f^ni^* 
(~  , 
The  Editor  is  aware  that,  with  every  degi*ee  of  cir- 
cumspection, and  the  most  sedulous  care  that  can  be 
pfesarved  in  the  conduct  of  this  undertaking,  it  may 
9ot  be  possible  ip  ^  ^U  cas^  to  avoid  the  errors  'whick 
bave  been  pointed  out,  and  to  satisfy  every  expecta- 
tion  as  to  the  plan  proposed.  He  can  only  hope  that 
he  may  be  able,  by  au  adherence  to  the  above  rules, 
to  improve  upon  the  labours  of  his  predecessors :  and 
for  the  defects  Unavoidable  in  a  work  of  this  ipagni- 
tude,  he  re|ieis  with  confidppc^  op  the  candpur  pf  th^ 

*^^*  Communications  respecting  persons  lately  de^' 
ceased,  or  pointing  out  any  other  sources  of  informa-* 
don  necessary  to  this  work,  may  be  addressed  to  the^ 
Editor,  \inder  cover  to -the  Printers,  Messrs.  Nichols,* 
Son,  and  BENTLEY,*Red  Lion  Passage,  Fleet-street.    ' 


^-  * 

%»  ADV: 

i^'Miif^j-i^  r«. 

The  New  Edition  of  the  Bic^raphical  IXctionaiy- 
will  continue  to  be  published  in  Monthly  Volumes, 
of  about  50a  pages  each,  printed  with  a  new  type,  in 
8  fiiH^sized  Demy  Odavo,  Price  128.  in  boards. 


PHnted  ftnr  J.  Nichoh  and  Son ;  F.  C.  itnd  J.  RiVington  ; 
T.  Payne ;  W.  Otui^e  and  Sm»;  G.  sunI  W.  Nmia  ; 
Wilkie  and  Robinson ;  J.  Walker ;.  R.  Lea^  W,  Lowndes  ;> 
White,  Cochrane^  and  Co. ;  J.  Deighton ;  T.  Egerton  ;, 
Lackington,  Allien,  and  Co.;  Longmam,  Hurst,  Ree^, 
Onne^  and  Brown ;  Cadril  and  Davies ;  C.  Law ;:  J«. 
Booker;  Clarke  and  Sons ;.  J.  and  A.  Arch  ;  J.  Hasris  ^ 
Black,  Parry,  and  Co.;  J.  Booth;  J.  Mawman;  Gale 
'  and  Curtis;  R*.  H.  Evans;  J.  Hatehard;  J.  Harding;  J. 
Johnson  and  Co. ;  £.  Bentley ;  and  J.  Faulder. 

Volume  IL  with  an  Index,  pointing:  out  the  new 
and  re- written  Live»  contained  in  that  Volume,  will 
be  published  on  the  First  o£  June,  by  Messrs.  Wilkis 
and  Robinson,  57,  Paternoster-Row. 

^^^  Although  it  is  impossible,  in  the  present  state 
of  the  work,  to  announce  the  exact  number  of  Vo^ 
l^mes  to  which  it  will  extend,  it  it  calculated  tha* 
they  will  not  exceed  Twxnty-ons. 



xxA  (Peter  Vander),  an  eminent  bookseller,  who  began 
business  at  Leyden  about  the  year  1682,  and  devoted  hi» 
attention  principally  to  geographical  works  and  the.  con-^ 
struction  of  maps.  A  catalogue  appeared  at  Amsterdam  iti 
1729  of  his  publications,  which  are  very  numerous.  Those 
in  highest  esteem  are :  1.  "  A  collection  of  Travels  in 
France,  Italy,  England,  Holland,  and  Russia,''  Leyden^ 
1706,  30  vols.  12mo.  2.  "A  collection  of  Voyages  in 
the  two  Indies,''  Leyden,  1706,  8  vols.  fol. ;  another  edi* 
tion,  29  vols.  8vo,  1707-1710.  This  consists  chiefly  of  an 
abridgment  of  De  Bry's  collection,  with  some  additions* 
3.  **  A  collection  of  Voyages  in  the  Indies  by  the  Portu- 
guese, the  English,  the  French,  and  t^e  Italians,"  4  ^vols. 
fol.  Leyden,  These  three  works  are  in  Dutch.  4.  An 
**  Atlas  of  two  hundred  Maps,"  not  in  much  estimation. 
5.  **  A  Gallery  of  the  World,"  containing  an  immense 
quantity  of  maps,  topographical  and  historical  plates,  but 
without  letter-press,  in  66  vols.  foL  which  are  usually 
bound  in  35.  He  also  continued  Graevius'  "Thesaurus," 
or,  an  account  of  the  modern  Italian  writers,  with  the 
"Thesaurus  Antiquitatum  Siciliae."  He  died  about  1730*. 
AA  (Christian  Charles  H^nry  Vander),  a  learned 
divine  of  the  Lutheran  persuasion,  was  born  at  ZwoUe,  a 
town  of  Overyssel,  in  1718,  and  was  a  preacher  in  the 
Lutheran  church  at  Haerlem  for- fifty-one  years,  where  his 
public  and  private  character  entitled  him  to  the  highest 
esteem.  His  favourite  motto,  "God  is  love,"  was  the 
constant  rule  of  his  pastoral  conduct.    In  1752,  he  had  the 

1  Diet.  Hist  edit.  1810. 

Vol,  L  B 

f  A  A. 

chief  hand  in  establishing  the  Haerlem  Society  of  Sciences^ 
and  in  1778  formed  a  separate  branch  for  the  study  of 
CEconomics.  In  both  he  acted  as  secretary  for  many 
years;  and,  besides  some  Sermons,  published,  in  th« 
Transactipi)s  of  tbat  Society,  a  variety  of  scientific  papers. 
He  died  at  Haerlem  in  1795*. 

AAGARD  (Christian),  a  Danish  poet,  born  at  Wi- 
bourg  in  161 6,  was  professor  of  poetry  at  Sora,  and  after- 
wards lecturer  in  theology  at  Ripen,  in  Jutland.  Aqoug 
hi$  poems  are  :  1.  *^De  hommagio  Frederici  III.  Daniae  et 
Norw.  Regis,"  Hafniae,  1660,  fo^. ;  and  2.  "  Threni  Hy- 
perborei"  on  the  death  of  Christian  IV.  All  his  pieces  are 
inserted  in  the  *^  Deliciae  quorundam  Poetarum  Danorum, 
Frederici  Rostgaard,''  Leyden,  1695,  2  vols.  12mo.  H« 
died  in  February  1664,  leaving  ^  son,  Severin  Aagard, 
'who  wrote  his  life  in  the  above  collection  ^ 

AAGARD  (Nicholas),  bi-other  of  the  above,  was  libra- 
rian and  professor  in  the  University  of  Sora,  in  Denmark^ 
where  he  died  Jan.  22,  1657,  aged  forty-five  years,  said 
left  several  critical  and  philosophical  works,  written  in 
Latin.  The  principal  are:  1.  "A  treatise  on  Subterra* 
neous  Fires."  2.  "Dissertation  on  Tacitus."  3.  "Ob- 
servations  on  Ammianus  Marcelliniis."  And  4.  "A  dis- 
putation on  the  Style  of  the  New  Testament,"  Sora,  4to, 
1655.  He  and  his  brother  were  both  of  the  Lutheran 

AAGESEN  (SuEND,  in  Latin  Sueno  Agonis),  a  Danish 
historian,  flourished  about  the  year  1186,  and  appears  to 
have  been  secretary  to  the  archbishop  Absalon,  by  whose 
orders  he  wrote  a  history  of  Denmark,  intituled,  **  Con^- 

?endiosa  historia  regum  Danise  a  Skioldo  ad  Canutum  VI.** 
'his  work  is  thought  inferior  in  style  to  that  of  Saxo  Gram- 
tnaticus;  but,  on  some  points,  his  opinions  are  in  more 
strict  conformity  to  what  are  now  entertained  by  the  lite- 
rati of  the  North.  He  was  also  author  of  "  Historia  leguia 
castrensium  Regis  Canuti  magni,"  which  is  a  translation 
into  Latin  of  the  law  called^the  law  of  Witherlag,  enacted 
by  Canute  the  Great,  and  re-published  by  Absalon  in 
the  reign  of  Canute  VI.  with  ati  introduction  by  Aagesea 
on  the  origin  of  that  law.  Both  works  are  included  in 
^^Suenonis  Agonis  ftlii,  Christiemi  nepotis,  primi  Danism 
gentis  historici,  qusD  extant  opuscula.  Stephanus  Johannis 

1  Diet  Hist  edit.  1810.        «  Moreri.--Di<t  Hist.  1810.        '  Ibid. 

A  A  G  E  SEN.  i 

Stepj^^ius  ex  vetustissimo  codice  membraneo  MS.  regis 
biblL(>tj|jiecsB  Hafniensis  primus  pubiici  juris  fecit.  Sorae^ 
typ^s  Henrici  Crusii,''  1642,  8vo.  His  history  is  also 
printed,  with  excellent  notes,  in  Langebek's  "  Scriptores 
rerum  Danicarum,'*  vol.  I. ;  and  the  "  Leges  castrenses,** 
are  in  vol.  III. » 

AARON,  a  presbyter  of  Alexandria,  the  author  of 
^irty  books  on  physic  in  the  Syriac  tongue,  which  he 
called  the  Pandects.  They  were  supposed  to  be  written 
before  620,  and  were  translated  out  of  the  Syriac  into 
Arabic,  by  Mas'erjawalh,  a  Syrian  Jew,  and  a  physician  in 
the  reign  of  the  calif  Merwan,  about  A.  D.  683  ;  for  theu 
the  Arabians  began  to  cultivate  the  sciences  and  to  study 
physic.  In  these  he  has  clearly  described  the  small-pox^ 
and  the  measles,  with  their  pathognomonic  symptoms,  and 
is  the  first  author  that  mentions  those  two  remarkable  dis- 
eases,  which  probably  first  appeared  and  were  taken  notice 
of  at^ Alexandria  in  Egypt,  soon  afteir  the  Arabians  made 
thentselves  masters  of  that  city,  in  A.  D.  640,  in  the  reign 
of  Omar  Ebnol  Cbatab,  the  second  successor  to  Moham•^ 
med.  But  both  those  original  Pandects,  and  their  transla- 
tion, are  now  lost ;  and  we  have  nothing  of  them  remain- 
ing, but  what  Mohammed  Rhazis  collected  from  them,  .And 
h^  left  us  in  his  Continens ;  so  that  we.  have  no  certain 
account  where  those  two  diseases  first  appeared ;  but  it  is 
most  probable  that  it  was  in  Arabia  Foslix,  and  that  they 
were  brought  from  thence  to  Alexandria  oy  the  Arabians^ 
when  they  took  that  qity*. 

AARON  (St.)  a  Briton,  who  suflfered  martyrdom  with 
another,  St.  Julius,  dm'ing  the  persecution  under  the  em- 
peror Dioclesian,  in  the  year  303,  and  about  the  same 
time  with  St  Alban,  the  protomartyr  of  Britain.  What 
the  British  names  of.  Aaron  and  -  Julius  were,  we  are  not 
told;  Tior  ha^fr;we. any.  particulars  of  their  death.  They 
had  eapha  cbprch,  erected  to  his  memory  in  the  city  of 
Caer-Leon,  the\antient  metropolis  of  Wales,  and  their 
festival  is  placed,  in  the  Roman  Martyrology,  on  the  first 
of  July  ^  "  ■  [ 

.  AARON-HARISCON,  a  celebrated  Jewish  rabbi,  wf^ 
a  physician  at  Constantinople  towards  the  end  of  the  13  th 
centurj,  and  a  man  of  extensive  reputation.     He  wrote: 


1  Biographie  UDirerselle,  1811. 

*  Mangeti  Bibl. — Diet  Hist. — Fabric  Bibl.  GrtBC.    * 

'  lE(iog.'Brit.— Taiiiier.—LelaDd. 


4  A  A  R  O  N  -  H  AH  I  S  C  O  N. 

1.  *^  A  commentary  on  the  Pentateuch ;"' a  translation  o^ 
Which  into  Latin  was  published  at  Jena,  17 10,  fol.  a  work 
highly  praised,  by  Simon,  in  his  Critical  History  of  the 
Old  Testament,  and  by  Wolfius,  in  his  Bibl.  Hebraica.  It 
appears  by  a  manuscript  of  the  original,  in  the  library  of 
Ihe  Oratory  at  Paris,  that  it  was  written  in  1294.  2.  "A 
commentary  on  the  books  of  Joshua,  Judges,  Samuel,  and 
Kings,  translated  from  the  Arabic  into  Hebrew,^'  a  manu- 
script in  the  library  at  Leydeii.  3.  "A  commentary  on 
Isaiah  and  the  Psalms,"  in  the  same  library.  4.  ^*A 
commentary  on  Job/'  which  the  author  notices  in  his  first? 
mentioned  work  on  the  Pentateuch.  5.  *^A  treatise  on 
Grammar,"  a  very  rare  work,  printed  at  Constantinople 
in  1581,  which  some  have  attributed  to  another  Aaron« 
6.  **The  Form  of  Prayer  in  the  Caraite  Synagogue," 
Venice,  1528-29,  2  vols,  small  quarto*. 

AARON  (PiETRO),  who  flourished  in  the  sixteenth  cen- 
tury, was  a  Florentine,  of  the  order  of  Jerusalem,  and  a 
voluminous  writer  on  Music.  He  first  appeared  as  an  au« 
thor  in  1516,  when  a  small  Latin  tract  in  three  books, 
*'  De  institutione  Harmonica,"  which  he  wrote  originally 
in  Italian,  was  translated  into  Latin,  and  published  at  Bo* 
logna,  by  his  friend  Joh.  Ant.  Flaminius,  of  Imola,  4tO;. 
d.  "Toscanello  della  Musiqa,  libri  tre."  This  treatise^ 
the  most  considerable,  of  all  his  writings,  was  first  printed 
at  Venice,  1523  ;  then  in  1529,  and  lastly,  with  additions, 
in  1539.  In  the  Dedication  he  informs  us,  that  he  was 
bom  to  2^  slender  fortune,  which  he  wished  to  improve  by 
some  reputable  profession  ;  that  he  chose  Music,  and  had 
been  admitted  into  the  Papal  chapel  at  Rome  during  the, 

{)ontificate  of  Leo  X.  but  that  he  sustained  an  irreparable 
OSS  by  Leo's  death.  3.  ^^Trattato  della  natura  e  cogni* 
zione  di  tutti  li  Tuoni  di  Canto  figurato,"  Venite,  1525, 
fol.  4.  *'  Lucidario  in  Musica  di  alcune  Oppenioni  Anti-- 
che  e  Moderne,"  4to.  Venice,  1545.  In  this  work  we  have 
discussions  of  many  doubts,  contradictions,  questions,r^nd 
difficulties,  never  solved  before.  5.  <<  Compendiolo  di 
molti  dubbj  segreti  et  ^entenze  intorno  il  Canto-fermo  e 
figurato,"  1547,  4to.  This  seems  a  kind  of  supplement  to 
his  Lucidario.  There  is  not  much  novelty  in  any  of  his 
works ;  but,  in  the  state  of  musical  science  in  his  time,  they 
were  all  useful  *. 

1  Simon  Biblioth.  critique,  vol.  II.  p.  201-^205. ^-ClemeBt  Bibl*  tMy  d«9  li^ 
rares. — Diet,  Hist  1810. — ^Moreri. 
t  Burney'v  Hist,  of  Music^  vol.  IU.-«.J>ict.  Hist.  ISIO. 

A  A  R*  S  E  N  &  I 

AARSENS  (Francis),  lord  of  Someldyck  and  Spyck, 
one  of  the  most  celebrated  negociators  of  the  United  Pro«^ 
vinces^  was  the  son  of  Cornelius  Aarsens^  (who  was  gre£- 
fier^  or  secretary  of  state,  from  1585  to  1623,)  and  was 
born  at  the  Hague  in  1572.  His  father  put  him  under  the 
care  of  Duplessis  Mornay  at  the  court  of  William  I.  prince 
of  Orange.  The  celebrated  John  Barnevelt  sent  him  after- 
wards as  agent  into  France;  and,  after  residing  there 
some  time,  he  was  recognised  as  ambassador,  the  first 
whom  the  French  Court  had  received  in  that  capacity  from 
the  United  States ;  and  the  king,  Louis  XIIL  created  him 
a  knight  and , baron.  After  holding  this  office  for  ^fteen 
years,  he  became  obnoxious  to  the  French  Court,  and  was 
deputed  to  Venice,  and  to  several  German  and  Italian 
princes,  on  occasion  of  the  trpubles  in  Bohemia.  But  such 
was  the  dislike  the  French  king  now  entertained  against 
him,  that  he  ordered  his  ambassadors  in  thes^  courts  not 
to  receive  his  yisits.  One  cause  of  this  appears  to  have 
been  a  paper  published  by  Aarsens  in  1618,  reflecting  qq 
the  French  king's  ministfsrs.  .  In  1620  he  was  sent  as  am* 
bassador  to  England,  and  again  in  1641 :  the  object  of  this 
last  embassy  was  to  negociate  a  marriage  between  prince 
William,  son  to  the  prince  of  Orange,  and  a  daughter  of 
Charles  I.  Previous  to /this,  however,  we  nnd  him.  again 
in  France^  in  1624,  as  ambassador  .extraordinary,  wper^ 
it  appears  tha(  he  became  intimate  with  and  subservient  to 
the  cardinal  Richelieu ;  who  used  to  say  that  he  never 
knew  but  three  great  politicians,  Oxehstiern,  chancellor 
Qf  Sweden,  Viscardi,  chancelloir  of  Montferrat,  *and  Fjan* 
CIS  Aarsens.  His  character,  however,  has  not  escaped  just 
censure,  on  account  of  the  band  he  bad  in  the  death  of 
Barnevelt^  and  of  some  measures  unfriendly  to  the  liberties 
of  his  country*  He  died  in  164.1.  The  editors  of  the  Diet* 
Historique  attribute  to  him  ^'  A  Journey  into  Spain,  histori* 
cal  and  political,"  published  by  De  Sercy  at  Paris,  1^666^ 
4to,  and  often  reprinted  ;  but  this  was  the  work  of  a  grand« 
son,  of  both  ,his  names,, who  was  drowned  in  biy  passage 
from  England  to  HoUaiyl,  1659'. 

ABANO.     See  APONO. 

ABAItIS,  .a  celebrated  sage,  or  impostor,  whose  history 
has  been  the  subject  of  much  learned  discussion.  Jamblii* 
cus,  in  bis  credulqus  Life  of  Pythf^goras,  meHtipiis  AbariA 
as  a  disciple  of  that  philosopher,,  and  relates  the  wondera 

'  Pu  Alaurier's  Memoirs.— ^Wicquefort'g  Treatise  on  Ambassadors i«—;G<ak  DicW 

^  A  B  A  R  I  S. 

he  performed  by  means  of  an  arrow  which  he  received  from 
Apollo.  He  also  gfVes  the  particular^  of  a  conversation 
which  he  had  with  Pythagoras,  whilst  the  latter  was  detained 
prisoner  by  Phalaris,  the  tyrant.  But  this  narration  is  filled 
with  so  many  marvellous  circumstances,  and  chronological 
errors,  that  it  deserves  little  credit.  Brucker,  whom  we 
principally  follow  in  this  article,  gives  the  following  in- 
istance.  It  is  said  that,  in  the  time  of  a  general  plague', 
Abaris  was  sent  from  the  Scythians  on  an  embassy  to  the 
Athenians.  This  plague  happened  in  the  third  olympiad. 
Now,  it  appears,  from  the  learned  contest  between  Bentley 
and  Boyle,  on  the  subject  of  Phalaris,  that  this  tyrant,  in 
whose  presence  Abaris  is  said  to  havd^ispiited  with  Pytha- 
goras, did  not  exercise  his  tyranny,  at  the*  nidst,  longer 
than  twenty-eight-years,  and  that  his  death  happened  not 
earlier  than  the  fourth  year  6f  the  fifty-seventh  olympiad, 
which  is  the  opinion  oi;  Bentley,  nor  later  than  the  first 
year  of  the  sixty-ninth  olympiad,  wJiich  is  the  date  fixed 
by  DodwelL  It  is  evident,  therefore,  that  Ab|iris  could 
not  have  lived,  both  at  the  time  of  the  general  plague  men- 
tioned above,^and  during  the  reign  of  Phalaris.  The  time 
when  he' flourished  may,  with  some  degree  of  probability^ 
be  fixed  about  the  third  olympiad;  and  there  seems  little 
reasOn^toddubt,  that  he  went  from  place  to  place  imposing 
upon  the  vulgar  by  false  pretensions  to  supeirnfetural  powers. 
He  passed  throng  Greece,  Italy,  arid  nlany  other  coun- 
tries,' giving  forth  brkcular  predictions,  pretending  to  heal 
liiseases  by  ihcantation,  and  practising  other  arts  of  inipos- 
ture.  H^ee^the  fabulous  tales  concerning  Abaris  grew  up 
into  to  entire  history,  written  by  Heraclides.  Some  of 
the  later  Platooists,  in  their  zeal  against  Christianity,  coU 
lected  these  and  other  fables,  and  exhibited  them,  not 
without  large  additions  from  their  own  fertile  imaginations, 
in  opposition  to  the  miracles  of  Christ'. 

ABATI  (Antony),  an  Italian  poet  of  the  17th  century, 
enjoyed^tkoh  reputation  during  his  life.  He  was  in  the 
service  fit  the  archduke  Leopold  of  Austria,  and  travelled 
in  France  and  the  Netherlands.  On  his  return  to  Italy, 
he  was  successively  governor  of  several  small  towns  in  the 
ecclesiastical  state.  He  died  at  Siriagaglia,  in  1667,  after 
a  long  illness.  The  emperor  Ferdinand  111.  made  a  bad 
acrostip  in  honour  of  his  memory,  but  does  not  appear 

1  Bayle  iq  Qen.  Dict-*Brucker  Hist  Fhilos.  abridirei}  by  £nfield.--Fabnc.. 

A  B  A  T  t.  7 

to  have-been  a  very  ^beral  patron,  while  he  was  living. 
He  wrote :  1.  ^^Ragguaglio  di  Parnasso  contra  poetastri  e 
partegiani  delle  nazioni,*'  Milan,  1633,  8vo.  2.  '^Le 
Frascherie^  fasci  tre,"  satirical  poems,  with  some  prose^ 
Venice,  1651,  8vo.  3,  "  Pofesie  postume,"  Bologna,  1671^ 
fivo.  4.  "  II  ConsigUo  degli  Dei,  dramma  per  musica,*'  &c. 
Bologna  1671,  written  on  occasion  of  the  Peace  between 
France  and  Spain,  and  the  marriage  of  Louis  XIII.  to  tha 
Infanta  of  Spain  K 

ABAUZIT  (FiRMiN)  was  born  at  Uzes  on  the  llth  of 
November  1679.  His  father  died  in  the  second  year  after 
his  birth.  As  his  f>arehts  were  protestants,  the  mother 
removed  him  from  France,  to  prevent  his  being  educated  in 
the  Romish  faith;  but  it  being  difficult  to  'find  a  secure 
retreat,  he  was  sent  from  one  place  to  another,  and  at  last 
wasu>bliged  to  wander  among  the  mountains  of  Cevennes, 
and/td.chanjge  his  residence  as  often  as  his  concealment  was 
discovered, ;:until  at  length  he  found  a  safe  asylum  in  Ge*- 
nieva.'  In  the  mean  time  his  mother  was  confined  in  the 
castle  of  Scnnieres ;  but  nothing  could  shake  her  fortitude, 
or  alttr  her/esolution  to  have  her  son  educated  in  her  own 
persuasion.  Her  health  was  much  impaired  by  confine* 
ment,  under  which  she  probably  must  have  died,  bad  not 
a  fortunate  occurrence  required  the  commander  of  the  fort' 
to  visit  Paris.  •  His  brother,  who  occupied  his  place,  in- 
terested, himself  in  behalf  of  his  prisoner,  and  obtained  her 
enlargement.  Having  surmounted  various  perils,  she  ar- 
rived at  Geneva  two  years  after  her  son.  Thei  small  share 
which  she  bad  been  able  to  save  from  the  wreck  of  a  for-* 
tune  which  once  had  been  considerable,  she  expended  in 
the  education  of  young  Abauzit,  who  made  a  very  rapid 
progress  in  his  studies.  Mathematics  and  natural  histoiy 
chiefly  attracted  his  attention ;  but  he  cultivated  almost 
every  department  of  literature.  In  1698  he  visited  HoU 
Undy  where  he  became  acquainted  with  the  most  celebrated 
literary  characters  of  the  place,  Bayle,  Jurieu,  and  the 
Basnages.  From  Rotterdam  he  went  to  England,  where 
he  conversed  with  St.  Evremond  and  sir  Isaac  Newton. 
With  the  latter  he  afterwards  engaged  in  an  epistolary 
correspondence,  and  received  a  compliment  which  must 
be  esteemed  highly  honourable.  ^^  Yeu,*'  says  Sir  Isaac» 
"are  a  very  fit  person  to  judge  between  Leibnitz  and  me.'* 

William  III.  invited  Abauzit  to  settle  in  England,  and 
ordered  Michael  le  Vassor  to  offer  some  advantageous  prov 

4  A  9  A  U  Z  I.  T. 

posala ;  which^  however,  were  not  acceptec}.  Filial  aflfee* 
tion,  or  attachment  to  the  country  in  which  he  had  obtained 
n  refuge,  recalled  him  to  Geneva;  where,  in  1723,  the 
University  offered  him  the  chair  of  philosophy,  which  he 
declined,  pleading  the  weakness  of  his  constitution,  and 
his  inability,  to  do  credit  to  the  appointment*  In  1726,  ha 
tost  his  mother,  to  whom  .he  had  ever  been  most  affec* 
iionately  attached.  In  the  same  year  he  was  admitted  a 
citizen  of  Geneva,  and  appointed  librarian  to  the  city.  He 
profited  by  such  a  favourable  opportunity  to  improve  in 
useful  literature.  Principally .  attached  to  antiquities,  he 
BOW  dedicated  to  his  newly-adopted  country  the  fruit  of 
his  labours  and  his  talents.  In  1730,  he  published  a  new 
edition*  of  the  History  and  State  of  Geneva,  which  had 
been  originally  written  by  David  Spon,  and  printed  in  two 
vols.  12mOf  The  work  haying  already  passed  through  three 
editions,  was  committed  to  Abauzit.  Not  contented  with 
the  mere  republication,  he  corrected  the  errors,  gave  two 
dissertations  on  th^  subject,  and  annexed  the  public  acts 
an4  memorials,  that  were  necessary  as  proofs  and  illustra^^^ 
tions.  To  these  were  added  a  copious  variety  of  learned 
4nd  useful  notes,  in  which  he  gave  an  ample  detaitof  fact? 
which  were  but  imperfectly  related  in  the  text  Modest 
bimsell^  he  was  not  ambitious  of  fame,  but  assisted  others 
\lj  his  labours.  Among  those  who  derived  benefit  from 
bis  learning  and  researches,  AJ*  de  Meiran  alone  had  the 
gratitude  to  acknowledge  his  obligation.  The  labours  of 
Abauzit  were  assiduous,  and  his  knowledge  was  extensive. 
While  he  declined  public  notice  his  name  was  known,  an4 
bis  communications  were  frequent  to  most  of.  the  celebrated 
mathematicians,  philosophers,  and  divines  in  £^urope«  Not- 
withstanding the  simplicity  of  his  manners,  this  modest  philo-r 
sopher  was  not,  perhaps^  without  a  small  share  of  vanity.  For 
he  employed  himself  in  discovering  what  to  his  apprehen-i^ 
sion  seemed  errors  in  the  different  translations  of  the  Bible. 
He  could  believp  nothing  but  what  he  saw,  or  was  sug- 
gested by  bis  own  ideas,  or  could  be  reduced  to  mathema^ 
tical  demonstration,  and,  becoming  sceptical,  wished  tQ 
^ivest  the  scriptures  of  several  miracle^.  He  even  made 
some  efforts  iu  poetry ;  but  th^y  were  soon  forgotten.  He 
is  acknowledged  to  have  excelled  more  in  diligenqe,  accur 
r&cy,  and  precision,  than  in  taste  or  genius.  Voltaire,  who 
)iad  as  great  an  aversion  to  miracles  as  Abauzit,  esteemed 
%^d  consulted  him.    As.  a  citizen  of  Q^neva^  the  philosq^ 

A  B  A  U  Z  I  T.  9 

pber  was  acttre  in  the  dissensioBs.  of  17S4.  He  exertdd 
himself  in  support  of  the  aristocratic  party,  though  he  had 
much  of  republican  zeal.  His  industry  was  indefatigable^ 
and  he  seemed  to  have  written  and  acted  from  the  convio^ 
tioQ  of  his  own  mind.  In  religion  he  adopted  and  sup* 
ported  the  doctrines  of  Arianism.  Though  declining  praise^ 
he  acquired  the  esteem  of  many  of  the  most  eminent  cha^ 
racters  in  Europe,  and  received  an  elegant  compliment 
from  Rousseau :  ^<  No/'  says  he,.  ^^  this  age  g^  philosophy 
will  not  pass  without  having  produced  one  true  philoso-** 
pher.  I  know  one,  and  I  freely  own,  but  one ;  but  what 
I  regard  as  my  supreme  felicity  is,  that  he  resides  in  my 
native  country,  it  is  m  wy  own.countrjf  that  he  resides: 
shall  I  presume  to  name  him,  whose  real  glory  it  is  to  re«« 
main  almost  in  obscurity  ?  Yes,  modest  and  learned 
Abauzit,  forgive  a  zeal  which  seeki  not  to  promote  your 
fame.  I  would  not  celebrate  your  name  in  an  age  that  is 
unworthy  to  admir^  you.  I  would  honour  Geneva  by  dis-* 
tinguishing  it  as  the  place  of  your  residence :  my  fellow^i. 
citizens  are  honoured  by  your  presence.  Happy  is  the  coun* 
try  where  the  merit  that  seeks  concealment  is  the  more  te-* 
vealed.''  The  reader  will  appreciate  the  merit  of  Abauzit^ 
in  proportion  to  the  value  he  sets  on  the  esteem  of  VoU 
taire  or  the  praises  of  Rousseau.  He,,  however,  who  could 
gain  the  approbation  of  two  such  opposite  characters,  could 
have  been  no  ordinary  person.  He  died  on  the  20th  of 
March  1767. 

,  Abauzit  left  behind  him  some  .writings,  chiefly  theolo- 
gical. Of  these  the  principal  was  an  ^^  Essay  upon  the 
Apocalypse,"  written  to  shew  that  the  canonical  authority 
of  the  book  of  Revelation  was  doubtful,  and  to  apply  the 
predictions  to  the  destruction  of  Jerusalem.  This  work 
was  sent  by  the  author  to  Dr.  Twells,  in  London,  who 
translated  it  from  French  into  English,  and  added  a  refuta« 
tion,  with  which  Abauzit  was  so  well  satisfied,  that  he  de- 
sired his  friend  in  Holland  to  stop  an  intended  impression. 
The  Dutch  editors,  however,  after  his  death,  admitted 
this  essay  into  their  edition  of  his  works>  which,  beside^ 
comprehends  ^'Reflections  on  the  Eucharist,"  ''On  Ido- 
latry," "On  the  Mysteries  of  Religion,"  "Paraphrases 
and  explanations  of  sundry  parts  of  Scripture,"  several 
critical  and  antiquarian  pieces,  and  various  letters.  An 
edition  without  the  Essay  on  the  Apocalypse^  was  printed 

10  A  B  A  tr  Z  I  T. 

at  Geneva  in  Oct.  1770,'  and  translated  into  English  in  this 
came  year  by  Dr.  Htftwobd, 

,    These  writings  afford  an  idea  of  the 'merit  of  Abauzit  a^ 
a  divine.     To  judge  of  the  depth  of  his  physical  ^nd  ma- 
thematical knowledge,  it  must  be  remembered  that  he  de- 
tended  Newton  against  father  Gastel ;  that  he  discovered 
an  error  in  the  **  Principia,"  at  a  time  when  there  were 
few.  people  in  Europe  capable  of  reading  that  work ;  and 
that  Newton  corrected  the  error  in  the  second  edition. 
Abauzit  was  one  of  the  first  who  adopted  the  grand  con- 
ceptions of  Newton,  because  he  was  a^  geometrician  sufE- 
ci^illy  learned  to  see  their  truth.     He  wsls  perfectly  ac- 
quainted with  many  languages;  he  understood  siiftAsiilt-a^ 
modern  history  so  exactly,  as  to  be  master  of  all'  the^prift^ 
cipal  names  and  dates ;  rhe  was  so  a^ccurate  a  gebgfa^her, 
that  the  celebrated  Pococke  concluded,  from  bis  minute 
description  of  Egypt,    thatiie  must,  like  himself^    have 
travelled  in  that  country;  the  bad  a  very  extensive  know- 
ledge'^of  physics;  and  Iztstlyj  he  was  intimately  conversant 
with  medals  and  antient  manuscripts.     All  tU^e  different 
sciences  were  so  well  digested«and  arranged  in  his  mind,  that 
be  could  in  an  instant  bring  t^ether  all  that  he  knew  upon 
any  subject.      Of  this  the -following  example  has  bee!n 
given.     Aousseau,  in.  drawing  up  his  Dictionary  of  Musics- 
had,  taken  great  pains  to  give  an  accurate  account  of  the! 
music  of ^the  antients.  .^Conversing  with  Abautiit  upbn'th^ 
subject,  the  librarian  gave  him  a  clear  and  exact  adcoun^ 
of  all  that  he  bad  with  so  niuch  labour  collected.  Rousseau 
concluded  that  Abauzit  had  lately  been  studying  the  sub- 
ject :  but  this  learned  man,  of  whom  it  might  almost  lite- 
raJly  be  said  that  be  knew  every  thing,  and  never  forgot 
any  thing,  unaffe<^tedly  confessed,  that  it  was  then  thirty 
years  Mnce  he  had  inquired  into  the  music  of  the  antients. 
It  was  probably  owing  to  the  strong  impression  which  this 
incident  made  upon  the  mind  of  Rousseau^  that  the  only 
panegyric  which  bis  wretched  temper  ever  permitted  him 
to  write  upon  a  living  person,  was  what  is  given  above 
TOqpon  Abauzit.  It, yet  remains  to  be  noticed  that  an  edition 
of  his  works  was  printed  at  Amsterdam  in  2  vols,  after  that 
of  Geneva,  and,  according,  to  the  editors  of  the  Diet.  His— 
torique,  considerably  different  from  it^.  . 

1  Htst.  Lit  de  Geneve  par  Senebieri  vol.  III.  p.  63.— ^General  Bio^.  bv^ 
Aikiu.— Diet.  Historique,  1810.  T 

A  B  B  A  D  I  E.  a 

'  ABBADIE  (JiiMES)/  a  learned  Protestant  diyine,  was 
Iborn  at  Nay  in  Berne,  in  1658,  according  to  Niceron,  or 
in  1654,  as  in  the  Gen.  Dictionary.  He  studied  at  Puy 
Laurent,  at.Saumur,  at  Paris,  and  at  Sedan ;  at  which  last 
place  he  reoeiv^  the  degree  of  doctor  in  divinity.  He 
intended  to  have  dedicated  himself  very  early  to  the  mfeiis- 
try  ;< but 'the  t circumstances  of  the  Protestants  of  Fmnce 
xejadecing  it  impracticable  there,  he  accepted  the  offer  of 
the.3C.ount  d'Espense^  an  officer  in  the  service  of  the  elec- 
toruO£:Brandenburgh,  by  whom  he  was  settled  at  Berlin, 
as  a  French  minister.  Here  he  resided  many  years,  and 
bis  congregation,  at  first  very  thin,  >was  greatly  increased 
by  the  revocation  of  the  edict  of  Nantes.  In  1688,  the 
elector,  Frederic  William,  died,  and  our  author  accepted 
of  an  invitation  from  marshal  Schomberg,  to  go  with  him  . 
first  into  HolUnd,  and  thei\  into  England,  t  widh  the  prince 
of.Ocange.  ;  In  1j689  M  wfent  to  Ireland,*  and  was  there  in 
the  following  year,  when  liis'Tpatron  was  killed  at  the  battle 
of  the  Boyne.  On  bis  return Itoi  England,'  he  became  mi<- 
jiister  of  the  French  church  at  the  Savoy,  but  the  air  dis- 
agreeing with  him,  he  went  again  to  Ireland,  and  would 
have  been  promoted  to  the  deanery  of  St,  Patrick's- had  he 
been  acquainted  with  the  English  language.  He  obtained, 
however,  that  of  Killaloo,  the  value  of  which  was  far  infe- 
rior, and  never  had  any  other  promotion.  He  occasionally 
visited  England  and  Holland,  for  the  purpose  of  printing 
bis  works,  which  were  all  in  French.  In  one  of  these  visits 
to  London,  he  died  ax,  Marybone,  Sept.  25;  1727.  He 
was«^trongly  attached  to  the  cause  of  king  William,  as 
appears  joty  I  his  elaborate  defence  of  the  Revolution,  and 
his  history  of  .the  Assassinadon-plot.  He  had  great  natural 
abilities,'  which  be  cultivated  with  true  and  i^useful  learn- 
ing. ^Uejvas  a  most  zealous  defender  of  the  primitive 
doctrine  of  the  Protestants,  as  appears  by  his  writings; 
and  that  strong  nervous  eloquence,  for  which  he  was  so 
remarkable,  enabled  him  to  enforce  the  doctrines  of  his 
profession  from  the  pulpit  with  great  spirit  and  energy. 

His  works  are :  1.  ^^  Sermons  sur  divers  textes  de  TEori- 
ture,*'  Leyden,  1680.-  2.:  "  Paoegyrique  de  M.  PElec- 
teur  de  Brandenbourg,"  Rotterdam,  1684,  4to.  Gregorio 
Leti  translated  this  into  Italian,  and  inserted  it  in  his^  His- 
tpry  of  Brandenburgh.  3^  '<Trait6  de  la  Verity  de  la 
Religion  Cbrdtienne.'*  This  treatise  on  the  truth  of  the 
(Ihristiw  Religion  has  passed  through  many  editions^  and 

t$  A  B  B  AD  I  E. 

hB»  \}een  translated  iato  EngliBb,  2  toIs.  8vo,  and  Dutch, 
und  has  long  been  esteemed  an  able  confutation  of  infidel 
principles.  The  abb6  Houteviile,  a  steady  Catholic,  gives 
it  the  following  character:  ^^The  most  shining  of  thefie 
treatises  in  defence  of  the  Christian  religion^  which  were 
published  by  the  Protestants^  is  that  written  by  Mr*  Abba- 
die.  The  favourable  reception  it  obtained,  the  almost  un* 
axampled  praise  it  received  on  the  publication,  the  tini- 
yersal  approbation  it  still  preserves,  render  it  unnecessary 
for  me  to  join  my  commendations,  which  would  add  so 
little  to  the  merit  of  so  great  an  author.  He  has  united  in 
|his  book  ail  our  controversies  with  the  infidels.  In  the 
£rst  part,  he  combats  the  Atheists  ;  the  Deists  in  the  se« 
cond  ;  and  the  Socinians  in  the  third.  Philosophy  and 
theology  enter  happily  into  his  manner  of  composing, 
which  is  in  the  true .  method,  lively,  pure,  and  elegant, 
especially  in  the  first  Looks."  4.  *'  Reflexions  sur  la  Pre- 
isence  r^elle  du  Corps  de  Jesus  Christ  dans  TEucharistie,^* 
Hague,  1685,  12mo,  and  Rotterdam,  1713,  but  both  edi- 
tions so  erroneous  as  to  induce  the  author  to  disown  them. 
B,  "Trait6  de  la  notre  Seigneur  Jesus  Christ,** 
Rotterdam,  1689,.  8vo.  A  translation  of  this  was  published 
about  the  year  1 7  7  7,  by  the  Rev.  Abraham  Booth,  adissenting 
clergyman  in  London.  6.  "  L'art  de  se  Connoitre  Soi- 
meme ;  ou,  la  recherche  des  Sources  de  la  Morale,"  Rot- 
terdam, 1692,  12mo.  An  edition  of  this  excellent  treatise 
ivas  published  at  Lyons  in  1693,  in  which  all  the  passages 
in  favour  of  the  Protestant  religion  are  left  out.  7.  "  De- 
fence de  la  Nation  Britannique,'*  &c.  London,  1692,  ovo. 
This  defence,  of  the  Revolution  in  England  was  in  answer 
to  Mr.  Bayle's  "  Avis  important."  8.  "  Panegyrique  def 
Marie  reine  d'Angleterre,*'  Hague,  1695,  ito.  9.  <?His- 
toire  de  la  Conspiration  derniere  d'Angleterre,'*»&c.  Lond. 
1698,  8vo,  reprinted  in  ^olland,  and  translated  into  Eng- 
lish, but  at  present  a  very  scarce  book.  It  regards  what 
vas  called  the  Assassination-plot,  and  was  written  by  order 
of  king  William  111.;  the  original  papers  and  documents 
were  furnished  by:  the  earl  of  Portland,  and  sir  William 
Trumbal),  secretary  of  state.  10.  *?  La  Verit6  de  la  Reli- 
gion Reforna6e,"  Rotterdam,  1713,  2^  vols.  8vo.  Dr.  Henry 
Lambert,  bishop  of  Dromore,  translated  this  work  for  the 
instruction  of  the  Roman  Catholics  in  his  diocese.  1  i .  ^^  Lo 
triomphe  de  la  Providence  et  de  la  Religion,  en  l*ouver- 
t^re  des  Sept  Sceaux  par  le  Fds  de  Dieu^'^  &c.  Atosterdamn^ 

A&BADii  IS 

1723,  4  vols.  12010.  In  this  commentary  on  the  Revela-^ 
doDs,  for  such  it  is,  the  author  has  been  supposed  more 
inclining  to  conjecture  and  fancy  than,  in  his  other  works* 
Besides  these  he  revised,  in  1719,  the  French  translation 
of  the  Common  Prayer,  and  published  some  single  sermons 
^nd  small  tracts'. 

ABBAS  (Halli),  or  Ali  Ebnol  Abbas,  as  Abulpbaragius 
calls  him  in  his  Hist.  Dyn.  or,  as  he  is  usually  called,  Ma^ 
gus,  as  being  one  of  the  Magi,  the  followers  of  Zaradushi 
or  Zoroaster;  and  not  for  his  learning,  as  the  learned  Dr« 
Freind  supposes.  He  was  a  Persian  physician,  and  studied 
under  Abu  Maher,  another  Persian  doctor,  who  probably 
was  of  the  Magian  religion  also ;  he  wrote  his  book,  or 
Royal  Work,  at  the  request  of  Bowaia  the  son  of  Ada- 
doMdaula  the  calif,  to  whom  he  dedicates  it  in  the  oriental 
manner,  in  lofty  hyperbolical  language,  about  A.  D«  989. 
It  was  translated  into  Latin  by  Stephen  of  Antioch  in  1 127^ 
in  which  language  we  have  two  editions,  Venice  1492, 
and  Leyden  1523,  fol.  There  is  an  Arabic  MS  copy  in  4 
vols,  folio  in  the  Leydep  library,  which  was  brought  by 
James  Golius  from  the  East^ 

ABBATI  (NicOLO),  an  eminent  historical  painter,-  was 
lM>rn  at  Modena  in  1512,  and  was  the  scholar  of  Antoni6 
Beggarelli,  a  Modenese  sculptor,  whose  models  Correggio 
is  said  to  have  often  made  use  of  for  his  works.  Little  is 
known  of  his  progress  at  Modena,  except  that,  in  partners- 
ship  with  his  fellow-scholar  Alberto  Fontana,  he  painted 
Che  pannels  of  the  Butchers  hall  in  that  place ;  and  at  the 
age  of  thirty-five,  for  the  church  of  the  Benedictines,  the 
celebrated  picture  of  the  martyrdom  of  St.  Peter  and  St. 
Paul,  now  in  the  Dresden  gallery :  with  some  firesco  paint- 
ings, drawn  from  Ariosto  and  Virgil,  in  the  palace  Scan«> 
diano.  Of  hiis  works  at  Bologna,  tradition  has  left  a  very 
distiiiguished  account,  thodgh  little  or  nothing  exists  of 
them  now  but  the  large  symbolic  picture  in  the  Via  di  St. 
MamcJo;  a  nativity  of  Christ,  under  the  portico  of  the 
Leoni  palace ;  and  fdur  conversation  pieces  and  concertos, 
of  exquisite  taste,  in  the  Academical  Institute,  which  have 
been  engraved.  Notwithstanding  the  innate  vigour,  the 
genial  facility,  and  independent  style  of  this  artist,  he 
Owes  his  fame,  in  a  great  measure,  to  his  coalition  with 
Francisco  Primaticcio, .  and  to  his  happy  execution  of  the 

1  Biog.  Britan.  Niceron. 
'<  rnmd*9  Ai»%,  of  Physic-^MaDseti  BiU.  i 

in  art.  Haljr.-^-Fabric,  Bibl  GmCm 


A  B  B  A  T  I. 

designs  of  that  great  master,  particularly  the  frescoes  he 
painted  in  the  galleries  and  apartments  at  Fountainbieau. 
These,  however,  being  destroyed  in  1738,  to  make  room 
for  a  new  fabric,  nothing  remains  but  a  few  pictures  of  the 
history  of  Alexander.  Some  of  the  others  were  engraved. 
The  period  of  his  death  is.  not  "known '.  -       u 

ABBATIUS  (BALDtJS  Angelus),  a  physician,  a  native 
of  Eiigiubio,  a  man  who  is  said  to  have., surmounted  the 
prejudices  of  his  age,  and  wrote :  1.  *'De  admirabiii  Vi- 
peraB  natura,  et  de  mirificis  ejusdem  facultatibus,'! .  of 
which  there  are  four  editions,  1589 — 1660.  2.  **DiscussaB 
concertationes  de.Rebus,  Verbis,  et  Sententiis  controversis," 
Pisaur.  1594,  4to.     There  is  no  account  of  his  deaths 

ABBO  (Cernuus),  a  monk  of  St.  Germain-des-Pres; 
was  the  author  of  a  poetical  relation  of  the  siege  of  Paris 
by  the  Normans  ^nd  Danes  towards  the  end  of  the  9th 
century.  He  was  himself  of  Normandy,  and  an  eye-wit- 
liess ;  and  if  not  eminent  as  a  poet,  is  at  least  a  faithful 
and  minute  historian.  His  poem  consists  of  twelve  hundred 
verses,  in  two  books,  and  has  been  admitted  into  Pithou's 
and  Duchesne^s  collections;  but  a  more. correct  edition^ 
wilh.npte's,  and  a  French  translation,  mav  be  seen  in^he 
**  Nouvelles  Annales  de  Paris,'*  published  by  D.  Toussaint 
Duplessis,  a  Benedictine  of  the  congregation  of  Su  Maur, 
1753,  4to.  There  are  also  "  Five  select  Sermons"  under 
his  name  in  vol.  IX.  of  D'Acheri*s  Spicilegium  ;  and  in  vol. 
V.  Bibl.  P.  P.  Colon.  1618,  id  «  Abbonis  E^istola  ad  Desi- 
derium  episc,*'  There  was  originally  a  third  book  to  his 
History  of  the  siege,  addressed  "  to  the  Clergy,"  which  his 
editors  omitted  as  having  no  conneicion  with  the  history*. 

ABBO  (Floriacensis),  or  Abbot  of  Fleuri,  a  Benedic* 
tine  monk  of  the  tenth  centyry,  was  born  in  the  territory 
of  Orleans,  and  educated  in  the  abbey  of  Fleuri,  ai>d  af- 
terwards at  Paris  and  Rheims,  where  he  distinguished  him-^ 
aelf  in  all  the  learning  of  the  times,  and  partiqularly  -  in 
mathematics,  theology,  and  history.  Oswald,  bishop  of  Wor- 
cester, in  985,  applied  to  the  abbey  .of  Fleuri  to  obtain  a 
proper  person  to  preside  over  the  abl^ey  of  Ramsay,  which 
he  had  founded,  or  rather  re-established.  Abbo  was  sent 
over  to  England  for  this  purpose,  apd/much 
king  Ethelred  and  the  nobility.    Returning  to  Fleuri  uppa 

<  PiTlLingtoQ'3  pictioQury  of  Painters  by  Puseli,  in  art  Abbati,  and  p.  iS84.- 
s  Diet  Hist  1810.— Manget  Biblioth. 

?  Vessius  de  Hist  Lat^Care,  vol.  II.— Fabric.  Bibl.  Lat  Med.  JStat— Diet, 
irist— Saxii  Onomast 

A  B  B  O.  15 

the  death  of  the  abbot,  he  waa  declared  his  successor. 
Here  he  experienced  many  Texations  from  some  of  the 
hishops,  against  whom  he  asserted  the  rights  of  the  monas- 
tic order.  His  enemies  charged  him  with  some  acrimony 
against  his  persecutors.  In  his  justification,  he  wrote  aa 
apology,  which  he  addressed  to  the,  kings  Hugh  and  Ro- 
bert. Some  time  afterwards,  he  dedicated  to  the  same 
princes  a  collection  of  canons  on  the  duties  of  kings  and 
the  duties  of  subjects.  King  Robert,  having  sent  him  t9 
Rome  to  ^^appease  the  wrath  of  Gregory  V.  who  had 
threatened  to  lay  the  kingdom  under  an  interdict,  the  pope 
granted  him  all  he  requested,  Abbo,  on  his  return  from 
this  expedition,  set  about  the  reform  of  the  abbey  of  Reoie 
in  Gascony.  He  was  here  slain  in  a  quarrei  that  rose  be- 
tween the  French  and  the  Gascons,  in  1004.  His  works 
are :  1.  "  Epitome  de  vitis  Pontificum,*'  taken  from  Anasta^ 
sius  Bibliothecarius,  and  published  with  an  edition  of  tha( 
author  by  Busaeus,  Mentsr,  1602,  4to.  2.  "Vita  S.  Edmundi 
Anglorum  Orientalium  regis  &  martyrhs,'.  printed  in  Surius* 
Lives  of  the  Saints.  There  is  a  MS.  of  it  in  the  Cottoiiian 
Library.  3.  '^  Collectio,  seu  epitome  Canonum,'^  printed 
by  Mabillon.  4.  "  Epistola  ad  abbatem  Fuldensj^m,'*^ 
in  Baluze's  Miscellanies,  1678,  8vo.  5.  "  Letters  to  Hugh, 
king  of."  France,  to  St.  Bernard,  Gregory,"  &c.  and  hi* 
Apology,,  are  inserted  whole,  or  in  fragments, .  in  his  Life 
by  Aimonius,  a  monk  of  Fleuri,  and  his  pupil  K 

ABBOT  (George),  archbishop  of  Canterbury,  wa^  bom 
at  Guildford,  in  Surrey,  Oct.  29,  1562,  the  son  of  Maurice 
Abbpt^  a  clothworker  in  that  town,  and  Alice  March,  who, 
having  been  sufferers  by  the  persecution  in  queen  Mary's 
reign,  educated  their  children  in  a  steady  zeal  for  the  Pro- 
.testaut  religion.  George  *  was  sent,  with  his  elder  brother 
Robert,  to  the  free-school  of.Guildiord,  where  he  was  edu- 
cated under  Mr.  Francis  Taylor,  and  in  1578  was  entered 
of  Baliol  college,  Oxford.  On  April  31,  1582j  he  took 
the  degree  of  bachelor  of  arts,  And*  Nov.  29,  15S3,  was 
elected  probationer  fellow  of  his  college.  After  taking  his 
master's  degree,  Dec.  17,  1585,  he  entered  into  holy 
orders,    became  a  celebrated    preacher  in  the   Univer- 

.    *  Aubrey,  in  his  Antiquities  of  Sur-  and  rise  to  great  preferment.    $he  diil. 

rey,  bas  a  ridiculous  st9r3r,  that  when  catch  a  jaek,  <*  and  had  thus  an  odd 

Mre.  Abbot  was  pregnant  with  this*  son,  opportunity  of  fulfilling  her  dream^" 

•he dreamt  that  if  she  couht  eat  a  jack,  Aubrey*s  Surrey,  vol.  III.  p.  98 1. 
or  jpil^e,,  t1^^  chijd  would  proye  a  son, 

»  Care  Hist.  Lit.  toI.  M.— Vofsius.— Fabricius  BiW.  Gr.  &  Ut.— Saxii  Ono- 
fluutZ-^Djcl^Hist,  1810.— Gen.  Diet. 

1%  ABBOT. 

sity^  and  was  sometime  ehaplain  to  Thomas  Tord  Buck-* 
hurst.  In  1593,  March  4,  he  commenced  bachelor  of 
divinity,  and  proceeded  doctor  of  that  faculty  May  9, 
1597-  On  September  6  he  was  elected  master  of  Univer- 
sity college,  to  whioh  he  afterwards  proved  a  benefactor. 
About  this  time  some  differences  took  place  between  him 
and  Dr.  Laud,  which  subsisted  as  long  as  they  lived. 

In  1598  he  published  his  "  Qua^stiones  Sex,'*  which  ob- 
tained him  gr^at  reputation.  On  March  6,  1599,  he  was 
installed  dean  of  Winchester,  and  in  1600  was  appointed 
vice-chancellor  of  Oxford,  and  while  in  this  office  decided 
a  dispute  which  at  that  time  engaged  the  attention  of  the 
public,  respecting  the  repairing  of  the  cross  in  Cheapside^ 
which  was  ornamented  with  Popish,  images.  The  citizens 
of  London  requested  the  advice  of  both  Universities  ;  and 
Pr.  Abbot,  as  vice-chancellor  of  Oxford,  gave  as  his 
opinion,  that  the  crucifix  with  the  dove  upon  it  should  not 
be  put  up  again.  Dr.  Bancrbft,  bishop  of  London,  was  of 
a  different  opinion ;  but  Dr.  Abbot's  advice  was  followed,  as 
expressed  in  a  letter  printed  many  years  after.  He  published, 
the  same  year,  his  Sermons  on  the  Prophet  Jonah.  In 
1693  he  was  again  chosen  vice-chancellor;  and  in  1604, 
wh^n  king  James  ordered  the  new  translation  of  the  Bible, 
he  was  one  of  the  eight  divines  of  Oxford  to  whom  the 
translation  of  the  historical  books  of  the  New  Testament 
was  committed.  In  1605  he  was  a  third  time  vice-chan-i- 
cellor;  and,  in  the  succeeding  year,  he  is  thought  to 
have  bad  some  share  in  the  censures  passed  on  Laud,  on 
account  of  a  sermon  he  preached  before  the  University. 
The  principles  of  the  two  men  were  continually  at  variance. 
Abbot  being  a  rigid  Calvinist,  and  a  foe  to  every  thing 
that  had  the'  appearance  of  Popery,  and  Laud  equally 
strenuous  for  the  opinions  afterwards  known  by  the  name 
of  Arminian,  and  a  friend  to  the  ceremonies  and  splendour 
of  public  worship. 

In  1608,  on  the  death  of  his  patron,  lord  Buckhurst, 
earl  of  Dorset,  he  became  chaplain  to  George  Hume, 
earl  of  Dunbar,  and  treasurer  of  Scotland ;  and  went 
home  with  him,  in  order  to  establish  an  union  between 
the  Churches  of  England  and  Scotland.  King  James's 
object  was  to  restore'  the  antient  form  of  government  by 
bishops ;  and,  notwithstanding  the  aversion  of  the  people 
of  Scotland  to  this  measure.  Dr.  Abbot's  skill,  pru- 
dence, and  moderation  succeeded  so  far  as  to  procure  aa 

ABBOT*  17 

act  of  the  General  Assembly,  which  was  afterwards  rati- 
fied and  confirmed  by  the  Parliament  of  Scotland.  By  this 
it  was  enacted,  that  the  king  should  have  the  calling  of  all 
General  Assemblies;  that  the  bishops  or  their  depjatiei; 
should  be  perpetual  moderators  of  the  diocesan  synods; 
that  no  excommunication  or  absolution  should  be  pro- 
nounced without  their  approbation ;  that  all  presentations 
of  benefict^  should  be  made  by  them,  and  that  the  depri-^ 
yation  or  suspension  of  ministers  should  belong  to  them ; 
that  every  minister,  at  his  admission  to  a  beneBce,  should 
take  the  oath  of  supremacy,  and  canonical  obedience  ;  that 
the  visitation  of  the  diocese  should  be  performed  by  the 
bishop  or  bis  deputy  only;  and  finally,  that  the  bishop 
should  be  moderator  of  all  conventions  for  exercisings  or 
prophesyings,  which  should  be  held  within  their  bounds. 

This  service  advanced  Dr.  Abbot's  character  very  high 
in  the  opinion  of  king  James,  and  an  incidental  affair  about 
this  time  brought  him  yet  more  into  favour.  While  he  was 
at  Edinburgh,  a  prosecution  was  commenced  against  one 
George  Sprot,  notary  of  Aymouth,  for  having  been  con- 
cerned in  Gowrie*s  conspiracy  eight  years  before,  for 
which  he  was  now  tried  before  sir  William  Hart,  lord  justice 
general  of  Scotland,  and  condemned  and  executed.  A  long 
account  of  the  affair  was  drawn  up  by  the  judge,  and  a 
narrative  prefixed  by  Dr.  Abbot  unfolding  the  precise  na- 
ture of  the  conspiracy,  about  the  reality  of  which  doubts 
bad  previously  been  entertained,  and  perhaps  were  after- 
wards. Dr.  Robertson  and  Guthrie,  however,  are  both  per- 
suaded of  the  authenticity  of  the  generally-received  account. 

Soon  after  this,  the  king  being  engaged  in  the  mediation 
of  peace  between  the  crown  of  Spain  and  the  United  Prpv 
viijces,  by  which  the  sovereignty  of  the  latter  was  to  b« 
acknowledged  by  the  former,  he  demanded  the  advice  of 
the  convocation  then  sitting,  as*  to  the  lawfulness  of  espousi- 
ing  the  cause  of  the  States ;  but,  instead  of  a  direct  an- 
swer, the  members  entered  upon  a  wide  field  of  discussion* 
which  excited  new  jealousies  and  apprehensions.  On  this 
occasion  the  king  wrote  a  confidential  letter  to  Abbot,  re- 
flecting on  the  convocation  for  not  being  more  explicit  in 
their  answer  to  his  question,  '^  how  far  a  Christian  and  a  <. 
Protestant  king  may  concur  to  assist  his  neighbours  to 
^hake  off  their  obedience  to  their  own  sovereign*?"     It 

'  *  Thif  corious  letter  was  first  pub-     Sherlock  and  b(8  adversaries  oti  hif 
lithed  during  the  dispute  between  dean     taking  tha  path*  to  king  William,  im 

Vot.  h  c 



does  not  appear  what  effect  this  letter  produced ;  but  Dr. 
Abbot  now  stood  so  high  in  his  majesty's  fiivour,  that  on  the 
death  of  Dr.  Overton,  bishop  of  Lichfield  and  Coventry, 
he  promoted  him  t(S  the  vacant  see,  May  27,  1609,  and  he 
was  consecrated  Dec.  3.  Before  he  had  held  this  above  a 
month,  he  was  translated  to  the  bishoprick  of  London,  and 
confirmed  Jan.  20,  1609-10.  During  the  short. time  that 
he  held  the  bishoprick  of  London,  he  distinguished  himself 
by  the  diligent  performance  of  his  function,  and  by  fre- 
quent preaching,    and  patronizing  learning  and  learned 

the  New  Observer,  vol.  Tir.  No.  U, 
the  author  of  which  tells  us,  the  origi- 
nal is  in  the  hands  of  an  eminent  per- 
son ;  the  four  last  lines  in  the  king's 
own.  hand,  and  the  rest  in  the  secre- 

"  Good  Dr.  Abbot, 
"  I  cannot  abstain  to  give  you  my 
judgment  on  the  proceedings  in  the 
convocation,  as  you  will  call  it ;  and 
both  as  rex  in  solio,  and  unus  gregis  in 
tcclesia,  I  am  doubly  concerned.    My 
Utle  to  the  crown  nobody  calls  in  ques- 
tion, but  they  that  love  neither  you 
nor  me,  and  you  may  guess  whom  I 
mean :  all  that  you  and  your  brethren 
have  said  of  a  king  in  possession  (for 
that  word,  I  tell  you,  is  no  more  than 
that  you  make  use  of  in  your  canon) 
concerns  not  me  at  all.    1  am  the  next 
heir,  and  the  crown  is  mine  by  all 
rights  you  can  name,  but  that  of  con- 
quest;  and   Mr;  Solicitor  has  suffi- 
ciently expressed  my  own    thoughts 
concerning  the  nature  of  kingship,  and 
concerning  the  nature  of  it  ut  in  tnea 
persona ;  and  i  believe  you  were  all  of 
his  opinion  ;  at  least,  none  of  you  said 
any  thing  contrary  to  it  at  the  time  he 
spoke  to  you  from  me :  but  you  know 
all  of  you,  as  I  think,  that  my  reason 
of  calling  you  together  was  to  give 
your  judgments  how  far  a  Christian  and 
ft  Protestant  king  may  concur  to  assist 
his  neighbours  to  shidce  off  their  obe- 
dience to  their  own  sovereign,  upon 
account   of  oppression,  tyranny,   or 
what  else  you  please  to  name  it.    In 
the  late  queen's  time,  this  kingdom  was 
very  free  in  assisting  the  Hollanders 
bod  with  arms  and  advice;  and  none 
of  your  coat  ever  told  me  that  any 
scrupled  at  it  in  her  reign.    Upon  ntf 
coming  to  England,  you  may  know 
that  it  came  from  some  of  yourselves 
to  raise  scruples  about  this  matter; 

and  albeit  I  have  often  told  my  mind 
concerning  jii«  regiumin  subditos,  as  in 
May  last,  in  the  sur-charober,  upon 
the  occasion  of  Hale's  padaphlet;  yet 
I  never  took  any  notice  of  these  scru- 
ples, till  the  ilffairs  of  Spain  and  Hol- 
land forced  me  to  it.     All  my  neigh- 
bours call  on  me  to  concur  in  thsr 
treaty  between  Holland  and   Spain; 
and  <the  honour  of  the  nation  will  net 
suffer  the  Hollanders  to  be  abandoned; 
especially  after  so  much  money  and 
men  spent  in  their  quarrel ;  therefore 
I  was  of  the  mind  to  call  my  clergy  to- 
gether, to  satisfy  not  so  much  me,  as 
the  world  about  us,  of  the  justness  of 
my  owning  the  Hollanders  at  this  time. 
This  I  needed  not  to  have  done,  and 
you  have  forced  me  to  say,  I  wish  I 
had  not ;  you  have  dipped  too  deep  in 
what  all  kings  reserve  among  the  arcu" 
na  imperii ;  and  whatever  aversion  you 
may  profess  against  God*s  being  thf 
author  of  sin,  you  have  stumbled  upon 
the  threshold  of  that  opinion,  in  saying 
upon.the  matter,  that  even  tyranny  is. 
God's  authority,  aud  should  be  rem«*m- 
bered  as  such.     If  the  king  of  Spain 
should  return  to  claim  his  old  pontifi- 
cal right  to  my  kingdom,  you  leavo 
me  to  seek  fur  others  to  fight  for  it ; 
for  you  tell  us  upon  the  matter  before- 
hand, his  authority  is  God's  authority 
if  he  prevail. 

'*  Mr.  Doctor,  I  have  no  tin^  to  ex- 
press my  mind  further  on  this  theory 
business ;  1  shall  give  you  my  orders 
about  it  by  Mr.  Solicitor,  and  until 
then,  meddle  no  more  in  it ;  for  they 
'  are  edge  tools,  or  rather  like  that  wea- 
pon that  is  said  to  cut  with  one  edge, 
and  cure  with  the  other.  I  commit 
yon  to  God's  protection,  good-  Dr*. 
Abbo^  and  rest  your  good  friend, 

Jamis  R." 

ABBOT.  }» 

vieti.    In  prk)ate  life  he  was  equally  noted  for  ardent  piety^ 
generosity,  and  gentleness  of  manners. 

In  the  following  year  be  was  preferred  to  the  see  of 
Canterbnry,  and  confirmed  April  9,  and  on  the  23d  of 
June  he  was  sworn  of  his  majesty's  most  honourable  privy- 
couhciL*  At  this  time  he  was  in  the  highest  favour  both 
with  prince  and  people,  and  appears  to  have  taken  an 
active  part  in  all  the  great  transactions  in  church  and  state. 
Although  not  thought  excessively  fond  of  power,  or  de- 
sirous of  carrying  his  prerogative,  as  primate  of  England, 
to  an  extraocdinary  height,  yet  be  was  resolute  in  main* 
taining  the  rights  of  the  high  commbsion  court,  and  would 
not  submit  to  lord  Coke's  prohibitions.  In  the  case  of 
Vorstius,  his  conduct  was  more  singular.  Vorstius  had 
been  appointed  to  a  professorship  in  the  university  of 
Leyden,  and  was  a  noted  Arminian.  King  James,  by  our 
archbishop's  advice,  remonstrated  with  the  States  on  this 
appointment ;  and  the  consequence  was  -that  Vorstius  was 
banished  by  the  synod  of  Doct,  as  will  appear  more  at 
lengrth  in  his  life.  This  conduct  on  the  part  of  the  arch- 
bishop alarmed  those  who  were  favourers  of  Arminianism, 
and  who  dreaded  Calvinism  from  its  supposed  influence  on 
the  security  of  the  church ;  but  their  fears  as  far  as  he  was 
concerned  appear  to  have  been  groundless,  bis  attachment 
to  the  church  of  England  remaining  firm  and  uniform.  He 
had  soon,  however,  another  opportunity  of  testifying  his 
dislike  of  the  Arminian  doctrines.  The  zeal  which  the 
king  had  shewn  for  ^removing,  first  Arminius,  and  then 
Vorstius,  had  given  their  favourers  in  Holland  so  much 
uneasiness,  that  the  celebrated  Grotius,  the  great  cham« 
pion  of  their  cause,  was  sent  oVer  to  England  to  endeavour 
to  mitigate  the  King's  displeasure,  and,  if  possible,  to  give 
him  a  better  opinion  of  the  Remonstrants,  as  they  then 
began  to  be  called*  On  this  occasion  the  archbishop 
wrote  an  account  of  Orotius  and  his  negociation  in  a 
letter  to  sir  Ralph  Winwood,  in  which  he  treats  Grotius 
with  very  little  ceremony.  For  this  he  has  met  with  an 
advocate  in  archdeacon  Blackburn,  who,  in  his  Confes- 
tional,  observes  in  his-  behalf,  that  **  his  disaffection  to 
Grotius  was  owing  to  the  endeavours  and  proposals  of  the 
latter,'  towards  a  coalition  of  the  Protestants  and  Papists, 
which  every  wise  and  consistent  Protestant,  in  every  period 
since,  the  Reformation,  as  well  as  Abbot,  has  considersMi  as 
a  snare,  and  treated  accordingly.'* 

20  A  B  B  O  T, 

Another  affait  which  occurred  in  1613,  created  no  little 
perplexity  to  our  archbishop,  while  it  afforded  him  aii  op* 
portttiHty  of  e^iticiBgadecidedness  of  character  hot  com- 
mon at  that  periods  This  was  the  case  of  divorce  between 
lady  Frances  Howard,  daughter  to  the  earl  of  Suffolk,  and 
Robert,  earl  of  Esse^,  her  husband,  which  has  always  been 
considered  as  one  of  the  greatest  blemishes  of  kibg  James's 
reign.  The  part  Abbot  took  in  this  matter  displayed  his 
unshaken  and  incorruptible  integrity;  and  he  afterwards 
published  his  reascnas  for  opposing  the  divorce,  as  a  measure 
tending  to  encourage  public  licentiousness.  If  this  conduct 
displeased  the  king,  he  does  not  appear  to  have  withdrawn 
his  favour  from  the  archbisbopi  as  in  1615  he  promoted  his 
brother,  Robfert,  to  the  see  of  Salisbury.  The  archbishop 
was  less  prudent  in  recomnoending  to  the  king,  George 
Villiers,  ;afterwardfi  the  celebrated  duke  of  Buckingham; 
but  of  this  he  lived  ito  repent,  and  to  leave  a  'Satisfactory 
vindication.  • 

Towards  the  close  pf  1616,  the  learned  Antonio  de 
Dominis,  archbishop  of  Spalato,  took  shelter  in  England, 
from  the  persecution  with  which  he  was  threatened  by  the 
Pope,  for  discovering  his  dislike  both  of  the  doctrine  and 
discipline  of  the  ehurch  of  Rome,  and  was  very  kindly  re- 
ceived by  his  majesty,  and  hospitably  entertained  by  the 
archbishop.  It  was  by  his  f»ea<is  that  the  archbishop  got 
Father  Paul's  History  of  the  Council  of  Trent  transmitted 
into  this  country.  Mr.  Nathaniel  Brent  was  employed  on 
this  service,  and  succeeded  in  procuring  the  whole  of  the 
manuscript,  although  with  some  hazard  to  himseif.  In 
1618,  while  lamenting  the  death  of  his  brother  the  bishop 
of  Salisibury,  which  happened  in  March  of  that  year,  he 
elicountered  a  fresh  anxiety  from  the  king^s  declaration  for 
permitting  sports  and  pastimes  on  the  Lord's  day.  This 
declaration,  usually  called  the  Book  of  Sports,  was  ordered 
tp  be  read  in  the  churches ;  but  the  archbishop,  being  at 
Croydon  when  it  came  thither,  had  the  coulrage  to  forbid 
its  being  read. 

In  1619  he  executed  a  design  which  he  had  long  formed, 
of  founding  an  hospital  at  Guildford,  where,  on  the  5th  of 
April,  he  was  present  when  sir  Nicholas  Kempe  lud  the 
0rst  stone.  The  archbishop  endowed  it  with  knds  to  the 
value  of  three  hundred  pounds  per  annum :  one  hundred 
of  which  was  to  be  employed  in  setting  the  poor  to  work, 
and  the  remainder  for  the  mdntenance  ot  a  masteri  twckft 

A  B  B  O  t. 


brothers,  and  eightsist^rsj,  whQ  vrere.  to  have  blae  clothes^ 
aad- gowns  pf  the  s^nae  coloiut,  ,aod  h^*^--crown  a  we^ 
each*  Oct  29y  being  the  aqp^veFsa,Fy  q£  the  arehbishop'$^ 
bktb,  i$  CQnunQonior^ii^  al  GuUdford  ;  and  the  archbishop^ 
of  Canterbury  fby  tilie  time  being  i^  viaitoF  of  thehospitali! 
Towards  tb^^.end  of  tbid  year^  the  l^lef^tfit  Palatine  ac* 
cepted  of  the  oxotfn  of  JBobemia^ :  which  occasipiijied  great 
dispates  in  king,  James'a  cou^qills,,  &Qdp^  were  desirous 
tbat  hh  ipiyesty.  shouldi  pot  intef fere  in  iivis  9)att€^^  foresee-* 
ing  that  it  wo^ld  prodiocie  a  w^r  if>  GertiBiany ;:  others  wejre 
of  opinioQ^  tjEiat  natnial  .a&ction  :,to,  his  son,  and  daiughter^ 
and  a  juat  Qoncein  for  the  Protectant. intere$t|  ought  to  en-y 
gage  biai  to  support  the  new  ele«ti0z^  The  Jatter  was  the 
archbishop's  sentisient.;  and  not  being  able  at  that^  time  tp 
attend  the  privy  councU,,  be  wjjQUe  hi»:  mind  with,  great 
boldness  and  freedom  to  the  secretary  pf .  fiitate,  Thif 
archbishop,  now  in  a  declining  9tate  pf  he^th^  n^ed  in  the 
sumnier  to  go  to  Hampshire  foy  the  sake  of  rt^e,I!eaikipn ; 
and,  being  invited  by  lord  Zouch  to  hunt  in  bia  park  at 
Bransill,  be  met.  there  with  the  greatest  ^lisfor^nne  that 
e?er  befel  him  ^  for  he  aocideat^Uy  kitted  that  nf^leman'i 
keeper^  by  an  arrow,  froin  a  ,cross*-bowy  which  be;  sbpt  a^ 
one  of  the  deer.  This  accideiiKt  threw  him  iuto  a  dee.f>  ine^ 
lancboly! ;  and  he  ever  afterwards  kept  a  ii^pathly  faat  on 
Tuesday,  the*  day  on  which  this  fatal  misohani^e  happened. 
He  also  settled  :an  annuity  oi  ,20lu  qn  the  widpw.  There 
were  several.pefsons  who  took  advantage  oS  this  misfortunes 
to  lessesL.  him  in  the  kin9^a.favoui:;:bia'his  m^esty  said) 
'^  An  angel  might  have  miscarried  in  this  sort.'*  JBut  his 
enemies  refuresedtiDg,  that^  having  irregularity, 
he  was.  thereby  incapacitated  for  perforoiing  the  pdicea  of  fL 
primate,  the  king  direeted  )a  aomfni^  ten  persons^  ti9 
inquire  into  xhh  matter.  The  points  referred  tp  their  det 
xsisionwece^  !•  Whether  the  arohbishap.  was  irregular  by 
the  fiict  of  involuntary  homicide?  ,  2.  Whether  thsit  act 
m\f^  ten*  scandal  in  a  churchman?  3«  How  bi^  grace 
sWuld  be  restored,  in  ease  ,tbei  commissioners,  should  find 
him  irregular f  All  agfeedy. that  it: .could  not  be  othcr:l«^i$e 
done,^  tfate  by  reskitutioii.  from  the  king ;  but  they  varied 
in  the  manner.;.  The  bishop  of  Winchester,  the  lord  chi^f 
justice,  and  Dr.  Steward,  duought  it  should  be  done  by  the 
kang,  and  by  him  alone..  The  lord  keeper,  and  the  bi»bop$ 
of  London,  fiiichester,  Exeteir,  and  St,  David*s,  were  for 
:a  Gooxmisdion  item  the)  king  ;  directed  to  some  bishops. 

Jf  A  B  B  O  T. 

Judge  Doddridge  and  sir  Henry  Martin  were  deMrous  it 
should  be^done  both  ways^  by  way  of  caution.  The  king 
accordingly  passed  a  pardon  and  dispensation ;  by  which  he 
acquitted  the  archbishop  of  all  irregularity,  scandal,  or  in^ 
famation,  aftd  declared  him  capable  of  all  the  authority  of 
a  primate.  Fl'om  that  time  an  increase  of  infirmities  pre* 
Tented  his  assistance  at  the  council.  .  But  when,  in  the 
last  illness  of  James  L  his  attendance  was  required,  he 
was  attentive  to  the  charge  till  the  27th  of  Mar<:h  1625,  the 
day  on  which  the  king  expired.  Though  very  infirm,  and 
afflicted  with  the  gout,  he  assisted  at  the  ceremony  of  the 
coronation  of  Charles  I.  whose  favour,  however,  be  did  not 
long  enjoy.  His  avowed  enemy,  the  dvke  of  Buckingham, 
soon  found  an  opportunity  to  make  him  feel  the  weight  of 
his  displeasure.  Dr.  Sibthorp  had  in  the  Lent  assizes  1627 
preached  before  the  judges  a  sermon  at  Northampton,  to 
justify  a  loan  which  the  king  had  demanded.  .  This  sermon, 
calculated  to  reconcile  the  people  to  an  obnoxious  measure, 
was  transmitted  to  the  archbishop  with  the  king's  direction 
to  license  it ;  which  he  refused,  and  gave  his  reasons  for 
it :  and  it  was  not  licensed  by  the  bishop  of  London,  until 
after  the  passages  deemed  exceptionable  had  been  erased. 
On  July  5,  lord  Conway,  wh6  was  then  secretary  of  state, 
made  him  a  visit ;  and  intimated  to  him,  that  the  king  ex- 
pected he  should  withdraw  to  Canterbury,  The  archbishop 
declined  this  proposal,  because  he  bad  then  a  law-suit  with 
that  city  ;  and  desired  that  be  might  rather  have  leave  to 
retire  to  his  house  at  Ford,  five  miles  beyond  Canterbury. 
His  request  was  granted;  and,  on  Oct.  9  following,  the 
king  gave  a  commission  to  the  bishops  of  London,  Durham, 
Rochester,  Oxford,  and  Bath  and  Wells,  to  execute  the 
archiepiscopal  authority;  the  cause  assigned  being,  that 
the  archbishop  could  not  at  that  time  in  his  own  person  at* 
tend  those  services  which  were  otherwise,  proper  for  his 
cognizance  and  direction.  The  archbishop  did  not  remain 
long  in  this  situation ;  for,  a  parliament  beii^  absolutely 
necessary,  he  was  recalled  about  Christmas,  and  irestored 
to  his  authority  and  jurisdiction.  On  his  arrival  at  court 
he  was  received  by  tbe  archbishop  of  Yofk  and  the  earl  ol 
Dorset,  who  conducted  him  to.  the  king,  and  his  regnlar 
attendance  was  from  that  time  required.  He  sat  in  the 
succeeding  parliament,  and  continued  afterwards  in  the  full 
exercise  of  his  office.  On  the  24th  of  August  162&,  the 
archbishop  consecrated  to  the  see  of  Chichester  Dr.  Richard 

<^    A  B  B  O  T-  23 

Montague,  who  had  before  been  active  in  supporting  thp 
pretence  of  irregularity .  which  had  been  alleged  against 
him.  Laud,  bishop  of  London,,  one  of  his  former  enemies^ 
also  assisted  at  the  consecration.  When  the  petition  of 
right  was  discussed  in  parliament,  the  archbishop  delivered 
the  opinion  of  the  House  of  Lords  at  a  conference  with  the 
House  of  Commons,  offering  some  propositions  from  the 
former,  and  received  the  thanks  of  sir  Dudley  Digges. 
Dr..  Man  waring,  having  preached  before  the  House  of  Com- 
mons two  sermons,  which  he  afterwards  published,  and  in 
which  he  maintained  the  king's  authority  in  raising  sub- 
sidies without  the  consent  of  parliament,  was  brought  be- 
fore the  bar  of  the  House  of  Lords,  by  impeachment  of  the 
Commons.  Upon  this  occasion  the  archbishop,  with  the 
king's  consent,  gave  the  doctor  a  severe  admonition,  in 
which  be  avowed  his  abhorrence  of  the  principles  main- 
tained in  the  two  discourses.  The  interest  of  bishop  Laiid 
being  now  very  considerable  at  court,  he  drew  up  instruc- 
tions, which,  having  the  king's  name,  were  transmitted  to 
the  archbishop,  under  the  title  of  "  His  majesty's  instruc- 
tions to  the  most  reverend  father  in  God,  George,  lord 
archbishop  of  Canterbury,  containing  certain  orders  to  be 
observed  and  put  in  execution  by  the  several  bishops^in  bis 
province."  His  greu:e  communicated  them  to  his  suffra- 
gan bishops ;  but,  to  prove  that  be  still  intended  to  exer- 
cise his  authority  in  his  own  diocese,  he  restored  Mr.  Pal- 
mer and  Mr.  Unday  to  their  lectureships,  after  the  dqan 
and  archdeacon  of  Canterbury  had  suspended  them.  In 
other  respects  he  endeavoured  to  soften  their  rigour,  as  they 
were  contriveu  to  enforce  the  particular  notions  of  a  pre- 
vailing party  in  the  church,  which  the  archbishop  thought 
too  hard  for  those  who  made  the  fundamentals  of  religion 
their  study,  and  were  not  so  zealous  for  forms.  His  con- 
duct in  this  and  other  respects  made  his  presence  unwel- 
come at  court;  so  that,  upon  the  birth  of  the  prince  of 
Wales,  afterwards  Chai^les  II.  Laud  had  the  honour  to 
baptize  him,  as  dean  of  the  chapel.  .  It  appears,  however, 
from'almost  the  last  public  act  of  his  life,  that  Abbot  was 
not  so  regardless  of  the  ceremonial  parts  of  religious  duty 
in  the  church  of  England  as  his  enemies  have  represented 
him;  for  he  issued  an  order,  dated  the  3d  of  July  1633, 
.requiring  the  parishioners  of  Crayford  in  Kent  to  receive 
the  sacrament  on  their  knees,  at  the  steps  ascending  to  the 
communion  table.     On  the  5th  of  August,  in  the  sao^e 

]5?4  ABBOT. 

year,  he  died  at  Croydon,  worn  out  with  cares  and  infihili<» 
ties,  at  the  age  of  7 1 ,  and  wa^  according  to  bis  own  direct, 
tion  buried  in  the  chapel  of  Our  Lady,  within  the  chttrch 
dedicated  to  the  Holy  Trinity  at  Guildford.  A  stately  mo- 
tiument  vvas  erected  oter  the  grave,  with  the  efBgies  of  the 
archbishop  in  his  robes.  He  shewed  himself,  in  most  cir- 
cumstances of  his  life,,  a  mah  of  great  modetation  to  all 
parties;  and  v^sls  desirous  that  the  clergy  should  attract 
the  esteem  of  the  laity  by  the  sanctity  of  their  manners, 
rather  than  claim  it  as  due  to  their  function.  His  notions 
and  principles,  however,  not  suiting  the  humour  of  soiiie 
writers,  have  drawn  upoii  him  many  severe  reflections, 
Heylin  asserts,  '^  That  marki^  of  his  benefactions  we  find 
none  in  placei^  of  his  breeding  and  preferAnrent ;"  an  asper- 
sion which  is  totally  groundless.  Dr.  WelKvood  has  done 
more  justice  to  the  merit  and  abilities  of  our  prelate : 
<*  Archbishop  Abbot,"  says  be,  **  was  a  person  of  wonderful 
tenlper  and  moderation  ;  and  in  all  his  conduct  shewed  an 
unwillingness  to  stretch  the  act  of  uniformity  beyond  what 
was  absolutely  necessary  for  the  peace  of  the  chiircb,  or 
the  prerogative  of  the  crown,  any  farther  than  condilced 
to  the  good  of  the  state.  Being  not  well  turned  for  a 
c6urt,  though  otherwise  of  considerable  learning  and  gen- 
teel education,  he  either  could  not,  or  would  not,  stoop  tb 
the  humour  of  the  times ;  and  now  and  then,  by  an  un« 
seasonable  stiffness,  gave  occasion  to  his  enemies  to  repre- 
sent him  as  not  well  inclined  to  the  prerogative,  or  too 
'much  addicted  to  a  popular  interest ;  and  therefore  not  fit 
to  be  employed  in  matters  of  government" 

Others  of  the  contemporary  historians,  besides  Heylin, 
have  given  unfavourable  characters  of  the  archbishop  ;  but 
their  accounts  disagree.  Lord  Clarendon  likewise  bears 
hard  on  his  religious  principles  and  general  characten 
f^  He  had,"  says  his  lordship,  "  been  master  of  one  of  the 
poorest  colleges  in  Oxford,  and  had  learning  sufficient  for 
that  province,"  The  Editor  of  the  Biog.  Britannica  has 
here  supplied  the  name  (Balliol),  a  blunder  which  lord 
Clarendon  was  not  likely  to  have  made,  as  our  archbishop 
was  master  of  University  College,  and  his  brother  Robert, 
master  of  Balliol.  It  is  rather  singular,  however,  that  his 
lordship  should  undervalue  the  **  learning  sufficient  for 
that  province."  He  also  notices,  as  extraordinary,  that 
he  was  promoted  to  the  bishoprick  of  Lichfield  and  Coven- 
try ^*  before  he  had  been  parson,  vicar,  or  curate  of  any 


parish  church  in  England,  or  dean  or  prebendary  tt  ar¥y  ca»- 
I  thedral  church  in  England;  and  was  in  truth  totally- igno?- 
rant  of  the  true  constitution  of  the  church  of  England^  and 
the  state  and  interest  of  the  clergy.''  Here  again  his  lord»- 
ship  seems  to  haye  forgot,,  that  he  was  deau  of  Winchester 
before  he  was  bishop  of  Lichfield,  and  that  the  chief  caoise 
of  his  promotion  was  tbe  service  he  rendered  to  his  majes^ 
by  procaring  the  establishment  of  episcopacy  in  Scotland. 
Upon  the  whole  of  his  character  as  dirawh  by.  lord  Clai'en«- 
doD,  the  late  ri^t  hon.  Arthur  Onslow,  speaker  of  the 
House  of  Commons,  offers  the  following  remarks  :  f^Tbat 
worthy  prelate  did  surely  deserve  a  better  representaliofii 
to  posterity.  He  was  a  very  wise  and  prudent  man,,  knew 
well  the  temper  and  disposition  of  the  kingdom  with  re*- 
spect  to  the  ceremonies  and  power  of  the  church,  ind  did 
therefore  use  a  moderation  in  the  point  of  .ecclesiasUead 
discipline,  which  if  it  had  been  followed  by  his  sucoessoi!^ 
the  ruin  that  soon  after  fell  on  the  ohurch  might  viery. likely 
have  been  prevented.  His  being  without  any  credit  «t 
court  from  the  latter  end  of  king  iamea's  reign  will  Uiog 
no  dishonour  on  his  memory,  if  it  be  considered  that  his 
disgrace  arose  from  his  dislike  of,  and  opposition  to>  the 
imprudent  and  corrupt  measures  of  the<%:ourt  at  that  time, 
^nd  from  an  honest  zeal  for  the  laws  and  liberties  of  his 
country,  which  seemed  then  to  be  in  no  small  danger,  and 
it  was  a  part  truly  becoming  the  high  :station  he  then  bore. 
His  advice  upon  the  affair  of  the  Palatinate  and  the  Spanish 
match  shewed  his  knowledge  of  the  true,  interest  of  £ng«- 
Jand,  and  bow  much  it  was  at  his  heart ;  and  his  behaviour 
and  sufferings  in  tbe  next  reign,  about  the  loan  and  Sib^^ 
thorp's  sermon,  as  they  were  the  reasons  of  his  dfagrace  at 
that  time,  so  ought  they  to  render  his  memoi^  valuable  to 
all  who  wish  not  to  see  the  fatal  counsels  and  oppressiou  of 
those  times  revived  in  this  nation.  The  duke  of  Bucking- 
ham was  his  enemy,  becsAise  the  archbishop  would  not  be 
his  creature;  and  the  church  pcriaaps  might  have  been 
thought  to  have  been  better  governed,  if  he  had  stooped 
to  the  duke,  and  given  in  .to  the  wantonnesses  of  his  power : 
but  he  knew  the  dignity  of  bis  character,  and  loved  his 
country  too  well  to  submit  to  such  a  meanness,  though 
very  few  of  his  brethren  had  the  courage  or  honesty  to  jam 
with  him  in  this,  and,  if  the  archbishop  himself  is  to  be  ere- 
dited,  his  successor's  rise  was  by  the  practice  of  those  arts 
this  good  mau^could  not  bend  to.     As  to  his  learnmg,  we 


need  no  better  testimony  of  it  than  his  promotion  by  king, 
James,  who  had  too  much  affectation  that  way  to  prefer 
mny  one  to  sach  a  station  who  had  not  borne  the  reputa« 
don  of  a  scholar ;  but  there  are  other  proofs  of  his  suBSi* 
ciency  in  this,  even  for  the  high  place  he  lield  in  the 
cfaurcn.  If  he  had  some  narrow  notions  in  divinity,  they 
were  rather  the  faults  of  the  age  he  had  his  education  in, 
.than  his ;  and  the  same  imputation  may  be  Mid  on  the  best 
and  most  learned  of  the  Reformers.  His  warmth  against 
Popery  became  the  office  of  a  Protestant  bishop ;  though 
even  towards  Papists  there  is  a  remarkable  instance  .of  his 
mildness  and  charity,  which  shewed  that  his  zeal  against 
their  persons  went  no  farther  than  the  safety  of  the  state 
required  \  His  parts  seem  to  have  been  strong  and  mas- 
terly, his  preaching  grave  and  eloquent,  and  his  style  equal 
'to  any  of  that  time.  He  was  eminent  for  piety  and  a  care 
for  the  poor ;  and  his  hospitality  fully  answered  the  injunc- 
tion king  James  laid  on  him,  which  was,  to  carry  bis  house 
nobly,  and  live  like  an  archbishop.  He  had  no  thoughts 
,of  heaping  up  riches ;  what  he  did  save  was  laid  out  by  him 
in  the  erecting  and  endowing  of  an  handsome  Ho^ital  for 
^decayed  tradesmen  and  the  widows  of  such,  in  the  town  of 
Guildford,  in  the  bounty  of  Surrey,  where  he  was  bom  and 

,  had  his  first  education  ;  and  here  I  cannot  omit  taking  no- 
tice that  the  body  of  statutes  drawn  by  himself  for  the  go- 

.  vemment  of  that  house,  is  one  of  the  most  judicious  works 
of  that  kind  I  ever  saw,  and  under  which  for  near  one  bun- 
<lred  years  that  hospital  has  maintained  the  best  credit  of 
any  that  I  know  in  England.  He  was  void  of  all  pomp  and 
ostentation,  and  thought  the  nearer  the  church  and  church- 
men  came  to  the  simplicity  of  the  first  Christians,  the  better 
would  the  true  ends  of  religion  be  served ;  and  that  the 
purity  of  the  heart  was  to  be  preferred  to,  and  ought^  ra- 
ther to  be  the  care  of  a  spiritual  governor,  than  the  devo- 
tion of  the  hands  only.  If  under  this  notion  some  niceties 
in  discipline  were  given  up  to  goodness  of  life,  and  when 
the  peace  of  the  church  as  well  as  of  the  kingdom  was  pre- 

.  served  by  it,  'twas  surely  no ^ ill  piece  of  prudence,  nor  is 
his  memory  therefore  deserving  of  those  slanders  it  has 
undergone  upon  that  account.  It  is  easy  to  see  that  much 
of  this  treatment  has  been  owing  to  a  belief  in  the  ad- 
mirers and  followers  of  archbishop  Laud,  that  the  reputa- 

1  Rufhworth*!  CoUectioof,  toI.  I.  p.  243. 

ABBOT.  n 

tion  of  ftha  ktler  was  increased  by  depreciating  that  of  the 
&niier.  They  were  indeed  men  of  very  different  frames,  and 
the  parts  they  took  in  the  affairs  both  of  church  and  state 
as  disagreeing.  In  the  church,  moderatioa  and  the  ways 
of  peace  guided  the  behaviour  of  the  firsts  rigour  and  se- 
verity that  of  the  last  In  the  state  they  severally  carried 
the  like  principles  and  temper.  The  one  made  the  liberty 
of  the  people  and  the  laws  of  the.  land  the  measure  of  his 
actions ;  when  the  other,  to  speak  softly  of  it,  had  the 
power  of  the  prince  and  the  exalting  the  pren^tive  only^ 
for  the  foundation  of  his.  They  were  indeed  both  of  them 
men  of  courage  and  resolution ;  but  it  was  sedate  and  tem- 
perate in  Abbot,  passionate  and  unruly  in  Laud.  It  is  not 
however  to  be  denied  that  many  rare  and  excellent  virtues 
were  possessed  by  the  latter ;  but  it  must  be  owned  too* 
he  seems  rather  made  for  the  hierarchy  of  another  church 
and  to  be  the  ministei:  of  an  arbitrary  prince,  apd  the 
other  to  have  had  the  qualifications  of  a  Protestant  bishop 
and  the  guardian  of  a  free  .state  *.'** 

As  HeyUn  has  insinuated  something  to  the  prejudice  of 
the  arcbbkbop's  liberality,  it  may  be  necessary  to  record, 
that,  besides  his  noble  foundation  at  Guildford,  be  gave  to 
the  schools  at  Oxford  one  hundred  and  fifty  pounds.  In 
1619,  he  bestowed  a  large  sum  of  money  on  the  library  of 
Balliol  college ;  he  built  a  conduit  in  the  city  of  Canter^ 
bury ;  in  1624  he  contributed  to  the  founding  of  Pembroke 
college,  OjKford,  and  discharged  a  debt  of  three  hundred 
pounds  owing  from  Balliol  to  Pemb^^  college.  In  1632 
be  gave  oift  hundred  pounds  to  th{|'4|brary  of  Univer- 
sity College,  Oxford,  and  by  will  left  la^e  sums  to  cha- 
ritable purposes. 

His  works  are:  1.  ^' Qusestioues  Sex,  totidem  praelec- 
tionibus  in  Schola  Theologica  Oxonian,  pro  forma  habitis, 
discuss®  et  disceptatsranno  1597,  ia  quibus  e  Sacra  Scrip- 
tura  &  Patribus, ,  quid  statuendum  sit  definitur.*'  Oxon. 
1598,  4to,  &  Francfort,  1616,  4to,  published  by  Abraham 
ficultetus.  2.  '^Exposition  on  the  Prophet  Jonah,  con- 
stained  in  certaine  Sermons,  preached  in  S.  Maries  Church 
in  Oxford,''  4to,  1600.  It  appears  by  a  postscript  to  the 
reader,  that  these  sermons  or  lectures  were  delivered  cmi 
Thursdays  early  .in  the  morning,  *^  sometimes  before  day- 

*  This  character  is  dated  July  10,      William  Rurael  of  Merton  coll.  Oxon. 
17123,    and  was  first  printed  in  the      Gkiildford,  1777,  8vo.  ^ 
*<  Life  of  anhhithop  Abbot,"  by  Mr* 

fiS  A  B  B  0  T. 

light,*'  from  1594  to  1599.    They  were  reprinted 40  Ul^ 
and  form  the  most  popular  of  hh  works.     3.  His  "  Answer 
to  the  questions  of  the  Citizens  of  London  in  Jan^  1600^ 
coneerniDg  Cheapside  Cross,"    not   printed  until    164K 
4;  ^^The  reasons  which  Dr.  Hill  hath  brought  for* the  up^ 
holding  of  Papistry,    unmasked  and  shewed  to  he  very 
weak,  &c."  Oxon.  4to»  1604.     Hill  was  a.  elergyman  of 
the  church  of  England,  which  he  exchanged  , for. ti»t  of 
Rome,  and  wrote  his  ^^  Quatron  of  Reasons"  in  vindication 
of  his  conduct,  printed  at  Antwerp,  4to.  i600.    i.  **  A  Pre^ 
face  to  the  examination  of  George  Sprot," -&c.s  noticed 
before.  '  6.  ^<  Sermon  preached  at  Westminster,  May  26, 
1606,  at  the  fiineral  of  Thomas  eari  of  I>orset,  late  lord 
high  treasurer  of  England^  on  Isaiah  xl.  6;"  4to.    1603. 
t.  "Translation  of  a  part  of  the  New  Testament,"  with 
the  rest  of  the  Oxford  divines,  1611.     8.  ^<  Some  memo- 
rials^  touching' the  Nullity  between  the  earl  of  Essex  and 
his  lady,  pronounced  Sept.  25,  16 IS,  at  Lambeth;  and 
the  difficulties  endured  In  the  same."     To  this  is  added 
^^  some  observable  things  since  Septi.  25,  1619^'  when-  the 
sentence  was  'given  in  the  cause  of  the  earl  of  -Essex,  con- 
tinued unto  the  day  of  the  marriage,  Dec^  26 j  1613," 
which  appears  also  to  have  been  penned  by  his  graee,  or 
by  his  direction;  and  to  it  is  annexed  *^the  speech  in- 
tended to  be  spoken  at  Lambeth,  Sept  25,  1613,  by-  the 
archbishop  of  Canterbury,  &c."     These  were  repriiKted  in 
one  volume,  1719,  12mo,  and  the  MS.  in  the  archbishop's 
hand  was  then  said  toi'be  in  the  bands  of  an  eminent  law- 
yer.     9.  "A*»'brie|  description    of    the    whole    World, 
wherein  is  particularly  described  all  the  monarchies,  em- 
pires, and  kingdoms  of  the  same,  with  their  aicademies," 
&c.  4to.  1617;  a  work,  of  which  th^re  have  been  several 
editions.     10.  ^*  A  short   apology  for  arcbbtsbop  Abbot, 
touching  the  death  of  Peter  Hawkins,  dated  Oct  8,  1621.^* 
11.^^  Treatise  of  perpetual  visibility  aqd  siitecession  -  of  the 
true  Church  in  all  ag^s,"  Lond.  4ta.  1 634 ;  published  with- 
out his  name ;  but  bis  arms,  impaled  ^ith  those  of  Canter- 
'bury,  are  put  before  it.     12.'  ^<  A  narrative  containing  the 
true  cause  of  his  sequestration  and  disgrace  at  Court :  in 
two  parts,  written  at  Ford  in   Kent,"  1627,  printed  in 
Rushworth's  'Historical  Collections,  vol.  L   p.  468— 461, 
and  in  the  Annals  of  king  CJiarles,  p.   213 — 224.     Bp. 
Hacket,  in  his  life  of  Abp.  William^  p.  68,  attests  the  a;U- 
thenticity  of  this  curious  memorial.     13.  ^^  History  of  ^e 
Massacre  in  the  Valtoline,"  printed  in  the  third  volume  of 

A  B  B  Q  T:  « 

Fox^s  Acts  and  Monutnents;^  14.  His-  ^^  Judgment  on 
bowing  at  the  name  of  Jesus^V .  Hamburgh,  8vo.  1632.  la 
1^18,  he  and  sir  Heniy  Savile  defrayed  the  expence  of  an 
edition  of  Bradwardin's  '^  Cause  of  God,"  a  work  written 
against  the  Pelagians  >. 

ABBOT  (GfiOROE),  nephew  of  the  preceding,  and  son 
of  sir  Maurice  Abbot^  the  archbishop's  youngest  brother^ 
was  elected  probationer  fellow  of  Merton  College,  Oxford, 
1624,  and  admitted  LL.  B.  1630.  He  wrote:  1.  <^  The 
whole  book  of  Job  paraphrased,''  Lond.  4to.  1640. 
2.  "  VindicisB  Sabbati,  or  an  answer  to  two  treatises  of  Mr. 
Broad,"  Lond.  1641,  4to.  Broad  was  rector  of  Rend- 
eombe  in  Gloucestershire ;  and  wrote  two  treatises,  one 
concerning  the  Sabbath  or  seventh  day,  and  the  other 
concerning  the  Lofd's  day,  or  first  day  of  the  week;  which 
falling  into  Mr.  Abbot's  hands  in  manuscript,  he  wrote  an 
answer  to  them,  aivd  published  the  whole  under  the  above 
title.  3.  **  Brief  notes  upon  the  whole  book  of  Psalms,'* 
4to,  16il.  He  married  a  daughter  of  col.  Purefoy,  of 
Caldecote^hali,  Warwicksbire,  whose  house  he  gallantly 
defended,  by  the  help  of  the  servants  only,  against  the 
attack  of  the  princes  Rupert  and  Maurice  with  eighteen 
troops  of  horse.     He  died  Feb.  4,  1648,  aged  44  years  ^ 

ABBOT  (MauHice,  or  Morris),  father  of  the  above^ 
and  youngest  brother  of  archbishop- Abbot,  was  bred  up  to 
trade,  became  an  eminent  merchant  iu  London,  and  had 
a  considerable  share  in  the  direction  of  the  af&irs  of  the 
East  India  Company.  He  was  one ,  of  the  commissioners 
employed  in  negociating  a  treaty  with,  the  Dutch  East- In* 
dia  Company,  by  which  the  Moluc(?a  islands,  aiul  the 
domm^ce  to  them^  were  declared  to  be  divided,  two-thirds 
to  the  Dutch  East  India  Company,  and  one-third  to  the 
English.  This  important  treaty,  which  put  an  end  to  the 
Jong  and  violent  disputes  between  the  English  and  Dutch 
East  India  companies,  was  concluded  at  London,  July  7, 
16i9,  and  ratified  by  the  king  on  the  sixteenth  of  the  same 
month.  In  consequence  of  this  treaty,  and  in  order  to  re- 
dover  the  goods  of  some  English  merchants,  sir  Dudley 
Digged  and  Mr.  Abbot  were  sent  over  into  Holland  in  the 
sueceeding  year,  1620,  but  with  what  sucoess  does  not  ap*- 

*  Biog.  Bfjt-^Le  Neye.— Wood's  Athen9.«— Aubrey's.  Surrey.— Godwin  de 
Pnesttlihas  ap.  Richardson.— I^loyd's  State  Worthies. — Several  letters^  speeches 
n  parWament,  &c.  are  in  the  contemporary  historians  and  annalists. 

*  Wood's  AthensBy  and  Nichols's  Hist,  of  Leicestershire,  vol.  IV.  p.  602. 


pe&r.     He  was  afterwards  one  of  the  farmers  of  the  cu^' 
tomsy  as  appears  from  a  commission  granted  in  1623,  to 
him  and  others,  for  administering  the  oaths  to  such  per«: 
sons,  as  should  either  desire  to  pass  the  seas  from  this 
kingdom,  or  to  enter  it  from  foreign  countries.     In  1624, 
he  was  appointed  one  of  the  council  for  settling  and  esta- 
blishing the  colony  of  Virginia,  with  full  powers  for  the 
government  of  that  colony.      On  the  accession   of  king 
Charles  I.  he  was  the  first  person  on  whom  the  order  of 
knighthood  was  conferred,  and  he  was  chosen  to  represent 
the  city  of  London  in  the  first  parliament  of  that  reign. 
In  1627  he  served  the  office  of  Sheriff,  and  in  1738  that  of 
Lord  Mayor.     There  are  no  other  particulars  extant  con- 
cerning him^  unless  the  date  of  his  death,  Jan.'lO,  1640*. 
ABBOT  (Robert),  eldest  brother  to  the  archbishop, 
was  born  also  in  the  town  of  Guildford  in  1 560 ;  educated 
by  the  same  schoolmaster;  and  afterwards  sent  to  Balliol 
college,  Oxford,  in  1575.     In  1582  he  took  his  degree  of 
M*  A.  and  soon  became  a  celebrated  preacher ;  to  which 
talent  he  chiefly  owed  his  preferment.     Upon  his  first  ser* 
moil  at  Worcester,^  he  was  chosen  lecturer  in  that  city,  and 
soon  after  rector  of  All  Saints  in  the  same  place.     John 
Stanhope,  esq.  li^ppening  to  hear  him  preach  at  PauPs 
cross,  was  so  pleased  with  him,  that  he  immediately  pre- 
sented him  to  the  rich  living  of  Bingham  in  Nottingham- 
shire.     In.  1594    he   became   no    less  eminent    for    his 
writings  than  he  had  been  for  his  excellence  in  preaching. 
In  1597  he  took  his  degree  of  D.  D.     In  the  beginning  of 
king  James's  reign  he  was  appointed  chs^lain  in  ordinary 
to  his  majesty ;  who  had  such  an  opinion  of  him  as  a  wri*- 
ter,  that  he  ordered  the  doctor's  book  "  De  Antichristo'* 
to  be  reprinted  with  his  own  commentary  upon  part  of  the 
Apocalypse.     He  had  also  acquired  much  reputation  for  his 
writings  against  Dr.  William  Bishop,  then  a  secular  priest, 
but  afterwards  titular  bishop  of  Chalcedon.     In  1609  he 
was  elected  master  of  Balliol  college;  which  trust  he  dis-^ 
charged  with  the  utmost  care  and  assiduity,  by  his  fre- 
quent lectures  to  the  scholars,  by  his  continual  presence  at 
public  exercises,  and  by  promoting  discipline  in  the  so- 
ciety.    In  May  1610  the  king  nominated  Dr.  Abbot  one  of 
the  fellows  in  the  college  of  Chelsea,  which  had  been 
lately  founded  for  the  encouragement  and  promotion  of 

I  Diog.  Brit. 

ABBOT.  *l' 

polemical  divinity.  lu  November  1 6 10  he  vas  made  pre* 
bendary  of  Normanton  in  the  church  of  Southwell ;  and  in 
1612  his  majesty  appointed  him  regius  professor  of  divinity 
at  Oxford ;  in  which  station  he  acquired  the  character  of  a 
profound  divine,  though  a  more  moderate  .Calvinist  than 
either  of  his  two  predecessors  in  the  divinity-chair^  Hot* 
land  and  Humphrey  :  for  he  countenanced  the  sublapsa* 
rian  tenets  concerning  predestination.  He  was  not,  how- 
ever,  less  an  enemy  to  Dr.  Laud  than  his  brother ;  and  in 
one  of  his  sermons  pointed  at  him  so  directly,  that  Laud 
intended  to  have  taken  some  public  notice  of  it. 

The  fame  of  Dr.  Abbot's  lectures  became  very  great ; 
and  those  which  he  delivered  upon  the  supreme  power  of 
kings  against  Bellarmine  and  Suarez  afforded  the  king  so 
much  satisfaction,  that,  when  the  see  of  Salisbury  became 
vacant,  he  named  him  to  that  bishoprick ;  and  he  was  con« 
secrated  by  bis  own  brother,  the  archbishop  of  Canterbury, 
Dec.  3,  1616.    It  would  appear  that  he  had  enemies  who 
would  have  deferred  his  promotion  for  various  reasons* 
When  he  came  to  do  homage,  the  king  said,  *^  Abbot,  I 
have  had  very  much  to  do  to  make  thee  a  bishop ;  but  I 
know  no  reason  for  it,  unless  it  were  because  thou  hast 
written  against  one,''  alluding  to  Dr.  Bishop  before-men- 
tioned.    In  his  way  to  Salisbury,  he  took  a  solemn  farewell 
of  Oxford,  and  was-  accompanied ^for  some  miles  by  the 
heads  of  houses  and  other  eminent  scholars,  who  deeply 
regretted  his  departure.     On  his  arrival  at  Salisbury  he  be- 
stowed much  attention  on  his  cathedral,  which  had  been 
neglected,  and  ittised  a  considerable  subscription  for  xe- 
pairs.     He  afterwards  visited  the  whole  of  his  diocese,  and 
preached  every  Sunday  while  his  health  permitted,  which 
was  not  long,  .as  the  sedentary-  course  he  had  pursued 
brought  on  the  stone  and  gravel,  which  ended  his  pious 
and   useful  life,    March   2,   1617.     He  had   enjoyed  his 
bishoprick  only  two  years  and  three  months,  and  was  in- 
terred in  the  cathedral.     He  was  twice  married ;  the  last 
time,,  which  is  said  to  have  given  offence  to  his  brother  the 
archbishop,  about  half  a  year  after  his  promotion  to  the 
see.     The  lady,  whose  name  seems  to  have  escaped  the 
researches  of  his  biographers,  was  Bridget  Cheynell,  wi« 
dow,  and  mother  of  the  famous  Francis  Cheynell.     By  his 
first  wife-  he  left  one  son,  or  more,  and  a  daughter  who  was 
married  to  sir  Nathaniel  Brent,  warden  of  Merton  college. 
All  his  biographers  concur  in  the  excellence  of  his  charac** 

3j2  A  B  B  O  T. 

ter,  his  eminent  piety,  charity,  and  learning.  One  of  them 
has  attempted  a  parallel  between  the  two  brothers,  viz. 
that  "  George  was  the  more  plausible  preacher,  Robert 
the  greater  scholar ;  George  the  abler  statesman,  Robeit 
the  deeper  divine ;  gravity  did  frown  in  George,  and  smile 
iD  Robert*" 

A  few  paritculars  hitherto  unnoticed  by  his  biographers 
may  be  gleaned  from  Wood's  Annals,  published  by  Mr. 
Gutch.  It  appears  that  in  1596  the  corporation  of  London 
requested  the  two  universities  to  send  them  a  list  of  per- 
sons properly  qualified  for  the  professorships  of  Gresham 
college,  just  founded.  On  this  occasion  Mr.  Abbot,  then 
M.  A.  of  Balliol  college,  was  chosen  with  three  others,  but 
the  election  ultimately  fell  upon  a  gentleman  of  Cam- 
bridge.— in  1612,  Dr.  John  Howson,  dne  of  the  canons  of 
Christ  church,  preaching  at  St.  Mary's,  reflected  on  the 
annotations  to  the  Geneva  translation  of  the  Bible,  ^'as 
guilty  of  misrepresenting  the  divinity  of  Christ  and  hia 
Messiahship."  For  this  he  was  afterwards  suspended,  or 
forped  to  recant,  by  Dr.  Abbot,  then  pro-vicechaucellor. 
Wood  tihinks  this  the  more  hard,  because  king  James  had 
been  known  to  censure  the  partiality  of  these  annotations, 
r— While  king's  professor  of  Divinity,  he  had  neither  the 
Canonry  of  Christ  church,  nor  the  rectory  of  Ewelme 
usually  annexed ;  and  his  only  profits  were  some  fees  from 
those  who  performed  exercises  in  divinity,  and  a  salary  of 
forty  pounds  a-year  paid  by  the  dean  and  canons  of  Christ 
church. — ^In  dislike  to  Laud,  as  already  noticed,  be  shared 
amply  with  his  brother ;  but  Wood's  account  of  the  sermon 
be  preached  against  him  is  more  particular  than  that  in  the 
Biographia,  and  throws  some  light  on  the  controversies  as 
well  as  the  manners  of  the  times.  "  On  Shrove  Sunday 
towards  the  latter  end  of  this  year  (1614),  it  happened  that 
Dr.  Laud  preached  at  St  Mary's,  and  in  his  sermon  in- 
sisted on  some  points  which  might  indifferently  be  imputed 
either  to  Popery  or  Arminianism  (as  about  this  time  they 
began  to  call  it),,  though  in  themselves  they  were  by  some 
thought  to  be  no  other  than  the  true  doctrines  of  the 
Church  of  England.  And  having  occasion  in  that  sermon 
to  touch  upon  the  Presbyterians  and  their  proceedings,  he 
used  some  words  to  this  effect,  viz.  *  that  the  Presbyte- 
rians were  as  bad  as  the  Papists.*  Which  being  directly 
contrary  to  the  judgment  and  opinion  of  Dr.  Robert  Abbot, 
the  king's  professor  of  Divinity,  and  knowing  how  much 


Dr.  Laud  bad  been  distasted  by  his  brother  when  be  lived 
in  Oxford,  coDcei?ed  he  could  not  better  satisfy  himself 
and  oblige  his  brother,  now  archbishop  of  Canterbury^ 
than  by  exposing  him  (on  the  next  occasion)  both  to  shame 
and  ceiJsure,  which  he  did  accordingly.     For  preaching  at 
St.  Peter's  in  the  East  upon  Easter-day  (1615)  in  the  after- 
noon, in  the  turn  of  the  vicechancellor,  be  pointed  at  him 
so  directly,  that  none  of  the  auditors  were  so  ignorant  a$ 
hot  to  know  at  whom  he  aimed.     Dr.  Laud,  being  not 
present  at  the  first  preaching  of  the  sermon,  was  by  his 
friends  persuaded  to  shew  himself  at  St.  Mary's  the  Sunday 
after,  when  it  shoidd  come  to  be  repeated  (according  tp 
the  ancient  custom  in  this  university) ;  to  whose  persuasions 
giving  an  unwilling  consent,  he  heard  himself  sniBciently 
abused  for  almost  an  hour  together,  and  that  so  palpably 
and  grossly,  that  he  was  pointed  to  as  he  sate."     It  ap- 
pears that  Laud  consulted  his  patron.  Dr.  Neal,  bishop  of 
Lincoln,  who  probably  dissuaded  him  from  taking  any  no-^^ 
tice  of  the  matter,  as  we  do  not  find  that  he  wrote  any 
answer,  or  vindication. 

Bishop  Abbot's  works  are:  1.  *^The  mirror  of  Popish 
Subtleties,"  Lond.  4to,  1594.     2.  <<  The  exaltation  of  the 
kingdom  and  priesthood  of  Christ,"  sermons  on  the  first 
seven  verses  of  the  1 10th  Psalm,  4to,  Lond.  1601.    3.  <<  An- 
tichristi  demonstratio,    contra  fabulas  Pontificias,    et  in- 
eptam   Rob.  Bellarmini    de  Antichristo    disputationem,-'* 
Lond.  4to,  1603,  8vo,  1608,  a  work  much  conmiended  by 
Scaliger.     4.  **  Defence  of  the  reformed  Catholic  of  Mr. 
W.  Perkins,  agskirist  the  bastard  counter- Catholic  of  Dr. 
William   Bishop,    seminary  priest,"  in  three   parts,    4to» 
1606,   1607,  1609.     5.  "The  Old  Way;  a  sermon  at  St. 
Mary's,  Oxon."  4to,  Lond.  1610.     This  was  translated  into 
Latin  by  Thomas  Drax.     6.  "  The  true  ancient  Roman 
Catholic ;  being  an  apblogy  against  Dr.  Bishop's  reproof 
of  the  defence  of  the  reformed  Catholic,"  4to,  1611.     This 
work  was  dedicated  to  pHnee  Henry,  \#ho  returned  the 
author  thanfks  in  a  letter  written  vr ith  his  own  band ;  a  cir- 
cumstance which  seems  to  have  escaped  Dr.  Birch  in  his 
life  of  ihat  prince.     7.  ^^Antilogia;  adversus  apologiam 
AndresB  EudsBmon-Johannis,   Jesuitse,  pro  Henrico  Gar* 
netto  Jesuita  proditore;"    Lond.   4to.    1613.     The  true 
ToJBe  of  the  apologist  was  Isaac  Casaubotv     8.  ^'  De  gratia 
et  perseinerantia  San^ctorum,  Exercitationes  habit®  in  .Aca- 
demics Oiion."  Loud«.  4to»  1618;   Francfort,  8yo,  1619. 
Yot^L  D 

^4  A  B  B  O  1"., 

9.  "Iq  Ricardi  Thomsoni  Angli-Belgici  diatribam)'  ie 
amissione  et  intercessione  justificationis  et  gratiae,  animad^ 
versio  brevis."  Lond.  4to,  1618.  Thomson  was  a  Dutch-» 
rmfij  born  of  English  parents,  and  educated  at  Clarehall^ 
Cambridge.  Our  author  finished  this  book  on  the  last  day. 
of  his  life,  and  it  was  published  by  his  brother  the  arch-i' 
bishop  and  Dr.  Featley  his  chaplain.  10.  "  De  Suprema 
Potestate  Regia,  exercitationes  habitas  in  Academic  Ox-* 
oniensi,  contra  Rob.  Bellarminum  et  Franeiscum  Suarez/* 
LQnd/4to^  1619,  also  a  posthumous  publication.  He  left 
behind  him  various  sermons  in  manuscript,  lectures  on  St. 
Matihew,  and  commentaries  on  some  parts  of  the  Old  and 
New  Testament,  particularly  a  commentary  in  Latin  upon 
the  whole  epistle  to  the  Romans,  in  four  folio  volumes, 
which  was  given  to  the  Bodleian  library  by  Dr.  Edward 
Corbet,  rector  of  Haseley  in  Oxfordshire^  his  grandson  by 
bis  only  daughter  the  wife  of  sir  Nathaniel  Brent*. 

ABBOT  (Robert),  a  clergyman  of  the  Church  of  Eng- 
land, but  whether  belonging  to  the  archbishop's  family  is 
uncertain,  was  originally  of  the  university  of  Cambridge^ 
and  was  incorporated  master  jof  arts  of  Oxford,  July 
14,  1607*  He  was  afterwards  vicar  of  Cranbrooke  in 
Kent,  and  minister  of  Southwick  in  Hampshire.  Whenr 
Ephraim  Udall^  the  lawful  rector  of  St.  Augustine's,  Wat- 
ling-street,  was  sequestered  by  authority  of  the  House  of 
Commons  in  1643,  the  living  was  given  to  Mr.  Abbot, 
which  he  enjoyed  until  his  death,  at  a  very  advanced  age, 
in  1653.  He  published  "  Four  Sermons,"  8vo,  Lond.  1639, 
dedicated  to  Curie,  bishop  oi  Winchester,  who  had  been 
bis  patron  ;.  and  some  other  single  sermons,  a  small  cate- 
chism, &c. 

There  was  about  the  same  time  a  Robert  Abbot  of  Hat- 
field, mentioned  by  Dr.  Pulteney,  as  a  learned  preacher, 
;ind  an  excellent  and  diligent  herbalist,  who  assisted  the 
celebrated  Johnson  in  his  works  ^ 

ABBT  (Thomas),  a  German  writer  of  high  character,, 
was  born  Nov.  25, 1738,  at  Ulm,  where  he  received  his  edu- 
cation, and  in  1751  produced  his  first  dissertation,  under 
the  title  of  ^'  Hist«ria  vitae  magistra,''  in  which  he  main* 

1  Biog.  Brit, — Clarke's  Ecclesiastical  History,  p.  444.  — Lapton's  Moderp 
Divines^  p.  311.— .Fuller'8  Worthies,  and  Abel  Redivivas.— Aifaen.  Oxon.  I.  430, 
725.— Stiype's  Whitgifk,  486.— Featley's  Life  of  him.-^Wood'a  Annals,  vok  II. 

^  Wood's  Fasti,  X9\,  I.  177.  —  Malcolm's  History  of  London.'^ Pulteney '« 

A  B  B  T.  %S 

tained  two  theses^  the  one  on  burning  mirrors,  the  other  on 
the  niiracle  of  the  dial  of  Ahaz.  In  1756,  he  went  to  the 
university  of  Halle,  where  he  was  invited  by  professor 
Bauoigarten  to  live  in  his  bouse.  Here  he  published  a 
thesis  **De  Extasi,"  and  studied  chiefly  philosophy  and 
the  mathematics;  and  from  1758,  when  he  received  the 
degrecKof  M.  A.  he  confined  himself  to  these,  giving' up 
divinity,  to  which  he  had  been  originally  destined.  Id 
1760,  he  was  appointed  professor- extraordinary  of  philos6- 
phy  in  the  university  of  Francfort-on-the-Oder,^  and  in  the 
midst  of  the  war  which  then  raged,  inspirited  his  fellow- 
citizens  by  a  work  on  "  Dying  for  our  Country.''  In  the 
following  year,  he  passed  six  months  at  Berlin,  and  left 
that  city  to  fill  the  mathematical  chair  in  the  university  of 
Rinteln,  in  Westphalia ;  but,  becoming  tired*  of  an  acade- 
mical life,  began  to  study  law,  as  an  introduction  to  somd 
civil  employment.  ^In  1763,  he  travelled  through  the 
south  of  Germany,  Switzerland,  and  part  of  France ;  and, 
on  his  return  to  Rinteln,  at  the  end  of  that  year,  published 
his  work  "  On  Merit,"  which  was  re-printed  thrice  in  that 
place,  and  obtained  him  much  reputation.  In  1765,  the. 
reigning  prince  of  Schaumburg  Lippe  bestowed  on  him 
the  office  of  counsellor  of  the  court,  regency,  and  consistory 
of  Buckeburgh ;  but  he  did  not  long  enjoy  the  friendship 
of  this  nobleman,  or  his  promotion,  as  he  died  Nov.  27^ 
1766,  when  only  in  his  twenty-eighth  year.  The  prince 
caused  him  to  be  interred,  with  great  pomp,  in  his  private 
chapel,  and  honoured  his  tomb  by  an  affecting  epitaph 
from  his  own  pen.  Abbt  was  highly  esteemed  by  bis  con- 
temporaries, who  seem  agreed  that,  if  his  life  had  beea^ 
spared,  he  would  have  ranked  among  the  first  Germaa 
writers.  He  contributed  much  to  restore  the  purity  of  the 
language,  which  had  become  debased  before  his  time,  as 
the  Germans,  discouraged  by  the  disastrous  thirty  yeaff 
war,  had  written  very  little,  unless  in  French  or  Ljitin.    * 

Besides  what  we  have  mentioned,  Abbt  wrote  a  great 
number  of  works  in  Germaa  or  Latin.  His  first  publica- 
tions were  theological :  in  1757,  he  wrote  on  **  the  Burial 
of  Moses,'*  Halle,  4to,  which,  contrary  to  the  usual  opi- 
nion, he  contended  was  performed  by  men.  In  1758,;  he 
published  a  thesis,  to  prove  that  the  "  Confusion  of  Tongues 
at  Babel  was  not  a  punishment,'*  Halle,  4to ;  and  another 
oh  the  «  Search  of  Truth,"  Halle,  1759;  4ta  These  ap- 
pear to  have  been  the  efforts  of  a  young  author  endearbur* 

U  A  B  B  T. 

ihg  io  jbstablish  a  repqtation  on  paradox.  After  he  had 
Begiki  to  sttidy  philosophy,,  he  published  a  thesis  on  the 
'roper  9ianner  of  studying  that  science,  Halle,  1760,  4to. 
U  ^^  Treatise  oh  the  influence  of  the  Beautiful  on 
crepce,^*  Rintein,  1762,  4to,  was  intended  as  an  introduc- 

! Ion  to  his  lectures  on  the  belles-lettres.     He  next  pub* 
bhed  a  "  l^rogramma  on  the  difficulty  of  measuring  the 
jEIunian  Eaculties,*'  Rintelh,  1763,  4to;  and  a  ^^Consola- 
iory  Epistle,  to  Dr.  Schwartz,"   1763,  8vo.     His  work  en- 
titled   "Recherches    sur    les   Sentiments   Moraux,    tra- 
ibiites  de  l*Allemand  de  M.  Moses  Mendelsohn,*'  1763, 
i2mo,  wa^  the  only  book  he  wrote  in  French.     He  wrote 
jilso  a  ^^Life  of  his  old  friend  professor  Baumgarten,** 
1765,  Halle,  4to,  which  was  re-printed   in  the  Rintein 
Literary  Journal.     An  anonymous  work,   which  has  the 
jdate  of  Hai;nburgh  1766,  8vo,  but  was  really  printed  at 
Berlin^  the  subject,  the  "  folly  of  persecution  among  Pro- 
tests^its,"  is  ascribed  to  him.     ''  Reflections  on  a  plan  of 
^tudy  for  young  men  of  rank,"  was  written  by  him  in  1759^ 
.but  pot  printed  .till  after  his  death,    in  1767;  and  re- 
printed at  Berlin  1780.     He  had  besun  an  universal  his- 
.torj^,  a  fragment  of  which  was  puhlished  by  Miller,   at 
,Hahe,  1767,  8vo.     After  his  death,  the  count  de  la  Lippe 
published  a  translation  of  the  Catiline   conspiracy  from 
^Sallust,.  written  by  Abht,  and  esteemed  one  of  his  best 
productions,  Stadtbagen,  1767,  8vo;   but  it  must  not  be 
.confounded  with  a  translation  of  the  same  author  published 
^.t  Lemgow,  1772,  under  his  name.     His  reputation  was 
such,  that  there  have  appeared  two  surreptitious  editions 
,Qf  his  works,  at  Reutlingen  in  1782,  and  at  Frankfort  in 
.1783;  but  the  genuine  edition  is  that  of  Nicolai,  6  vols. 
Stetin  and  Berlin,  in  1768,  1781,  and  1790,  which  con- 
tains many  pieces  not  before  printed^   His  correspondence 
with :  Blum,    Gause,   Gleim,   Klotz,   Moses  Mendelsohn, 
jNi^olai^  and  others,  contained   in  this  edition,  was  re- 
printed by  itself  at  Berlin  and  Stetin  in  1782,  8vo.     Be-^ 
sides  these^  thejre  are.  several  papers,  on  various  subjects, 
written  by  Abbt,  in  the  German  literary  journals,  particu- 
.  liLtly  that  conducted  by  Lessing^  and  Moses  Mendelsoba. 
.  AU>t^.s  life  was  written  by  Frederic  Nicolai,  and  published 
at  Berlin  1.767,'  4to.' 

ABDIAS^  a  nam^  admitted  into  various  biographical 
^  €olIectioQS|  without  much  propriety.    It  has  usucdlj  beea 

A  B  D  I  A  S.  II 

yaid  that  Abdias  was  an  impostor^  who  pretended  that  he 
had  seen  our  Saviour,  that  he  was  one  of  the  seventy-two 
disciples,  had  been  an  eye-witness  of  the  lives  a^d  martyr- 
dom of  several, of  the  apostles,  and  had  followed  St.  Simon 
and  St.  Jude  into  Persia,  where  he  was  made  the  first 
bishop  of  Babylon.  From  what  he  saw,  he  compiled  a 
work  entitled  "  Historia  certaminis  Apostolici/*  This 
work  Wolfgang  Lazius,  a  physician  of  Vienna,  and  histo- 
riographer to  the  emperor  Ferdinand  I.  (hereafter  noticed) 
found  in  manuscript  in  a  cave  of  Carinthia,  and  belieting 
it  to  be  genuine,  originally  written  in  Hebrew,  tratislated 
into  Greek  by  one  Europius,  a  disciple  of  Abdias,'  and 
into  X'atin  by  African  us,  published  it  at  Basil  in  1551^ 
after  which  it  was.  several  times  reprinted,  but^  on.exftmin-? 
ation  both  by  Papist  and  Protestant  writers,  was  sbon  dis- 
covered to  be  a  gross  imposture,  from  the  many  ana- 
chronisms which  occur.  Melancthon,  who  saw  it  in  ma- 
nuscript, was,  one  of  the  first  to  detect  it ;  and  the  greater 
part  of  the  learned  men  in  Europe,  at  the  time  of  publican 
tion,  were  of  opinion  that  Abdias  was  a  fictitious  person- 
age, and  that  it  was  neither  written  in  Hebrew,  not*  trans- 
lated into  Greek  or  Latin :  Fabricius  had  proved  from  in- 
ternal evidence  that  it  was  first  written  in  Latin,  but  that 
the  author  borrowed  from  various  ancient  ipemoirs,  which 
were  originally  in  Greek.  As  to  the  age  of  the  writer, 
some  have  placed  him  in  the  fifth  and,  some  in  the  sixth 
century,  or  later.  The  object  of  the  work  is  to  recom- 
mend chastity  and  celibacy  ^ 

ABDOLLATIPH,  an  eminent  Persian  historian  and 
philosopher,  was  born  at  Bagdad,  in  the  557th  year  o!f 
the  Hegira,  or  the  1161st  of  the  Christian  aerai  Having 
been  educated  with  the  greatest  care  by  his  father,  who 
was  himself  a  man  of  learning,  and  resided  in  a  capital 
which  abounded  with  the  best  opportunities  of  instruction, 
he  distinguished  himself  by  an  early  proficiency,  not  only 
in  rhetoric,  history,  and  poetry,  but  also  in  the  more  se- 
vere studies  of  Mahommedan  theology.  To  the  acqui$ition 
of  medical  knowledge  he  applied  with  peculiar  diligence  ; 
and  it  was  chie6y  with  this  view  that  he  left  Bagdad,  in  his 
28th  year,  in  order  to  visit  other  countries.  At  Mosul,  in 
Mesopotamia,  whither  he  first  directed  his  course,  he  found 
the  attention  of  the  students  entirely  confined  to  the  cbe- 

1  Ifabricii  BibL  Craec.—- Saxii  OnoaDattioon.— Bayle  in  Gen.  Dict.-*-CaTt, 
ia(,L$X»  Ute  Uit  «cca)»Qt  !•  itt  CbAufepie,  Diet.  HiiU 

38  A  B  D  O  L  LA  T  I  P  H* 

ipistry  of  that  day,  with  which  he  was  already  sufficientljr 
acquainted.  He  therefore  removed  to  Damascus,  where 
the  grammarian  Al  Kindi  then  enjoyed  the  highest  reputa- 
tion ;,.abd  with  him  AbdoUatiph  is  said  to  have  engaged  in 
a  controversy  on  some  subjects  of  grammar  and  philology, 
TV'hich  was  ably  conducted  on  both  sides,  but  terminated  in 
favour  of  oiir  author. 

At  this  time  Egypt  had  yielded  to  the  arms  of  Saladin, 
who  was  marching  against  Palestine  for  the  purpose  of 
wresting  that  country  from  the  hands  of  the  Christians; 
yet  towards  Egypt  AbdoUatiph  was  irresistibly  impelled 
by  that  literary  curiosity  which  so  strongly  marked  his  cha- 
racter. The  defeat,  however,  of  the  Saracens  by  tha 
English  king  Richard,  had  plunged  the  Sultan  into  melan* 
cboly,  and  prevented  our  traveller  from  being  admitted 
into  his  presence  ;  biit  the  favours  which  he  received 
fBvinced^the  munificence  of  Saladin,  and  he  pursued  his 
purpose,  visiting  Cairo,  where  his  talents  procured  him  a 
welcome  reception.  From  this  he  withdrew,  in  order  to 
present  himself  before  the  Sultan,  who,  having  concluded 
a  truce  with  the  Franks,  then  resided  in  Jerusalem.  Here 
he  was  received  by  Saladin  with  every  expression  of 
esteem,  and  Saladin  granted  him  a  liberal  pension,  which 
was  increased  by  his  son  and  successor,  till  the  unnatural 
ambition  of  his  uncle  forced  him  from  the  throne  of  Egypt 
and  of  Syria;  and  thus  our  traveller  was  compelled  to  re- 
sort again  to  Damascus,  after  a  ishort  abode  at  Jerusalem : 
where  bis  qral  lectures,^  and  his  written  treatises,  were 
equally  the  objects  of  general  admii'ation.  At  Damascus 
he  di^tiniguisbed  bimseli  chiefly  by  his  medical  skill  and 
knowledge  ;  but  nothing  could  detain  him  froih  travelling 
in  pursuit  of  higher  improygment,  and  on  this  account,  he 
left  Damsiscus,  and  after  having  visited  Aleppo,  resided 
several  yiears  in  Greece.  With  3ie  same  view  he  travelled 
through  Syria,  Armenia,  and  Asia  Minor,  still  adding  tb 
the  number  of  his  wqrks,  many  of  which  he  dedicated  to 
the  princes  whbs^  courts  he  visited.  After  this,  sentiments 
of  devotion  induced  hipi  to  undertake  a  pilgrimage  to 
IVlecca;  but  h«  first  determined  to  pay  a  visit  to  his  native 
country,  and  had  scarcely  reached  Bagdad,  when  he  was 
suddenly  attacked  by  a  distemper,  of  which  he  died,  A.  !Q, 
1223,  in  the  63d  year  of  his  age.  * 

Of  one  hundred  and  fifty  treatises,  on  various  subjects 
of  medicine^  naturs^l  philosophy,  and  polite  literature,  which 


kave  been  ascribed  to  AbdoUatipb,  on^  only  is  to  be'fouijd 
ia  the  libraries  of  Europe.  It  is  entitled  "  Al-kital  At- 
sagir,"  or  his  *'  Little  Book,"  being  an  abridgment  of  a 
larger  history  of  Egypt,  Of  this  compendium,  one  manu* 
script  only  has  yet  been  discovered  by  the  industry  of  Eu- 
ropean scholars,  and  is  now  in  the  Bodleian  library.  An 
edition  of  it  was  published  in  1 800,.  by  professor  White  of 
Oxford  (from  whose  preface  the  abpve  particulars  hava 
been  taken),  enriched  with  valuable  notes,  and  a  translsilion 
into  Latin.  A  very  learnjed  account  and  criticism  on  this 
work  appieared  in  the  Monthly  Review  for  April  1802.> 

ABEILLE  (Gabpar)  was  born  at  Riez  in  Provence,  in 
1648.  He  removed  to  Paris  early  in  life,  where  he  was 
much  admired  for  the  brilliancy  of  his  wit^  The  mare- 
ci^.de  Luxembourg  took  notice  of  him,  and  gave  him, 
the  title  of  his  secretary ;  and  the  poet,  followed  the  hero 
in  his  caitipaigns»  The  marshal  gave  him  his  confi- 
dence during  his  hfe,  and  at  his  death  recommended  him 
to  his  heirs  as  an  estimable  man.  The  prince  of  Conti  and 
the  duke  de  YeAdome  vouchsafed  him  their  familiarity,  and 
found  great  pleasure  in  his  lively  and  animated  conversa- 
tion. The  witticismsv  which  would  have  been,  comppn  in 
the  mouth  of  any  other  man,- were  rendered  striking  in  hint 
by  the  turn  he  gave  them,  and  by  the  grimacies  with  whieh 
he  accQmpanied  them.  A  countenance  remarkably  ugly 
and  full  of  wrinkles,  which  he  managed  at  pleasure^  stood 
him  instead  of  a  variety  of  masks.  Whenever  he  read  a 
tale  or  a  comedy,  he  made  a  ludicrons  ufee  of 'this  move* 
able  physiognomy  for  distinguishing  the  personages  of  the 
piece  he  was  reciting.  The  abb6  Abeille  enjoyed  a  priory, 
and  a  place  in  the  French  academy.  We  have  of  him 
somes  odes,  some  epistles,  several  tragedies,  :one  comedy, 
and  two  operas.  A  certain  prince  observed  of  his  tragedy 
pf  Cato,  tl)at,  if  Cato  of  Utica  should  return  from  the 
grave,  be  would. be  only  the  Oato  of  the  abbe  AbeiHeb 
He  understood  well  enough  what  was  necessary  to  the  forf 
snation  of  a  good  poet;  but  he  was  not  one  hiiQsdf*  His 
*tyle  ia.  feeble,  low,  and  languid.  In  bis  versification  he 
discovers  none  qf  that  dignity  he  had  in  his  charaoter.  He  Raris,  the  2l8t  of  May,;  1718.  A  French  critic, 
speaking  of  the  two  tragedies,  Solyman  and  Hercules, 
Written  by  JeaiVjuvenon  de  la  TbulUerie,  says,  the  reader 
will  be  able  to,  judge  of  their  merit,  when  he  is  infori«ed 
|)i4t.they  were  attributed  to  the- Abbe  Abeille*.      ' 

.  •      •  I  Diet.  Hist.  .X6}0.     .  •  •     '    ••     •  ' 


ABEILLE  (Scipio),  brothei"  of  the  preceding^  was  «li« 
born  at  Riez,  and  became  a  surgeoii  and  medical  writer  of 
CODsiderayble  eminence.  His  publications  are:  1.  '^  His^ 
toine  des  Os/'  Paris,  1685,  l2mo.  2.  <^  Traits  des  places 
d^Arqiuebusades/'  Paris,  1696,  12mo.  3.  ^<  Le  parfait 
Chirurgien  d'arm^e,'^  1696,  12mo,  reckoned  his  most  use** 
ful  work.  He  wrote  also  some  poetry.  He  died  Nov.  9, 
1697,  leaving  a  son  who  wrote  two  unsuccessful  dramas  ^ 

ABEILLE  (Louis  Paul)  was  born  at  Toulouse,  June  2, 
}7I9 ;  and  died  at  Paris,  July  28,  1807.  He  was  formerly 
inspector  general  of  the  manuiactures  of  France,  and  se* 
caretary  to  the  council  of  trade.  He  wrote :  1.  ^^  Corps 
d^observiUions  .de  la  Society  d' Agriculture,  de  Commerce, 
et  des  Arts,  etablie  par  les  Etats  de  Bretagne,"  Rennes, 
1761,  8vo.  *^  PoBcipes  sur  la  liberte  du  Commerce  des 
Grains,"  Paris,  1768,  Svo.  He  also  published  ^^Obser- 
vations sur  PHistoire  Naturelle  de  Buffon,"  written  by  M. 
Malesberbes,  with  a  preface  and  notes,  Paris,  1796,  2 
vols.  8vb*. 

'  ABEL  (Caspar),  a  native  of  Halberstadt,  and  an  emU 
nent  historian  of  the  last  century,  born  at  Hpdeuburg  in 
1676,  published  in  1710  the  history  of  Prussia  and  Bran* 
denburg,  ^<  Preussische  und  Brandisburgische  Staats-His«> 
tone,'*  Leipsic,  8vo;  in  1714,  some  favourite  satires;  and, 
in  1715,  a  work  of  far  more  utility  and  importance,  ^^  His- 
toria  Monarchiarnm  orbis  aptiqui,''  Leipsic,  Svo ;  a  Greek 
Archaeology,  1738  ;  and  a  translation  of  Boileau.  He  died 
ftt  Westdorf  in  1763». 

ABEL  (Frederick  Gottfried),  a  physician,  assessor 
p(  the  College  of  Physicians,  and  member  of  the  Lite* 
Viary  Society  at  Halberstadt,  the  son  of  the  preceding  Gas- 
per, was  born  July  8,  1714.  In  1731,  he  commenced  his 
theological  studies  at  Halberstadt,  Qiider  the  celebrated 
lilosheim,  and  a  year  after  removed  to  Halle,  where  he 
Attended  the  lectures  of  Wolfe  and  Baumgarten,  and^ft^ 
preached  with  much  applause.  In  a  few  years,  however, 
be  gave  up  his  theological  pursuits,  studied  medicine,  and 
in  1744  was  admitted  to. the  degree  of  doctor  at  Konigs<- 
)>erg.  On  his  return  to  Halberstadt,  he  practised  as  a  pby- 
liician  above  half  a  century,  and  died  Nov.  23,  1794.  He 
is  said  to  have  been  uncommonly  successful  in  practice, 
yet  had  very  little  faith  in  medicine,  and  always  prescribed 
Buch  remedies  as  were  cheap  and  common.  Probity,  mo- 
desty, and  humanity,  were  the  most  striking  features  in 

4  Diet  Hist  1810.    «  Ibid.    <  Suii\OiioiiUEt*^iograpkit  UnhrtnsUe^  181U 

ABEL.  4t 

hh  diaracter.    While  studying  medicine  at  Halle,  he  did 
^  not  neglect  polite  literature.  He  made  some  poetical  traps- 
lations,  particularly  one  of  JuvcHial  into  German,  which  he 
published  in  178S'. 

ABEL  (Charles  Frederick),  an  eminent  musician,  was 
a  native  of  Germany,  and  a  disciple  of  Sebastian  Bach. 
During  nearly  ten  years  he  was  in  the  band  of  the  electoral 
king  ci*  Poland  at  Dresden ;  but  the  calamities  of  war  hav- 
ing reduced  that  court  to  a  close  oeconomy,  he  left  Dres- 
den- in  1758,  widi  only  three  dollars  in  his  pocket,  and 
proceeded  to  the  next  little  German  capital,  ^here  his 
talents  procured  a  temporary  supply.     In   1759  he  made 
his  way  to  England,  where  he  soon  obtained  notice  and 
reward*     He  was  first  patronized  by  the  duk^  of  York: 
and  on  the  formation  of  her  present  majesty^s  band,  was 
appointed  chamber*musician  to  her  majesty,  with  a  salary 
of  <£.200  per  annum.     In  1763,  in  conjunction  with  John 
Christian  Bach,  he  established  a  weekly  concert  by  sub- 
scription, which  was  well  supported ;  and  he  had  as  mtoy 
private  pupils  as  he  chose  to  teach.     Abel  performed  on 
several  instruments ;  but  that  to  which  he  chiefly  attached 
himself  was  the  viol  da  gamba^  an  instrument  growing  out 
of  fashion,  and  now  veVy  little  used.     His  hand  was  that  oi 
a  perfect  master. 

Dr.  Burney  gives  the  following  character  of  his  composi- 
tions and  performance.  ''  His  compositions  were  easy  and 
elegantly  simple  ;  for  he  used  to  say,  ^  I  do  not  choose  to 
he  always  struggling  with  difficulties,  and  playing  with  ail 
my  niight.  I  make  my  pieces  difficult  whenever  I  please, 
according  to  my  disposition,  and  that  of  my  audience.'  Yet 
hi  nothing  was  he  so  superior  to  himself,  and  to  other  musi- 
cians, as  in  writing  and  playing  an  adagio;  in  which  the  most 
pleasing,  yet  learned  modulation,  the  richest  harmony, 
and  the  most  elegant  and  polished  melody,  were  all  ex- 
pressed with^uch  feeling,  taste,  and  science,  that  no  musical 
production  or  performance  with  which  I  was  then  acquainted^ 
seemed  to  approach  nearer  perfection.  The  knowledge 
Abel  had  acquired  in  Germany  in  every  part  of  musical 
science,  rendered  him  the  umpire  of  all  musical  controver- 
sies, and  caused  hhu  to  be  consulted  in  all  difficult  points* 
ilis  concertos  and  other  pieces  were  very  popular,  and 
.were  frequently  played  on  public  occasions.  The  taste  and 

)  Biofra^hieUnitcrteUe*  181  U—Pict.  Biiit  1810. 

43  A  B  j;  L. 

science  of  Abel  were  rather  greater  than  bis  inventiobj  0a 
that  some  of  his  later  productions,  compared  with  those  of 
younger  composers,  appeared  somewhat  languid  and  mo- 
notonous. Yet  he  preserved  a  high  reputation  in  the  pro* 
fession  till  his  death." 

Abel  was  a  man  who  well  knew  the  world,  and  kept  on 
tolerable  terms  with  society,  though  a  natural  irascibility, 
and  disposition  to  say  strong  things,  sometimes  rendered 
him  overbearing  and  insolent  in  company.  His  greatest 
failing  was  a  love  of  the  bottle,  in  which  he  indulged  to  a 
degree  that  .probably  shortened  his  life.  He  died  in  Lon-* 
don,  June  20,  1787  >. 

ABEL  (Thomas).     See  ABLE. 

ABELA  (John  Francis),  the  historian  of  Malta ;  bom 
in  that  ilsand  about  the  end  of  the  sixteenth  century,  de- 
scended from  an  illustrious  family,  which  became  extinct 
on  his  death.  He  entered  of  the  order  of  the  knights  of 
Jerusalem,  and  distinguished  himself  so  as  to  attain,  before' 
1602,  the  title  of  vicQ-chancellor,  and,  at  last,  that  of  com-- 
mander.  He  is  principally  known  by  a  very  'rare  and  curi-r 
ous  work,  entitled,  "Malta  illustrata,.ovvero  della  descri- 
zioiie  di  Malta,  con  le  sue  antichitsl,  ed  altre  notizie,'* 
Malta,  1647,  fol.  In  this  volume  the  author  has  displayed 
great  learning,  and  has  accumulated  a  fund  of  information 
on  every  part  of  the  history  of  his  country.  It  is  divided 
into  four  books,  comprehending  the  topography  and  actual 
state  of  the  island  of  JMalta,  its  antient  history,  churches, 
convents,  and  an  account  of  the  grand  masters,  and  most 
.distinguished  families  and  individuals.  A  few  partieulars 
of  his  life  are  incidentally  noticed,  by  which  it  appears  that 
he  bad  travelled  over  the  greatest  pai^t  of  Europe,  in  quest 
of  antient  books  and  remains  of  antiquity,  and  corre-r 
sponded  with  the  most  eminent  scholars  of  his  time,  as 
Gualteri,  Holstein,  and  Peiresc.  This  history,  which  he 
wrote  when  considerably  advanced  in  life,  was  transr 
lated  into  Latin  by  John  Anthony  Seiner,  with  a  short  pre* 
face,  first  published  separately,  and  afterwards,  in  1725„ 
printed  in  the  15th  volume  of  Grsevius'  "ThesaiHrus  anti- 
quitatum  et  historiarum  Siciliss.''  Bm*mann,  in  hia  preface 
to  the  1. 1th  voltime  of  that  Thesaurus,  blames  Abela  for 
admitting  some  fabulous  traditions;  but  adds,  that  this 
little  defect  is  mpre  than  compensated  by  his  great  leatningf» 

I  Burney>9  Hist  of  Hmc,  vol  IV.       ^  Biographic  UaiverieUe,  18; U 


A  B  E  L  A  R  ]>.  4S 

ihe  son  of  Berenger,  of  noble  descent,  was  born  at  Pa- 
lais, near  Nantes,  in  Bretagne,  in  1079.  Such  was  the 
state  of  learning  at  that  time,  that  he  had  no  other  field 
for  the  exercise  of  his  talents,  which  were  exceedingly  ' 
promising,  than  the  scholastic  philosophy,  of  which  he 
afterwards  became  one  of  the  most  celebrated  masters. 
After  the  usual  grammatical  preparation,  he  was  placed 
under  the  tuition  of  Rosceline,  an  eminant  metaphysician, 
and  the  founder  of  the  sect  of  the  Nominalists^  By  his  in« 
structions,  before  the  age  of  sixteen,  he  acquired  consi* 
derable  knowledge,  accompanied  with  a  subtlety  of  thought 
and  fluency  of  speech,  which  throughout  life  gave  him 
great  advantage  in  his  scholastic  contests.  His  avidity  to 
learn,  however,  soon  induced  him  to  leave  the  preceptor 
of  his  early  days,  and  to  visit  the  schools  of  several  neigh- 
bouring provinces.  In  his  20th  year,  he  fixed  his 
residence  in  the  university  of  Paris,  at  that  time  the  first 
seat  of  learning  in  Europe.  His  master  there  was  William 
de  Champeaux,  an  eminent  philosopher,  and  skilful  in  the 
dialectic  art.  At  first  he  was  submissive  and  humbly  atten^ 
tive  to  de  Champeaux,  who  repaid  his  assiduity  by  the  in- 
timacy of  friendship ;  but  the  scholar  soon  began  to  con- 
tradict the  opinions  of  the  master,  and  obtained  some  vic- 
tories in  contending  with  him,  which  so  hurt  the  superior 
feelings  of  the  one,  and  inflamed  the  vanity  of  the  other, 
that  a  separation  became  unavoidable ;  and  Abelard,  con- 
fident in  his  powers,  opened  a  public  school  of  his  own,  at 
the  age  of  22,  at  Melun,  a  town  about  ten  leagues  from 
Paris,  and  occasionally  the  residence  of  the  court. 

While  Abelard  confesses  the  ambition  which  induced 
him  to  take  this  step,  it  must  at  the  same  time  be  allowed 
that  he  had  not  overrated  the  qualifications  he  could  bring 
into  this  new  office.  Notwithstanding  every  kind  of  obstacle 
which  the  jealous  de  Champeaux  contrived  to  throw  in  hi» 
way,  his  school  was  no  sooner  opened  than  it  was  attended 
by  crowded  and  admiring  auditories;  and,  as  this  farther 
^advanced  his  fame,  he  determined  to  remove  his  school  to 
Corbeil,  near  Paris,  where  he  could  maintain  an  open 
l^bntest  with  his  old  rival.  This  was  accordingly  executed  ; 
"the  disputations  were  frequent  and  animated  ;  Abelard 
proved  victorious,  and  de  Champeaux  was  compelled  to 
retire  with  Considerable  loss  of  popular  reputation.  After 
an  absence  of  two  years  spent  in  his  native  country  for  the 

f  f  A  B  £  L  A  R  D. 

recovery  of  his  health,  which  had  been  impaired  by  the  in- 
tenseness  of  his  studious  preparations,  and  the  vehemence 
dbd  agitation  incijdent  to  such  disputes,  Abelard  found, 
on  his  return  to  Cbrbeil,  that  de  Ohampeaux  had  taken  the 
xnonastic  habit  among  the  regular  canons  in  the  convent  of 
3t  Victor,  but  that  he  still  taught  rhetoric  and  logic,  and 
held  public  disputations  in  theology.  On  this  he  immedi* 
ajkely  renewed  his  contests,  and  with  such  success,  that  the 
scholars  of  his  antagonist  came  over  in  crowds  to  him,  and 
even  the  new  professor,  who  had  taken  the  former  schoot 
of  de  Cibampeaux,  voluntarily  surrendered  the  chair  to  our 
young  philosopher,  and  even  requested  to  be  enrolled 
among  bis  disciples.  De  Champeaux,  irritated  at  a  mor-  * 
tification  so  public  and  so  decisive,  employed  his  interest 
to  obtain  the  appointment  of  a  new  professor,  and  to  drive 
Abelard  back  to  Melun.  Means  like  these,  however,  even 
in  an  age  not  remarkable  for  liberality,  were  not  likely  to 
serve  de  Champeaux's  cause ;  and  the  consequence  was, 
that  even  his  friends  were  ashamed  of  bis  conduct,  and  he 
was  under  the  necessity  of  retiring  from  the  convent  into 
the  country.  Abelard  then  returned  to  Paris,  took  a  new 
station  at  the  abbey  on  Mount  Genevieve,  and  soon  at- 
tracted to  his  school  the  pupils  of  the  new  professor.  De 
Champeaux,  returning  to  his  monastery,  made  another 
feeble  attempt,  which  ended  in  another  victory  on  the 

{)art  of  his  rival,  but  being  soon  after  made  bishop  of  Cha- 
cons, a  termination  was  put  to  their  contests. 

Abelard  now  determined  to  quit  the  study  and  profession 
pf  philoso[>by,  which  he  appears  to  have  pursued,  at  least 
in  a  great  measure,  out  of  opposition  to  the  fame  pf  his 
old  master,  and  turned  his  thoughts  to  theology.  Accord-* 
injgly,  leaving  his  school  at  St.  Genevieve,  he  removed  to 
X4aon,  to  become  a  scholar  of  Anselm  ;  but  his  expectations 
from  this  celebrated  master  seem  to  have  been  disap- 
pointed, as  he  speaks  of  his  abilities  very  slightingly.  This 
probably  roused  his  early  ambition  to  excel  his  teachers; 
for,  on  a  challenge  being  given  him  by  some  of  Ariselm's 
scholars,  to  explain  the  beginning  of  the  prophecy  of  Eze« 
kiel,  he  next  morning  performed  this  in  such  a  manner  adT 
to  excite  the  highest  admiratipn.  At  the  request  of  his 
audience,  he  continued  for  several  successive  days  his  lec- 
tures on  that  prophecy,  until  Anselm  prohibited  him,  lest 
30  young  a  lecturer  might  fall  into  mistakes,  which  would 
bruig  discredit  upon  bis  master.    Abelard  thought  proper 

A  B  E  L  A  R  D.  i» 

to  obey  the  prohibition,  but  could  not  so  easily  relinquish 
the  new  path  to  fame  which  he  had  so  favourably  dpenet), 
and  went  immediately  to  Paris,  where  he  repeated  these 
lectures  '  on  Ezekiel.  His  auditors  were  delighted,  hid 
school  was  crowded  with  scholars ;  and  from  this  time  he 
united  in  his  lectures  the  sciences  of  theology  and  philo- 
sophy, with  so  much  reputation,  that  multitudes  repaired 
to  him,  not  only  from  various  parts  of  France,  but  from 
Spain,  Italy,  Germany,  Flanders,  and  Great  Britain. 

An  incident  now  occurred  in  his  life,  which  has  given  him 
more  popular  renown  than  his  abilities  as  a  philosopher,  a 
theologian,  or  a  writer,  could  have  conferred,  but  which 
has  thrown  a  melancholy  shade  on  his  moral   character. 
About  this  time,  there  was  resident  in  Paris,  Heloise,  the 
niece  of  Fulbert,  one  of  the  canons  of  the  cathedral  church, 
a   lady   about  eighteen   years  of  age,  of  great  personal 
beauty,  and  highly  celebrated  for  her  literary  attainments. 
Abelard,  who  was  now  at  the  sober  age  of  40,  conceived 
an  illicit  passion  for  this  young  lady,  flattering  himself 
that  his  personal  attractions  were  yet  irresistible.     Fulbert, 
who  thought  himself  honoured  by  the  visits  of  so  eminent 
a  scholar  and  philosopher,  while  he  had   any  reason   to 
place  them  to  his  o^n  account,  welcomed  him  to  his  house, 
as  a  learned  friend  whose  conversation  mio-ht  be  instruc- 
tive  to  his  niece,  and  was  therefore  easily  prevailed  upon, 
by  a  handsome  payment  which  Abelard  offered  for  hi» 
board,  to  admit  him  into  his  family  as  an  inmate.     When 
this  was  concli^ded  upon,  as  he  Apprehended  no  danger 
from  one  of  Abelard^s  age  and  gravity,  he  i;/Bquested  him 
to  devote  some  portion  of  his  leisure  to  the  instruction  of 
Heloise,  at  the  same  time  granting  him  full  permission  to 
treat  her  in  all  respects  as  his  pupil.  Abelard  accepted  the 
trust,  and,  we  gather  from  his  own  evidence,  with  no  other  * 
intention  than  to  betray  it,     *^  I  was  no  less  surprized,"  he 
/says,   "  than  if  the  canon  had  delivered  up  a  tender  lamb 
to  a  famished  wolf,"  &c.     In  this  infamous  design  he  suc- 
ceeded but  too  well,  and  appears  to  have  corrupted  hec  ♦ 
^  mind,  as,  amidst  the  rage  of  he):  uncle,  and  the  reflections 
which  would  naturally  be  made  on  such  a  transaction,  every 
other  sentiment  in  her  breast  was  absorbed  in  a  romantic  and. 
indecent  passion  for  her  seducer.  Upon  her  pregnancy  being 
discovered,  it  was  thought  necessary  for  her  to  quit  hei^ 
uncle's  house,  and  Abelard  conveyed  her  to  Bretagne, 

where  she  was  delivered  of  a  ison,  to  whom  they  gave  thei 

f ... 

46  ABE  t  A  R  D- 

name  of  Astrolabus,  or  Astrolabius.  Abelard  now  prfd-*. 
posed  to  Fulbert  to  marry  his  niece,  provided  the  mar- 
riage might  be  kept  secret,  and  Fulbert  consented;  but 
Heloise,  partly  out  of  regard  to  the  interest  of  Abelard, 
whose  profession  bound  him  to  celibacy,  and  partly  from  a 
less  honourable  notion,  that  love  like  hers  ought  not  to  sub- 
mit to  ordinary  restraints,  at  first  gave  a  peremptory  refu- 
sal. Abelard,  however,  at  last  prevailed,  and  they  were 
privately  married  at  Paris ;  but  in  this  state  they  did  not 
experience  the  happy  effects  of  mutual  reconciliation.  The 
uncle  wished  to  disclose  the  marriage,  but  Heloise  denied 
it;  and  from  this  time  he  treated  her  with  such  unkindness 
as  furnished  Abelard  with  a  sufficient  plea  for  removing 
ter  from  his  house,  and  placing  her  in  the  abbey  of  Bene- 
dictine nuns,  in  which  she  had  been  originally  educated. 
Fulbert,  while  he  gave  the  provocation,  pretended  that 
Abelard  had  taken  this  step  in  order  to  rid  himself  of  an 
incumbrance  which  obstructed*  his  future  prospects.  Deep 
resentment  took  possession  of  his  soul,  and  he  meditated 
revenge ;  in  the  pursuit  of  which  he  employed  some  ruf- 
fians to  enter  Abelard's  chamber  by  night,  and  inflict  upon 
bis  person  a  disgraceful  and  cruel  mutilation,  which  was 
accordingly  perpetrated.  The  ruffians,  however,  were  ap- 
prehended, ajid  punished  according  to  the  law  of  retalia- 
tion j  and  Fulbert  was  deprived  of  his  benefice,  and  his 
goods  confiscated. 

Abelard,  unable  to  support  his  mortifying  reflections, 
and  probably  those  of  his  enemies,  resolved  to  retire  to  a 
convent ;  but  first,  with  a  selfishness  which  seems  to  have 
been  characteristic  in  him^  insisted  upon  Heloise's  promis- 
ing to  devote  herself  to  religion.  She  accordingly  sub- 
mitted, and  professed  herself  in  the  abbey  of  Argenteuil. 
Her  romantic  ardour  of  afl^ectjon  supported  her  through  this 
sacrifice,  and  seems  never  to  have  forsaken  her  to  the  latest 
moment  of  her  life.  A  few  days  after  she  had  taken  her 
TOWS,  Abelard'  assumed  a  monastic  habit  in  the  abbey  of 
St.  Denys;  but,  upon  the  earnest  solicitations  of  his  ad- 
mirers and  scholars,  he  resumed  his  lectures  at  a  small 
village  in  the  country,  and  with  his  usual  popularity.  His 
rival  professors,  however,  soon  discovered  an  opportunity 
of  bringing  him  under  ecclesiastical  censures.  A  treatise 
which  he  published  about  this  time,  entitled,  *^  The  The- 
ology of  Abelard,"  was  said  to  contain  some  heretical  te- 
nets respecting  the  Trinity,    The  work  was  accordingly 

A  B  E  L  A  R  n.  47 

presented  to  the  archbishop  of  fiheims  as  heretical ;  and, 
in  a  synod  called  at  Soissons  in  the  year  1 121,  it  was  con- 
demned to  be  burnt  by  the  author's  own  hand  :  he  was  fur- 
tfaier  enjoined  to  read^  as  his  confession  of  faith,  the  Atha- 
nasian  creed,  and  was  ordered  to  be  confined  in  the  con- 
Tent  of  St.  Medard ;  but  this  arbitrary  proceeding  excited 
such  general  dissatisfaction,  that,  after  a  short  imprisonment^ 
he  was  permitted  to  return  to  St.  Denys.  But  here,  too, 
his  enemies  endeavoured  to  bring  him  into  new  dis- 
grace. Having  read  in  Bedels  Commentary  on  the  Acts  of 
the  Apostles  thac  Denys  (Dionysius)  the  Areopagite  was 
not  Bishop  of  Athens,  but  of  Corinth,  he  ventured  this 
passage  as  a  proof,  that  the  patron  of  the  convent,  and  of 
the  French  nation,  was  not,  as  commonly  believed,  th« 
Areopagite,  but  another  St.  Dionysius,  bishop  of  Athens. 
A  violent  ferment  was  immediately  raised  in  the  convent ; 
and  Abelard,  being  accused  to  the  bishop  and  the  king,  a» 
a  calumniator  of  the  order,  and  an  enemy  to  his  country, 
found  it  necessary  to  escape  with  a  few  friends  to  the  con- 
vent of  St.  Ayoul,  at  Provins,  in  Champagne,  the  prior  of 
which  was  his  intimate  friend.  But  even  here  persecution 
followed  him,  until  .at  length,  with  difEculty,  he  obtained 
permission  to  retire  to  some  soUtary  retreat,  on  condition' 
that  he  should  never  again  become  a  member  of  a  convent. 

The  spot  which  he  chose  was  a  vale  in  the  forest  of 
Champagne,  near  Nogent  upon  the  Seine,  where,  accom- 
panied by  only  one  ecclesiastic,  he  erected  a  small  oratory, 
which  he  dedicated  to  the  Trinity,  but  afterwards  enlarged, 
and  consecrated  it  to  the  Third  Person,  the  Comforter,  or 
Paracl£T£.  In  this  asylum  he  was  soon  discovered,  and 
fgllowed  by  a  train  of  scholars.  A  rustic  college  arose  in 
the  forest,  and  the  number  of  his  pupils  soon  increased  to 
six  hundred.  But  his  enemies  St.  Norbert  and  St.  Bernard,, 
who  enjoyed  great  popularity  in  this  neighbourhood,  con-* 
spired  to  bring  him  into  discredit,  and  he  was  meditating 
his  escape,  when,  through  the  interest  of  the  Duke  of 
Bretagne,  and  with  the  consent  of  the  abbot  of  St.  Denys, 
he  was  elected  superior  of  the  monastery  of  St.  Giklas,  in 
the  diocese  of  Vannes,  where  he  remained  several  years. 

About  this  time  Suger,  the  abbot  of  St.  Denys,  on  the 
plea  of  an  ancient  righ|:,  obtained  a  grant  for  annexing  the 
convent  of  Argenteuil,  of  which  Heloise  was  now  prioress, 
to  St.  Denys,  and  the  i^uus,  who  were  accused  of  irregular 
practices,  w^^re^  dispersed*    Abelard,  informed  of  the  dis* 


txessed  sitaation  of  Heloise,  invited  her/  ivitb'  her  conapa* 
DtODs^  eight  in  number,  to  take  possession  of  the  Paraclete. 
Happy  in  being  thus  remembered  in  the  moment  of  dis- 
tress by  the  man  of  her  affections,  she  joyfully  accepted 
the  proposal ;  a  new  institution  was  established ;  Heloise 
was  chosen  abbess;  and,  in  1127,  the  donation  was  con- 
firmed by  the  king.  Abelard^  now  zM^ot  of  St.  Gildas, 
paid  frequent  visits  to  the  Paraclete,  till  he  was  obliged  to 
discontinue  them  through  fear  of  his  enemies  the  monks^' 
who  not  only  endeavoured  to  injure  him  by  gross  insinua- 
tions, but  carried  their  hostility  so  far  as  to  make  repeated 
attempts  upon  his  life. 

It  was  during  Abelard^s  residence  at  St.  Gildas,  that  the 
interesting  correspondence  passed  between  him  ttnd  He- 
loise,  which  is  still  extant,  and  that  he  wrote  the  memoirs 
of  his  life  which  came  down  to  the  year  1134.    The  letters 
of  Heloise,  in  this  correspondence,  abound  with  proofs  of 
genius,  learning,  and  taste,  which  might  have  graced  a 
better  age.     It  is  upon  these  letters  that  Mr.  Pope  formed 
bis   '^Epistle  from  Eloisa  to  Abelard,*'  which^  however^ 
deviates  in  some  particulars  from  the  genuine  character 
and  story  of  Heloise,  and  is  yet  more  seriously  censurable 
on  account  of  its  immoral  tendency.     Her^,  too,  Abelard 
probably  wrote  bis  "  Theology,*'  or  revised  it,  which  again 
subjected  him   to   prosecution.     William,   abbot   of    St 
Thievry,.  the  friend  of  Bernard,  now  abbot  of  Clairvaux^ 
brought  a  formal  charge  against  him  for  heresy  in  thirteen 
particles,  copied  from  the  ^*  Theology.**     Bernard,  after  au 
unsuccessful  private   remonstrance,    accused  Abelard    to 
pope  Innocent  II.  of  noxious  errors  and  mischievous  de- 
lugns.     Abelard,  with  the  concurrence  of  the  archbishop 
of  Sens,  challenged  his  accuser  to  appear  in  a  public  as*^ 
sembly,  shortly  to  be  held  in  ^at  city,  and  make  good  his 
accusation.     The  abbot  at  first  declined   accepting  the 
challenge;    but    afterwards  nfiade    his    appearance,    and 
delivered  to   the  assembly  the  heads  of  his  accusation. 
Abelard,  instead  of  replying,  appealed  to  Rome,   which 
did  not  prevent  the  council  from  examining  the  charges, 
and  pronouncing  his  opinions  heretical.     It  was,    how-^ 
ever,  judged  necessary  to  inform  the  bishop  of  Rome  of 
the  proceedings,  and  to  request  his  confirmation  of  the 
sentence.    In  the  mean  time,  Be)rnard»  by  letters  writtea 
to  the  Roman  prelates,  strongly  urged  them  to  silence, 
^hout  delay,  this  dangerous  innovator.     His  importunitj^ 

A  B  £  L  A  R  IX  4d 

iiicceeded ;  for  thd  pope^  without  watting  for  the  anriTal 
of  Abelard)  pnonounced  his  opioions  heretical,  and  sen- 
tenced hini  to  perpetual  silence  and  confinement.  Imme- 
diately upon  being  informed  of  the  decision^  Abelard  Bfit 
oat  for  Rome,  in  hopes  of  being  permitted  to  plead  his 
cause  before  bis  holiness.  In  his  way  be  called  at  Cluni,  a 
monastery  on  the  confines  of  Burgundy,  where  he  found  a 
2ealous  friend  ia  Peter  Maurice,  the  abbot,  and  also  iu 
Reiuardus,  the  abbot  of  Citeaux,  who  negociated  a  recon- 
ciliation between  him  and  Bernard,  while  Peter,  by  hia 
earnest  remonstrances,,  procured  his  pardon  at  Rome,  and 
be  was  permitted  to  end  his  days  in  the  monastery  of 

In  this  retreat  he  passed  his  time  in  study  and  devotion^ 
with  occasional  intervals  of  instruction  which  tbe  monks 
solicited ;  but  his  health  began  to  decay,  and  he  expired 
April  21,  U42,  in  tbe  priory  of  St.  Marcellus,  near  Cha-^ 
lonsy  to  which  be  had  been  jremoved  for  the  bei>efit  of  the 
change  of  air.  His  character  is  thus  summed  up  by  his 
late  el^^t  and  most  impartial  biographer*.  ^^Hewaa 
bprn  with  uncommon  abilities ;  and,  in  a  better  age,  had 
they  been  directed  to  other  purposes,  their  display  might 
have  given  more  solid  glory  to  their  possessor,  and  more 
real  advantage  to  mankind.  But  he  was  to  take  th^  world 
as  be  found  it^  for  he  could  not  correct  its  vicious  taste, 
nor,  indeed,  did  he  attempt  it.  On  the  contrary,  the 
viciou9  taste  of  tbe  age  seemed  to  accord  with  the  most 
prominent  features  of  his  mind.  He  loved  controversy, 
was  pleased  with  the  sound  of  his  own  voice,  and^  in  hia 
most  favoiurite  researches,  rather  looked  for  quibbles  and 
evasive  sophistry,  than  for  truth,  and  the  conviction  of 
season.  He  was  a  disputatious  logician,  therefore;  and 
in  diis  cpnsiisted  all  his  philosophy.  His  divinity  W9s  much 
of  the  same  complexion. 

*^  When  we  consider  him  as  a  writer,  not  much  more 
can  be  added  to.  his  praise.  He  is  obscure,  laboured,  and 
inelegant :  nor  do  I  discover  any  traces  of  that  genius  and 
vivid  energy  of  soul,  which  he  certainly  possessed,  and 
which  rendered  him  so  formidable  in  the  schools  of  pbilp-* 
sophy.  Even  when  he  describes  his  own  misfortunes,  and 
is  the  hero  of  his  own  tale^  the  story  is  languid,  and  it 
labours  on  through  a  tedious  and  digressive  narration  of 

*  « Hlstoiy   of  tbe  Lives  of  Abelard  a^d  Heloifa^   by  the  Ke?.  Josepb 
Serripgfon/'  4to»  M  edit.  1789, 

Vol.  I.  E 

so  ABE  LA  R  D, 

incidents.  In  his  theological  tracts  he  is  more  j^une^  and 
in  bis  letters  he  has  not  the  elegance,  nor  the  harmony, 
Ror  the  soul  of  Heloise.  ThereforCi  did  we  not  know  how 
floQch  his  abilities  were  extolled  by  his  contemporaries, 
what  encomiums  they  gave  to  his  pen,  and  how  much  the 
proudest  disputants  of  the  age  feared  the  fire  of  his  tongue, 
we  certainly  should  be  inclined  to  say,  perusing  his  works, 
that  Abelard  was  not  an  uncommon  man. 

^'Nor  was  he  uncommon  in  his  moral  character.  He 
had  not  to  thank  nature  for  any  great  degree  of  sensibility, 
that  source  of  pain  and  of  pleasure,  of  virtue  and  of  vice. 
Thrown,  from  early  youth,  into  habits  which  could  not 
meliorate  his  dispositions,  he  became  selfish,  opiniative^ 
and  vain -glorious.  What  did  hot  serve  to  gratify  Us  own 
humour,  called  for  little  of  his  regard.  He  wished  to  apv 
pear  above  the  common  feelings  of  humanity,  for-  his  phi-* 
losopby  was  not  of  a  nature  to  make  him  the  friend  of  man. 
Of  religion  he  knew  little  more  than  the  splendid  theoiy ; 
and  its  amiable  precepts  were  too  obvious  and  familiar  to 
engage  the  attention,  and  modify  the  heart,  of  an  abstruse 
and  speculative  reasoner.  When  he  loved  Heloise,  it  was 
not  her  person,  nor  her  charms,  nor  her  abilities^  nor  her 
virtues,  which  he  loved  :*  he  sought  only  his  own  gratifica^ 
tion ;  and  in  its  pursuit  no  repulsion  of  innocence  coiild 
thwart  him,  no  voice  of  duty,  of  friendship,  of  unguarded 
confidence,  could  impede  his  headlong  progress.  He  suf*' 
fered :  and  from  that  moment  radier  he  became  a  man/ 
We  may  blame  him,  perhaps,  that  he  should  so  easily  for« 

fet  Heloise :  but  I  have  said  that  he  never  really  loved  her. 
lore  than  other  men,  he  was  not  free  to  command  his  af» 
JTections:  and  from  motives  of  religion,  perhaps  even  of 
compassion,  he  wished  in  her  breast  to  check  that  ardent 
flame,  which  burned  to  no  other  purpose  than  to  render 
her  heart  miserable,  and  her  life  forlorn. 

*'To  erase  these  unfavourable  impressions  whicli  tlie 
mind  has  conceived  of  Abelard,  we  must  view  him  in  dis« 
tress,  smarting  from  oppression  and  unprovided  malevo- 
lence. There  was  in  his  character  something  which  irri- 
tated opposition,  whether  it  was  a  love  of  singularity,  an 
asperity  of  manners,  or  a  consciousness  of  superior  talents, 
which  he  did  not  disguise.  However  this  liiigbt  ^be,  the 
behaviour  of  his  enemies  was  always  harsh,  and  sometimes 
cruel;  and  him  we  pity. — He  now  became  a  religious,  a 
benevolent,  and  a  virtuous  man ;  and  thousands  reaped 

A  B  E.  L  A.  B  D.  .  ^1 

benefit  from  bis  instructions,  as  tbey  were  tutored  by  bis 
example.  Tbe  close  of  bis  unhappy  life  was  to  the  eye  of 
the  Christian  spectator  its  most  brilliant  period.  In  his 
death  he  was  the  great  and  good  man,  the  philosopher  and 
the  Christian." 

In  what  manner  Heloise  received  the  tidings  of  Abelard*8 
death  is  uncertain.  She  requested,  however,  that  his  body 
might  be  sent  for  interment  to  the  Paraclete,  and  this  was. 
said  to  have  been  in  consequence  of  a  wish  formerly  ex* 
pressed  to  her  by  Abelard.     Her  request  was  complied  | 

with,  and  the  remains  of  her  lover  deposited  in  the  church 
with  much  solemnity.  For  one-and-twentj  years  aftef 
we  hear  no  more  of  her,  only  that  she  was  held  in  the 
highest  estimation;  that  she  was  a  pattern  of  every  mo- 
nastic and  Christian  virtue;  and  that,  ever  retaining  the  j 
tenderest  affection  of  a  wife,  she  prayed  unceasingly  at  ,  | 
her  husband's  tomb.  In  1163,  she  fell  sick.  History 
does  not  inform  us  what  her  disorder  was,  nor  does  it 
relate  the  circumstances  of  her  death.  She  expired,  how- 
ever, on  Sunday,  May  17th,  in  the  sixty-third  yeaV  of 
her  age,  and  her  body  was  deposited,  by  her  own  orders^ 
in  the  tomb  by  the  side  of  Abelard.  Their  bones  have  lain 
in  the  abbey  of  the  Paraclete,  in  the  diocese  of  Troyes,  in 
France, 'ever  since  1142  and  1163.  They  have  been  at 
several  times,  and  in  different  centuries,  moved  to  other 
parts  of  the  church.  The  last  transposition  was  made  by 
order  of  the  present  abbess  madame  de  Roucy,  in  the  year 
1779,  with  the  following  ceremonies.  The  relics  of  this 
fond  pair  were  taken  up  out  of  the  vault,  and  laid  by  a 
priest  in  a  leaden  coffin  separated  into  two  divisions,  in 
order  that  they  might  not  be  mixed,  which  was  exposed  to 
view  for' a  quarter  of  an  hour,  and  then  soldered  up.  AiEter 
which  the  coffin  was  borne,  attended  by  tbe  ladies  of  the 
convert  singing  anthems,  first  into  the  choir,  and  then 
to  the  place  of  its  destination  under  tbe  altar;  where, 
after  prayers  had  been  said  over  it,  it  was  solemnly  in- 
terred. The  abbess  has  caused  a  monument  of  blacfc 
marble  to  be  erected  on  the  spot,  with  the  following  ip« 
scription :                                         ; 


tub  eodem  mamoie  jaoenfc 

hujus  monatterii 

eonditor,  PETRUS  ABiELARDUS, 

et  abbatissa  prima  HELOISA, 

olim  stndiis,  ingenio,  amore,  ui&uglis  imptioM, 

et  pomitentia  ^ 

B2       *  — 

fifi  .  A  B  E  L  A  K  S. 

Kane  aternm,  quod  iperamua,  felicitated 


Petrus  obiit  xx  prima  Apr.  anno  1141. 

Helotsa,  xvii  Mail,  1163. 

Curis  Carolae  de  Roucy,  Paracleti  abbatissv, 


Of  Abelard's  works,  we  have   **  Abcelardi  et  Heloka^, 

conjugis  6jus,  Opera;  ex  editione  Andreae  Quercetam V* 
4tOy  Paris,  1616.  This  collection  was  published  from  the 
MS.  of  Francis  d^Amboise.  It  contains  Letters,  which 
have  been  elegantly  translated  by  Mr.  Eerrington  in  the 
workalr«ady  referred  to;  "Sermons,  and  Doctrinal  tracts." 
There  is  a  scarce  edition  of  the  Letters,  "  ex  recensione 
Ric.  llawlinson,'*  8vo.  London,  1716,  which  is  said  to  be 
the  best,  as  it  was  correcteH  from  the  most  authentic 
manusctipts. ' 

ABELIN  (John  Philip)^  a  historian,  born  at  Stras- 
burgh,  ahd  who  died  about  1646,  is  perhaps  better  known 
by  the  name  of  John  Louis  Gottfried,  or  Gothofredus^ 
which  he  used  in  most  of  his  numerous  works.  Under  his 
proper  name,  he  published  only  the  first  volume  of  the 
**  Theatre  of  Europe,*^  which  contains  the  history  of  Eu- 
rope from  1617  to  1628;  and  the  17th,  l8th,  19th,  and 
20th  volumes  of  the  "  Mercurius  Gallo-Belgicus,'*  begun 
by  Gothard  Arthus,  and  containing  the  annals  of  Europe, 
but  particularly  of  France,  from  1628  to  1636,  Francfort, 
1628 — 1636,  8vo.  The  Mercurius  is  in  Latin,  but  the  The- 
atre in  German.  The  second  volume  of  the  latter  bears 
the  name  of  Avelin ;  but  Christian  Gryphius,  in  his  account 
of  the  historians  of  the  seventeenth  century,  attributes  it 
to  John  George  Schleder,  who  also  compiled  some  of  the 
subsequent  volumes.  The  best  edition  of  the  "  Theatre  of 
Europe'*  is  that  published  at  Francfort,  from  1662  to 
1738,  in  21  vols,  fol.  illustrated  by  the  engravings  of  Mat- 
thew Maittaire.  The  volumes  composed  by  Abehn,  Schle- 
der, and  Schneider,  are  most  esteemed ;  the  others,  com- 
posed by  their  continuators,  have  neither  the  same  reputa- 
tion or  merit. 

In  1619,  Abelin  published  an  explanation  of  the  meta- 
liioiphoses  of  Ovid,  under  the  title  "P.  Ovidii  Nasonis 
Metamorphoseon  plerarumque  historica,  naturalis,  moralis 
EK^fflkrif,''  Francfort,  8vo,  with  the  engravings  of  J,  The- 
odore de  Bry.    He  signs  the  dedication  to  this  work,  <^  Lu- 

*  Or  Thi  Chesne. 
1  Biographical  Dictionary,  vol.  I.~Bayle.— Mereri.-^Bru<fkher  Hist  Philoi, 
•—Saxii  Ooomast. — But  principal^  Berringtoit. 

.    A  B  E  L  I  N.  53 

dovicus  Gottofrkius.^'  In  162 8,  he  was  conperned  in  a 
German  .and  Latin  translation  of  D'Ativy^s  ^'  Etats,  Enx- 
piresy  Royaumes,  et  Principautez  du  Monde/'  under  the 
title  of  ^^Archontologia  cosmica/' .  of  which  there  hare 
been  three  editions,  the  two  last  with  plates  by  Merian ; 
but,  since  the  modern,  improvements  in  geography,  this 
work  is  less  esteemed.  He  also  compiled  or  translated 
the  12th  and  last  volume  of  the  History  of  .the  East 
Indies,  published  at  Francf6rt'1628|  fol.  under  the  title  of 
.^^Historiarum  Orientalis  IndiiB  tomus  XII/'  This  history 
bears  a  high  price,  when  complete.  The  copy  in  the 
French  imperial  library  cost  4000  francs.  In  1632,  Abe- 
lin  published,  in  German,  his  "  Description  of  Sweden,'* 
folio;  and  the  year  following,  ako  in  German,  a  ^^His« 
torical  Chronicle,'*  from  the  beginning  of  the  world  to  the 
year  1619,  folio,  with  a  great  number  of  plates  by  Merian, 
,  of  which  the  letter- press  is  merely  the  description.  His 
last  work  was  a  ^*  History  of  the  Antipodes,  or  the  New 
World  ;'*  this,  which  is  in  German,  is  a  description  of  the 
West  Indies,  and  was  published  at  Francfort,  1655,  folio. 
It  is  thought  that  he  published  a  Grerman  translation  of 
the  Plagium,  a  comedy  by  Daniel  Cramer,  under  the  fic-> 
titious  name  of  John  Philip  Abel,  in  1627;  but  why  he 
assumed  ithese  disguises,  we  are  not  told.  * 

ABELI^  (John),  an  English  musician,  was  celebrated 
for  ^  fine  eounter-tenor  voice,  and  for  his  skill  on  the  lute. 
Charles  lit  of  whose  chapel  he  was,  and  who  admired  his 
singing,  had  formed  a  resolution  of  sending  him  to  the 
carnival  at  Venice,  in  order  to  shew  the  Italians  what  Eng- 
land could  produce  in  this  way;  but  the  scheme  was 
dropped.  Abeli  continued  in  the  chapel  till  the  Revolu« 
tion,  when  he  was  discharged  as  being  a  Papist.  Upon 
this  he  went  abroad,  and  distinguished  himself  by  singing 
in  public  in  Holland,  at  Hamburgh,  and  other  places; 
where,  acquiring  considerable  wealt|i,  be  set  up  a  splendid 
equipage,  and  affected  the  man  of  quality,  though  at  in* 
tervals  he  was  so  reduced,  as  to  b^  obliged  to  travel  through 
whole  provinces  with  his  lute  slung  at  his  back.  In  ram<r 
bling  be  got  as  far  s^s  Poland,  and  nt  Warsaw  met  wi|;h  a 
very  ^extraordinary  adventure.  He.  was  sent  for  to  court;* 
but,  evading  to  go  by.  some  slight  excuse,  was  commanded 
to  attend.  At  the  palace  he  was  seated  in  a  chair,  in  the: 
puddle  of  ^  spacious  hall,  and  suddenly  drawn  up  to  ^ 

I  Biegraphie  Universei1«;  181U 

54  A  B  £  L  L. 

great  height,  and  the  kiiig,  with  hid  attendasts,  ap-* 
peareid  in  a  gallery  opposite  to  him.  At  the  same  instant 
a  number  of  wild  bears  were  turned  in,  when  the  king  bid 
him  choose,  whether  he  would  sing,  or  be  let  down  among 
the  bears  ?  Abell  chose  to  sing,  and  declared  afterwards, 
that  he  never  sung  so  well  in  his  life. 

After  having  rambled  for  many  years,  he  probably  re-< 
turned  to  England;  for,  in  1701,  he  published  at  London 
a  collection  of  songs  iii  several  languages,  with  a  dedicatioa 
to  king  William.  Towards  the  end  of  queen  Anne^s  reign 
be  was  at  Cambridge  with  his  lute,  but  met  with  little  en« 
couragement.  How  long  he  lived  afterwards  is  not  known. 
This  artist  is  said  to  have  possessed  some  secrets,  by  which 
he  preserved  the  natural  tone  of  his  voice  to  ah  extreme 
old  age.  ^ 

ABELLI  (Louis)  was  born  in  the  Yexin  Francois,  in 
1603.  He  was  promoted  to  be  grand  vicar  of  Bayonne, 
then  curate  of  Paris,  and  lastly  bishop  of  Rhodes,  in  1664, 
which  he  resigned  about  three  years  afterwards,  in  order  to 
live  a  retired  life  in  the  house  of  St.  Lazare,  at  Paris.  He 
died  Oct  4,  1691,  aged  88  years.  His  principal  works 
are:  1,  ^^ Medulla  Tbaologica,"  2  vols.  12mo,  which 
gained  him  the  title  of  Moelleux  Abelli  (the  marrowy)  from 
Boileau.  2.  A  treatise  ^^De  la  Hierarchic,  et  de  l*auto-« 
rit6  du  Pape,"  4to.  3,  <•  La  Tradition  deTEglise,  touchant 
la  devotion  i,  Sainte  Vierge,**  8vo,  1662,  a  work  which 
the  Protestants  have  often  quoted  against  Bossuet.  4.  *^  La 
Vie  de  M.  Renard,"  12mo.  5.  "La  Vie  de  St  Vincent 
de  Pauly'^  4to,  in  which  he  openly  declares  himself 
against  the  Jansenists.  6,  "Enchiridion  soUicitiidiais  pas« 
toralis,*'  4to.  7.  "Meditation  pour  chaque  jour  de  Tan^ 
ii€e,*'  2  vols.  12i|io.  His  Latin  style  is  harsh,  and  his 
French  writings  are  accounted  by  his  countrymen  flat  and 
insipid.  They  allow  hin),  however,  to  have  excelled  in 
every  sacerdotal  virtue,  i|nd  to  h$ive  been  exemplary  in  bis 
pastoral  offices,* 

ABENDANA  (J4COQ)»  a  Sps^iish  Jew,  who  died  in 
'  1685,  was  prefect  of  a  synagogue  in  London,  and  the  au* 
thor  of  a  Spicilegium  of  explanations  of  various  passages  in 
the  Hebrew  bible,  published  at  Amsterdam,  folio,  about 
the  time  of  his  death.  He  published  also  some  other  wofi^s 
in  considerable  esteem  with  Qebrew  scbolar^t' 

1  Hawkins's  Hist,  of  Musie* 

ff  Diet.  Historiqiie.n<9en.  Dict«  ?  Hipt  .Hist, 

A  B  E  N-E  Z  R  A.  5^ 

ABEN-EZRA,  AVEN-HEZfiR,  orBEN-MElR,  (Abra- 
ham), a  celebrated  Rabbi,  bora  at  Toledo,  in  Spain,  in 
1099,  called  by  tbe  Jews,  the  wise,  great,  and  admirable 
doctor,  was  a  very  able  interpreter  of  the  Holy  Scriptures, 
and  was  well  skilled  in*  grammar,  poetry,  philosophy,  astro- 
nomy, and  in  medicine.  He  was  also  a  perfect  master  of 
the  Arabic.  His  style  is  in  general  clear,  elegant,  concise^^ 
^nd  much  like  that  of  the  Holy  Scriptures ;  he  almost 
always  adheres  to  the  literal  sense,  and  everywhere  gires 
proofs  of  his  genius  and  good  sense :  he  however  ad«- 
yances  some  erroneous  sentiments,  and  his  conciseness 
sometimes  makes  his  style  obscure..  He  travelled  in 
most  parts  of  Europe,  visiting  England,  France,  Italy, 
Greece,  &c.  for  the  purpose  of  acquiring  knowledge, 
and  far  surpassed  his  brethren  both  in  sacred  and  profane 
learning*  He  wrote  theological,  grammatical,  and  astro^ 
nomical  works,  many  of  which  remain  in  manuscript,  but 
tbe  following  have  been  published :  1.  ^^  Perus  a  PAltora,* 
or  a  cooimentary  on  the  Law,  fol.  Constantinople,  5262 
(1552),  a^  very  rare  edition.  There  is  likewise  another 
edition  printed  at  Venice,  1576,  foL  2.  ^^Jesod  Mora,'* 
intended  as  an  exhortation  to  the  study  of  the  Talmud, 
Constantinople,  8vo.  1530,  by  far  the  most  scarce  of  all 
his  works.  3.  ^^  ElegantisB  Grammaiicse,''  Venice,  1546, 
8vo.  4«  ^'  D^  Luminaribus  et  Diebus  criticis  liber,"  Leyden^ 
1496,  4to.  of  which  there  have  been  three  editions. 
5.  "De  Natiyitatibus,"  Venice,  1485,  4to,  republished 
by  John  Dryander,  Col.  1537,  4to.  He  died  in  1X74  at 
the  island  of  Rhodes,  in  the  75th  year  of  his  age,  but 
some  havQ  placed  his  death  in  1 165. ' 

FIT,  an  Arabian  physician,  who  flourished  in  the  12th  cen« 
tury,  is  the  author  of :  1.  ^^  De  virtutibus  Medicinarum  et 
Ciborum,"  translated  from  the  Arabic  into  Latin  by  Gerard 
of  Cremona,  and  published  at  Strasburgh,  1531,  foL 
2.  "  De  Balneis,''  Venice,  1553,  foL* 

ABEN-MELEK^  or.ABEN-MALLEK,  a  learned  rabbi 
of  the.  17th  century,  who  wrote  a  commentary  on  llid 
Bible,  called  in  Hebrew  the  *'  Beauty  of  Holiness,"  Amst* 
1661,  foL  Different  parts  of  it  havebe^n  translated  into 
Latin,  and  printed,  4to  and  8vo,  in  Germany.  This  rabbi 
follows  the  grammatical  sense,  and  the  opinions  of  Kimchi'« 

'  ^  !Ba54e.-^haafepie.-*-Bnicker'9.  Hist;— >Saxii  Oaomast.' 
*  Diet.  Hi8t.-~Mangeti  Bibi.— Fabric.  BiiA,  Or.  '     '      \ 

s  Moreri  .r-Dict.  Hist.«— Simon,  Hist,  Grit. 

A0  A  B  E  R  C  R  O  M  18  I  E. 

ABERCROMBIE  (John),  a  horticultural  writer  of  con- 
isiderable  note,  and  to  whose  taste  and  writings  the  English 
garden  is  considerably  indebted,  was  the  sou  of  a  respectable 
gardener  near  Edinburgh,  and  descended  of  a  good  family. 
The  father,  having  early  discovered  a  predilection  in  the 
,son  for  that  profession  in  which  he  was  himself  allowed  to 
excel,  afforded  him  every  encouragement;  and,  as  his 
mind  was  solely  bent  on  this  delightful  pursuit,  bis '  profit 
4:iency  in  horticulture,  &c.  soon  outstripped  his  years.  To 
increase  his  knowledge  in  the  different  branches  of  garden** 
ing,  he  came  to  London  at  the  age  of  eighteen,  and 
.worked  in  Hampton  court,  St.  James's,  Kensington,  Lei- 
^cester,.  &c*  gardens.  His  taste  in  laying  out  grounds,  and 
Jiis  progress  in  botany,  were^o  highly  appreciated,  that  he 
was  advised  to  publish  something  on  those  subjects ;  but  his 
extreme  diffidence  for  a  long  time  counteracted  the  wishes 
of  his  friends.  At  length  he  was  induced  to  commence  au- 
thor :  having  submitted  his  manuscript  to  Mr.  GrifHn,  book^ 
seller,,  of  Catherine-street,  in  the  Strand,  Mr.  Griffin  can-^ 
ilidly  told  him  he  was  not  a  judge  of  the  subject,  but,  with 
permission,  he  would  consult  a  friend  of  his  who  was  allowed 
to  be  so,  Mr.  Mawe,  gardener  to  the  duke  of  Leeds.  Mr; 
AbercFombie  consented.  Mr.  Mawe  bore  testimony  to  the 
merit  of  the  production,  and  prefixed  his  name  to  the  pub- 
lication, in  order  to  give  it  that  celebrity  to  which  it  was 
80  justly  entitled,  for  which  he  received  a  gratuity  of  20 
gui^as.  The  work  was  published  under  the  title  of 
'^Mawe's  Gardener's  Calendar;*'  the  flattering  reception 
which  it  experienced  induced  the  real  writer  to  publish 
another  work  under  his  own  name ;  ^^  The  Universal  Die-- 
tionary  of  Gardening  and  Botany,*'  in  4to.  This  was  fol- 
lowed by  "The  Gardener's  Dictionary,"  "The  Gardener's 
Daily  Assistant,"  " The  Gardener's  Vade  Mecum,"  "The 
Kitchen  Gardener  and  Hot-Bed  Forcer,"  "The  Hot- 
House  Gardener,"  &o.  &c.  Some  of  these  are  hasty  com- 
pilations, without  much  display  of  botanical  knowledge; 
but  they  were  in  general  popular,  dnd  most  of  them  were 
tnmslated  into  French,  German,  &c.  Mr.  Abercrombie'^ 
industry  enabled  him  to  bring  up  a  large  family,  and  to 
give  them  a  good  education )  but  he  survived  them  all^ 
except  one  son,  who  has.  more  than  once  dislinguishedi^ 
himself  at  sea  in  the  service  of  his  country.  Hedied  at 
his  apartments,  Chalton-street,  Somers  Town,  in  the 
80tk  year  of  his  age^  1806. 

A  B  E  R  C  R  O  M  B  Y.  SH 

ABERCROMBY  (Patrick),  a  physician  and  historian, 
was  the  son  of  Alexander  Abercromby,  of  Fetternear,  ia 
Aberdeenshire,  and  brother  of  Francis  Abercromby,  whe 
was  created  lord  Glasford  in  July  16SS.     He  was  bom  at 
Forfar,  in  the  county  of  Angus,  in  1656,  and  educated  ill 
the  university  of  St.  Andrew's,  where  he  took  the  degree 
of  doctor  in  medicine  in  1685.     Some  accounts  say  that 
he  spent  his  youth  in  foreign  countries,  was  probably  edu- 
cated in  the  university  of  .Paris,  and  that  his  family  were 
all  Roman  Catholics,  who  partook  of  the  misfortunes  of 
James  II. ;  others,  that  on  his  return  to  Scotland  he  re* 
nounced  the  Protestant  religion,  at  the  request  of  king 
James,  and  was  by  him  appointed  one  of  the  physicians  to 
the  court,  which  he  was  obliged  to  relinquish  at  the  Revo* 
lution.     Soon  after  he  attached  himself  to  the  study  of 
antiquitiesy  and  published,  ^^  The  Martial  Atchievements 
of  Scotland,**  2  vols.  fol.  1711  and  1715,.  to  which  he  was 
encouraged  by  a  large  list  of  subscribers.-  The  first  volume 
abounds  in  the  marvellous,  but  the  second  is  valuable  on 
account  of  its  accurate  information  respecting  the  British 
history  in  the  fourteenth  and   fifteenth   centuries.      He 
ni^ote  also  a  treatise  on  Wit,  1686,  which  is  now  little 
known,   and    translated    M.   Beague*s    very  rare    book^ 
**L*Histoire  de  la  Guerre  d'Escosse,"  1556,  under  the 
title  of  "The  History  of  the  Campagues  154S  and  1549: 
being  an  exact  account  of  the  martial  expeditions  per- 
formed in  those  daysby  the  Scots  and  French  on  the  one 
side,  and  the  English  and  their  foreign  auxiliaries  on  the 
other :  done  in  French  by  Mons.  Beague,  a  French  gen*- 
tleman.     Printed  in  Paris  1556,  with  an  introductory  pre* 
face  by  the  translator,''  1707,  8vo.     The  ancient  alliance 
between  France  and  Scotland  is  strenuously  asserted  in 
this  work.     He  died  about  the  year  1716,  according  to 
Mr.  Chalmers,  or,  as  in  the  last  edition  of  this  Dictioniary, 
in  1726,  about  the  age  of  70,  or  rather  72. 

In  the  former  edition  of  this  work  it  is  said  that  be  never 
made  any  distinguished  figure  in  the  physical  profession. 
There  was,  however,  a  David  AB£RCROMBY,~a  contempo- 
rary and  countryman  of  his,  who  published  in  London  some 
medical  tracts  on  the  venereal  disease,  the  pulse,  &c. 
which  were  colleoted  in  one  volume,  entitled,  ^^  D.  Aber- 
erombii  Opuscula  Medica  hactenus  edita,'*  Lond.  1687, 
12mo«  Of  him  no  memoirs  have  been  preserved ;  but  his 
works  are  analysed  in  the  Act.  Li|^s.  1685,  1686,  1687.^ 


jSaxius  deDomioates  bim  *^  medicaa  et  pbilologus/*  and  at« 
tributes  to  bim  a  bumorous  publication,  entitled,  ><  Fur 
Acad^emicus/'  Amsterdam,  1689,  12mo/ 

ABERCROMBY  (Sir  Ralph),  K.  B.  a  British  officer 
c^  great  bravery  and  talents,  was  tbe  sou  of  George  Aber- 
crombie,  of  TiUibodie,  in  Clackmannanshire,  esq.  by 
^Mary  daughter  of  Ralpb  Dundas,  of  ]\Ianour,  esq,  and  was 
.bom  about  tbe  year  1738,  or,  according  to  his  epitaph  at 
Malta,  1733  ;  and,  after,  a  liberal  education,  went  by 
choice  into  the  army.t  His  first  commission  was  that  of 
xrornet  in  the  third  regiment  of  dragoon  guards,  dated 
March  23,  1756.  In  the  month  of  February  1760,  he 
obtained  a  lieutenancy  in  t^e  same  regiment,  and  in  that 
of  April,  a  company  in  the  third  regiment  of  horse.  In 
this  last  regiment  he  rose  to  the  rank  of  major  and  lieu«> 
tenattt*coloneL  In  November  1780,  he  was  included. in 
the  list  of  brevet  colonels,  and  in  1781  was  made  colonel 
of  the  lOSd,  or  king^s  Iri^h  infantry.  On  Sept.  26,  1787^ 
he  was  promoted  to  the  rank  of  major-general. 

Soon  after  the  war  broke  out  on  the  Continent  in 
1792-3,  Jie  was  employed  there,  and  had  the  local  rank* 
of  lieutenant-general  conferred  upon  bim.  He  commanded 
the  advanced  guard  in  the  action  on  the  heights  at  Cateau^ 
and  was  wounded  at  Nimeguen.  -On  every  occasion  his 
bravery  and  skill  procured,  bim  the  warmest  praise  of 
the  commander  in  chief,  and  of  the  army.  In  the  unfortu* 
nate  reti«at  from  Holland,  in  th«  winter  of  1794,  the 
guards  as  well  ^  the  sick  were  left  under  bis  care,  whom 
he  conducted  with  the  utmost  humanity,  amidst  many 
painful  scenes,  during  the  disastrous  march  from  Deven* 
ter  to  Oldensall*  In  1795,  he  was  made  knight  of  the 
Bath,  and  appointed  commander  in  chief  of  the  forces  in 
the  West  Indies.  On  his  arrival,  he  obtained  possession  of 
the  island  of  Grenada,  in  the  month  of  March,  and  soon 
after  of  the  settlements  of  Demarara  and  Essequibo,  in 
South  America.  His  next  conquests  were  the  islands,  of 
St.  Lucia  and  St.  Vincent's;  and  in  February  1797; the 
Spanish  island  of  Trinidad  capitulated  to  him.  This  suc- 
cessful campaign  being  concluded,  he  returned  to  Europe, 
and  had  the  command  conferred  upon  ^  him  of  the  2d,  or 
North  British  dragoons,  and  had  been  before  his  arrival 
promoted  to  the  rank  of  lieutenant-general,  and  was  ap« 

1  Chalmers's  Life  of  Ruddimao,  p.  37.— -Gou^h's  British  T9P9graphy>  vol.  |I. 
«--MaDgeC  Bibliotb.^<-^xii  Onomastlcon. 



pointed  lientenant^gbvemor  of  the  Isle  of  Wight,  from 
which  be  was  in  1798  removed  to  the  higher  office  of  go- 
vernor of  Fort  Augustus  land  Fort  St.  George.  Previous 
to  this  he  was  appointed  commander  in  chief  in  Ireland. 
Jo  this  situation  he  laboured  to  maintain  the  discipline  of 
the  anny,  to  suppress  the  rising  rebellion,  which  had  been 
concerted  between  the  French  government  and  a  number 
of  traitors  at  home ;  and  he  protected  the  people  from  the 
inconveniencies  of  military  government,  with  a  care  and 
skill  worthy  of  the  great  general,  and  the  enlightened  and 
beneficent  statesman.  But  circumstances  rendering  it 
necessary  that  the  civil  and  military  command  of  that  coun« 
try  should  be  invested  in  the  same  person  (the  marquis 
Comwallis),  he .  was  removed  to  the  chief  command  in 
Scotland,  ^ere  his  conduct  gave  universal  satisfaction. 

When  the  great,  and,  in  its  plan,  highly  judicious  enter* 
prize  against  Holland  was  undertaken,  sir  Ralph  Aber- 
cromby  held  a  principal  command  under  his  royal  highness 
the  duke  of  York;   and  it  was  confessed,  even  by  the 
enemy^  that  no  victory  could  have  conferred  more  honour 
than  the  great  talents,  activity,  and  bravery  he  displayed 
in  forwar&ng  the  purposes  of  that  expedition,  which  failed, 
partly  from  the  want  of  a  judicious  co-operation  on  the 
part  of  idur  allies,  the  Russians,  but  perhaps  chiefly  from 
the  eonduct  of  the  Dutch  themselves,  who  still  were  de« 
luded  by  the  professions  and  pretended  amity  of  the  French. 
A  more  favourable  enterprize,  however,  soon  afforded 
our  gallant  hero  an  opportunity  of  immortalizing  his  name. 
This  was  the  memorable  expedition  ordered  in  1801  to 
dispossess  the  French  of- Egypt.     To  this  destination,  sir 
Ralph  conducted  the  English  army  and  fleet  in  perfect 
health  and  spirits,  and  landed  at  Aboukir  on  the  8th  of 
Marcb,  1801,  after  a  severe  battle,  in  which  the  English 
were  victorious.     The  landing,  the  first  dispositions,  the 
attack,  and  the  courage  opposed  to  attack,  the  high  con* 
fidence  of  the  army  in  their  general,  and  the  decided  su- 
periority of  the  British  infantry  under  his  command  over 
the  Firencb,  which  was  thought  the  bravest  and  best  dis- 
ciplined infantry  in  Europe,  all  demonstrated  that  the  best 
qualities  of  the  greatest  commanders  were  united  in  sir 
Ralph  Abercromby.     But  it  was'^his  destiny  to  fall  in  the 
moment  of  victory.     After  having  repulsed  the  French  in 
a  general  attack  upon  our  army  near  Alexandria,  the 
fsenoh  again^  on  the  21st  MaJrcb,  made  a  second  advance. 

60  A  6  £  R  C  R  O  M  B  Y. 

which  was  contested  with  unusual  obstinacy^  and  th^ 
were  again  forced  to  retreat.  On  this  memorable  occa- 
sion, he  received  a  mortal  wound  in  the  thigh,  which  be 
concealed  until  the  enemy  were  totally  routed,  when  he  feh 
from  his  horse  through  loss  of  blood.  He  was  conveyed  from 
the  field  of  battle  on  board  the  admiral's  ship,  where  he  died 
on  the  28th,  and  was  interred  under  (be  castle  of  St.  JClroo, 
in  La  Valetta,  in  the  island  of  Malta.  The  following  jvist 
and  admired  tribute  to  his  memory  was  contained  in  the 
dispatch  from  lord  Hutchinson,  who  succeeded  him  in  the 
chief  command  : — ^^  We  have  sustained  an  irreparable 
loss,  in  the  person  of  our  never  to  be  sufficiently  lamented 
commander  in  chief,  sir  Ralf^  Abercromby,  who  was 
mortally  wounded  in  the  action,  and  died  on.  the  28th  of 
March.  I  believe  he  was  wounded  early  ;  but  he  concealed 
his  situation  from  those  about  him,  and  continued  in  the 
field  giving  his  orders  with  that  coolness  and  perspicuity 
which  had  ever  marked  his  character,  till  long  after  th6 
action  was  over,  when  he  fainted  through  weakness  and 
Joss  of  blood.  Were  it  permitted  for  a  soldier  to  regret 
any  one  who  has  fallen  in  the  service  of  his  country,  I 
might  be  excused  for  lamenting  him  more  than  any  other 
person;  but  it  is  some  consolation  to  those  who  teilderly 
loved  him,  that,  as  his  life  was  honourable,  so  his  death 
was  glorious.  His  memory  will  be  recorded  in  the  annals 
of  his  country ;  will  be  sacred  to  every  British  soldier,  and 
embalmed  in  the  recollection  of  a  grateful  posterity.''  In 
private  life,  sir  Ralph  in  his  manners  had  somewhat  of 
reserve ;  but  was  truly  amiable,  honourable,  and  virtuous, 
.attached  to  his  country  and  to  his  profession,  -and  in  every 
relative  duty  most  exemplary.  He  was  one  of  a  family 
distinguished  for  bravery  or  talents.  His  brother  James, 
a  lieutenant-colonel  in  the  22d  foot,  was  killed  in  America, 
1774,  at  the  battle  of  Bunker's  Hill.  The  character  and 
high  rank  of  his  surviving  brother,  sir  Robert  Abercrombie, 
K.  B.  are  well  known.  Another,  Alexander,  one  of  the 
Scotch  Judges,  died  in  1795,  a  man  of  high  reputation  in 
the  law,  and  not  less  distinguished  for  his  taste  in  the 
belies  lettres.  He  was  the  author  of  ten  papers  in  the 
Mirror,  and  nine  in  the  Lounger,  two  well-known  periodical 
papers  published  at  Edinburgh.  Sir  Ralph  sat  in  three 
parliaments  for  the  county  of  Clacktnannan. 

As  a  testimony  of  national  regard,  the  House  of  C(^^ 
n)Qns  unanimously  voted  a  monument  to  bij^  memory  ia 

A  B  E  R  C  K  0  M  B  Y.  «l 

fiti  PauPs  cathedra])  and  a  pension  of  a£.2000.  was  settled 
on  his  family.  His  widow,  Mary  Anne,  daughter  of  John 
Menzies,  of  Farnton,  in  Perthshire,  esq.  was  created  Ba- 
roness Abercrombie,  of  Aboukir  and  Tillibodie,  in  the 
county  of  Clackmannan,  with  remainder  to  her  issue  male 
by  her  late  husband.  Sir  Ralph  left  four  sons :  George,  a 
barrister,  heir-appai^nt  to  the  barony ;  John,  a  major- 
general  in  the  army ;  James,  member  of  parliament  for 
Midhurst ;  and  Alexander,  also  a  major  in  the  army.  > 

ABERNETHY  (John),  an  eminent  dissenting  minister 
in  Ireland,  was  bora  Oct  19,  1&80 :  his  father  was  a  dis« 
renting  minister  in  Colraine,  his  mother  a  Walkinshaw  of 
Renfrewshire,  in  Scotland.  In  1689  he  was  separated 
from  his  parents;  his  father  having  been  employed  by 
the  Presbyterian  clergy  to  solicit  some  public  afiairs  in 
London,  at  a  time  when  his  mother,  to  avoid  the  tumult 
of  the  insun*ections  in  Ireland,  withdrew  to  Derry.  He 
was  at  this  time  with  a  relation,  who  in  that  general  confu* 
sion  determined  to  remove  to  Scotland;  and  having  no 
opportunity  of  conveying  the  child  to  his  mother,  carried 
him  along  with  him.  Thu^  he  happily  escaped  the  hard- 
ships of  the  siege  of  Derry,  in  which  Mrs.  Abernethy  lost 
all  her  other  children*  Having  spent  some  years  at  a 
grammar-school,  he  was  removed  to  Glasgow  college^ 
where  he  continued  till  he  took  the  degree  of  M.  A.  Hift 
-owa  inclination  led  him  to  the  jitudy  of  physic,  but  he  was 
dissuaded  from  it  by  his  friends,  and  turned  to  that  of  di- 
vinity ;  in  pursuance  of  which  he  went  to  Edinburgh,  and 
was  some  time  under  the  care  of  the  celebrated  professor 
Campbell.  At  his  return  home,  he  proceeded  in  his  stu- 
dies  with  sudi  success,  that  he  was  licensed  to  preach  by 
the  presbytery  before  he  was  21  years  of  age.  In  170$, 
having  a  call  by  the  dissenting  congregation  at  Antrim,  he 
was  ordained.  His  congregation  was  large,  and  he  applied 
himself  to  the  pastoral  work  with  great  diligence.  His 
preaching  was  much  admired;  and,  as  his  heart  was  set 
upon  the  acquisition  of  knowledge,  he  was  very  industrious 
in  reading..  In  1716,  he  attempted  to  remove  the  pre- 
judices of  the  native  Irish  in  the  neighbourhood  of  Antrim, 
who  were  of  the  Popish  persuasion,  and  bring  them  over 
to  the  Protestant  faith.  His  labours  were  not  without  suc^- 
cess,  for  several  were  induced  to  renounce  their  errors. 

>  Gent.  Ma;.  1801,  ISO^.^Biojnraphieal  Peerage.-*-Beatson's  Political  IndeY. 


About  the  time  the  Bangorian  controversy  was- on  foot 
ia  England,  encouraged  by.  the  freedom  of  discussioa 
which  it  had  occasioned,  a  considerable  number  of  minis^ 
ters  and  others,  in  the  North  of  Ireland,  formed  themselves 
into  a  society  for  their  improvement  in  useful  knowled^ 
Their  plan  was  to  bring  things  to  the  test  of  reason  and 
scripture,  without  having  a  servile  osgard  to  any  human 
authority.  Abemethy  pursued  this  design  with  much  zeal^ 
and  constantly  attended  their  meetings  at  Belfast,  whence 
it  was  called  the  Belfast  society.  Debates,  however,  soon 
grew  warm,  and  dissensions  high  among  them,  on  the 
subject  of  requiring  subscription  to  the  Westminster  cou<* 
fession.  This  controversy,  on  the  negative  side  of  which 
Abernethy  was  one  of  the  principal  leaders,  was  brought 
into  the  general  syHod,  and  ended  in  abrupture  in  1726. 
The  Stynod  determined,  that  those  ministers,  who  at  the 
time  of  this  rupture,  and  for  soma  years  before,  were 
known  by  the  name  of  non-subscribers,  should  be  no 
longer  of  their  body :  the  consequence  of  which  was,  that 
the  ministers  of  this  denomination  foimd  everywhere  great 
difficulties  arising  from  jealousies  spread  among  their  peo«> 
pie.  The  reputation  wboch  Abemethy  had  acquired  began 
now  todecay,  and  some  of  his  people  forsook  his  ministry, 
and  went  to  other  congregations:  and  in  a  short  time  the 
number  of  the  scrupulous  and  dissatisfied  so  increased,  that 
they  were  by  the  synod  erected  into  a  distinct  congrega* 
tion,  and  provided  with  a  minister.  There  happened  about 
this  time  a  vacancy  in  the  congregation  of  Wood-street,  in 
Dublin:  to  this  Abernethy  had  an  invitation,  which  he 
accepted.  When  he  came  to  Dublin,  he  applied  himself 
to  study  and  to  the  composing  of  sermons  with  as  great 
industry  as  ever.  He  wrote  all  his  sermons  at  full  length, 
and  constantly  made  use  of  bis  notes  in  the  pulpit.  Here 
he  continued  his  labours  for  ten  years  with  much  reputa^ 
tion  :  and  while  his  friends,  from  the  strength  of  his  con^- 
stitution  and  his  perfect  temperance,  promised  themselves 
a  longer  enjoyment  of  him,  he  was  attacked  by  the  gout, 
to  which  he  had  been  subject,  in  a  vital  part,  and  died, 
Dec.  1740,  in  the  60th  year  of  his  age. 

The  most  celebrated  of  his  writings  were  his  two  volumes 
of  *^  Discourses  on  the  Divine  Attributes,"  die  first  of 
which  only  was  published  during  his  life.  These  excited  a 
very  general  attention  and  admiration,  were  much  ap- 
plauded and  recommended  by  archbishop  Herring,  and 


ue  stiH  held  in  high  esteem.  Four  volumes  of  ^'  Postfau** 
moiis  Sermons"  were  likewise  published,  the  two  first  in 
1748j  and  the  others  in  1757 :  to  which  is  prefixed  the 
life  of  the  author,  written,  as  is  generally  understood,  by 
Dr.  DuchaL  In  1 7^1,  a  volunie  of  his  controversial  ^^Tracts*' 
was  published  in  London.  He  published  in  his  life-time 
three  occasional  Sermons,  and  a  pamphlet  or  two  on  the 
dissenting  controversy.  He  left,  behind  him  a  diary  of  his 
life,  which  begins  in  February  1712-13,  a  little  after  his 
wife^s  death.  It  consists  of  six  large  volumes  in  quartoy  in 
a  ^ery  small  hand,  and  very  closely  written.  It  is,  indeed, 
say  his  biographers,  an  amazing  work,  in  which  the  temper 
of  his  soul  is  throughout  expressed  with  much  exactness ; 
and  the  various  events  he  met  with  are  described ;  ti^ether 
with  his  reflections  upon  them,  and  his  improvements  of 
them.  The  whole  bears  such  characters  of  a  reverence 
and  awe  of  the  Divine  presence  upon  his  mind,  of  a  sim« 
plicity  and  sincerity  of  spirit,  and  of  the  most  careful  dis^ 
cipline  of  the  heut,  that  how  great  soever  his  reputatioa 
in  the  world  was^  it  shews  his  real  worth  to  have  been  su«- 
perior  to  the  esteem  in  which  he  was  held.  ^ 
'  ABGAR,  or  ABGARUS,  a  name  given  to  several  of  the 
kings  of  Edessa  in  Syria,  one  of  whom  is  said  to  have 
written  a  letter  to  our  Saviour,  and  to  have  received  an 
answer,  and  at  the  same  time  an  handkerchief,  on  which 
was  impressed  the  portrait  of  Jesus  Christ.  Eusebius  is 
the  first  who  has  reported  this  story,  which  has  generally 
obtained  more  belief  from  Protestant  than  from  Popish 
writers.  Father  Simon  and  M.  du  Pin  pronounce  the  let** 
ters  to  be  forgeries,  while  Dr.  Parker,  in  his  *^  Demon 
Stration  of  the  Law  of  Nature  and  the  Christian  Religion, 
Dr.  Cave^  in  his  Literary  History,  and  Dr.  Grabe,  in  Iida 
*^  Spicilegium  Patrum,"  and  others,  are  inclined  to  think 
them  genuine  Dr.  Lardner,  however^^n  his.'^  Testimoniea 
of  ancient  Heathen  Authors,**  argues  with  much  force  of 
reasoning  against  their  authenticity.  The  letters  being, 
short,  are  inserted  here  as  curiosities. 
"  The  copy  of  the  letter  which  was  written  by  Abgarus  the 

toparch  to  Jesus,  and  sent  to  him* at  Jerusalem  by  the 

courier  Ananiiis : 

'^  Abgarus,  toparch  of  Edessa,  to  Jesus  the  good  saviour, 
who  has  appeared,  at  Jerusalem,  sendeth  greeting.  I  have 
heard  of  thee,  and  of  thy  cures,  performed  without  herbs, 

1  Bioy.  Brit.— Life  prefixed  to  his  Sermons. 


€4  A  B  G  A  R  U  a 

or  other  medicines.  For  it  is  reported  that,  tbou  jrfiiijcesli 
the  blind  to  see,  and  the  lame  to  walk ;  that  thou  cleapseat 
lepers,  and  castest  out  unclean  spirits. and  demons,  and 
bealest  those  who  are  tormented  with  diseases  of  a  long^ 
standing,  and  raisest  the  dead.  Having  heard  of  all  th^^e 
things  concerning  thee,  I  conclude  in  my  mind  one  of 
these  two  things — either  that  thou  art  God  cpme  down  froj;i% 
lieaven  to  do  these  things,  or  else  thou  art  the  Son  of  God,^' 
and  so  performest  them.  Wherefore  I  now  write. unto  thee^ 
entreating  thee  to  come  to  me,  and  to  heal  my  distempei:# 
Moreover,  I  hear  that  the  Jews  murmur  against  thee^  .and 
plot  to  do  thee  mischief.  I  have  a  city,  small  indeed!^  but 
neat,  which  may  suffice  for  us  both.'' 
**  The  rescript  of  Jesus  to  the  toparch  Abgarus^ .  j^ept  by 

the  courier  Ananias : 
^^  Abgarus,  thou  art  happy,  forasmuch  as  thou.has.t  be«- 
lieved  in  me,  though  thou  hast  not  seen  me.  For  it  is; 
written  concerning  me,  that  they  who  have  seen  pie  should 
not  believe  in  me,  that  they  who  have  not  seen  me  mighti 
believe  and  live.  As  for  what  thou  hast  written  to  me»; 
desiring  me  to  come  to  thee,  it  is  necessary  that  all  thp^e 
things,  for  which  I  am  sent,  should  be  fulfilled  by  m^  her^e ;' 
and  that,  after  fulfilling  them,  I  should  be  received  up  to 
him  that  sent  me.  When,  therefore,  I  shall  be  re^eiv^cjl 
up,  I  will  send  to  thee  some  one  of  my  disciples,  that  h^ 
may  heal  thy  distemper,  and  give  life  to  thee,  and  to  thp^e^ 
who  are  with  theeJ' 

The  disciple,  thus'  sent,  was  Thaddeus,  one  of  the  se-, 
venty,    according  to  Eusebius'.  ajccount,    which   Lardner 
allows,  may  have  been  procured  by  that  historian  from  the. 
archives  of  the  eity  of  Edessa.     But  it  is  not,  perhap.s^ 
necessary  to  dwell  longer  on  the  authenticity  of  what,  is 
fiow  so  generally  given  up  by  ecclesiastical  writers.   Before 
Lardner's  time,  an  ample  confutation  appeared  in  the  Ge- 
neral Dictionary,  including  Bayle,  art.  Abgaaus  ;  and  Mr». 
Jones,  in  the  second  volume  of  ^^A  new  and/uU  method 
of  settling  the  canonical  authority  of  the.NewTestament^'V 
discussed  the  question  Vith  much  learning  and  judgment*- , 
Mosheim  seems  to  be  of  opinion  that,  although  the  letters  . 
are  spurious,  there  is  no  reason  of  sufficient  weight  to  de- 
stroy the  credibility  of  Abgarus  having  applied  to^  oar  Sa« 
Tiour  for  his  assistance. ' 

1  Cen.  Diet.— Mosheim't  Eccl.  Hist— Lardner's  Works,  vol.  VII.  ^22,  with 
ffcye  references  in  these  works. 

A  B  I  O  S  I.  €« 



AblOSI,  or  ABIOSUS,  a  physician  and  mathematician, 
born  at  Bagnnolo,  in  the  kingdom  of  Naples,  flourished 
toveards  the  end  of  the  fifteenth  and  beginning  of  the  six* 
teenth  century.  Some  of  his  works  were  much  esteemed- 
tiis  ^'Dialogus  in  Astrologise  defensionem,  item  Vatici* 
nium  a  diiuvio  usque  ad  Christi  annos  17/'  Venice,  1474, 
4to,  was  put  into  the  Index  Expurgatorius,  aud  is  extremely 



ABLE,  or  ABEL  (Thomas),  an  English  divine,  was 
educated  at  Oxford,  where  he  took  the  degree  of  B.  A* 
July  4,  1513,  and  that  of  M.  A.  June  27,  1516^  and  after^ 
wards  proceeding  in  divinity,  became  doctor  of  that  fk-^ 
culty.  He  was  not  only  a  man  of  learning,  but  a  great 
master  of  instrumental  music,  and  welt  skilled  in  the  910* 
dern  languages.  These  qualifications  introduced  him  at 
court,  wliere  he  became  domestic  chaplain  to  queen  Cathe^^ 
rine,  wife  of  Henry  VIH.  and  taught  her  music  and  gramu 
mar.  Strype  calls  him  *^  the  lady  Marie's  chaplain.'*  In 
1530  queen  Catherine  gave  him  the  living  of  BradwelU 
juxta-mare,  in  Essex ;  and  the  affection  he  bore  to  his 
royal  mistress  engaged  him  in  that  dangerous  controversy 
which  was  occasioned  by  king  Henry's  determipation  ti 
divorce  Catherine  that  he  might  be  at  liberty  to  man^ 
Anne  -Bullen.  Able  opposed  this  divorce  both  by  word 
and  writing,  publiidiing  a  tract,  entitled,  ^^Tractatuis  de 
non  dissolvendo  Uenrici  et  Catherinae  matrimonia*^'  Tan^ 
ner  mentions  this,  or  perhaps  another  tract,  by  the  name 
of  '^  Invicta  Veritas :  An  answer,  that  by  no  manner  of 
law  it  may  be  lawful  for  the  king  to  be  divorced  from  th« 
queen*s  grace,  his  lawful  and  very  wife.'^  It  is  not  impro- 
bable that  this  was  a  distinct  tract  from  the  former,  as  in 
the  8tat«  25  Henry  VUI.  c.  12,  he  is  mentioned  as  having 
^'  caused  to  be  |irinted — divers  books  against  the  said  di- 
vorce and  separation — animating  the  said  lady  Catherine 
to  persist  in  her  opinion  against  the  divorce — ^procured 
divers  writings  to  be  made  by  her  by  the  name  of  Queen-^ 
abetted  her  servants  tj^  call  her  Queen."  In  1534  he  was 
prosecuted  for  being  tfoncerned  in  the  affair  of  Elizabeth 

1  Di«t.  Hist.  l810.-.Fabric.  Bib!.  Gr. 

Vol.  I.        ^  F 

««  ABLE. 

Barton,  called  the  Holy  Maid  of  Kent,  and  was  found 
guilty  of  misprision,  of  treason.  He  was  also  one  of  those 
Yfho  denied : the  king^s  supremacy  over  the,  church;  for 
WJiich  he  was  imprisoned,  and  afterwards  banged,  drawn, 
^d  quartered  in  Smithfield,  July  30,  1540.  In  a  room  in 
Beaucbamp*s,  Tower,  in  the  Tower  of  London,  anciently  a 
plaoe  of  confinement  for  state  prisoners,  are.  a  great  num-r 
^er  of  inscriptions  on  the  wall,  written  by  th^  prisoners, 
Mtkd  among  others,  under  the  word  Thomas  a  gi^at  A  upon 
a  bell,  a  punning  rebus  on  his  name.* 

ABNEY  (Sir  ThoMas),  an  eminent  magi$tni|te  qi  the 
city  of  London,  was  one  of  the  younger  sons  of  Jaines 
Abnqy,  esq.  of  Willesley,  in  the  county  of  Derby,  where 
his  ancestors  had  resided  for  upwards  of  five  hundred  years* 
He  vgtas  born!  January  1689  ;  and,  as  his  mother  died  ii^  his 
mfancy,  his  father  placed  him  at  Loughborough  school,  in 
Leioe&tershire,  tobe  under  the  eye  of  his.aunt^  lady  Brom-r 
ley>  widow  of  sir  Edward  Bromley,  a  barorx  of  the  Exche- 
quer in  the  reigns  of  queen  Eli^abejth  and  James  I.  At 
what  time  he  oame  to  London^  we  are  fiot  toM;  but  he 
appears  to  have  carried  on  busioe^  with  srUCf  e3s  and  repu* 
tetion,  as  in  I693i  he  was  elected  sheriff  of  London,  .«nd 
in  the  following  year  he  was  chosen  alderman  of  Vintry 
ward,  and  about  the  same  time  received  :^he  boopur  of 
i^fiightbood  from  king  William^  In.  ITOO^  some  years  before 
kis  turn,  be  was  chosen  lord  maypr,  and  employed^  his 
inftuence  in  faivour  of  the  Protestant  .religion  with  niM^h 
0eaK  He  had  the  courage,  a^  this  critii^^l  juncture,  ^b^n 
the  king  of  Framcie  had  proclaimed  tbe  Pretepder  king  of 
Great  Britain,  to  propose  an  addrasa  firom  the.  Co^poratipa 
to  king  William,  although  opposi^d  by  the  majority  of  his 
brethren  on  the  bench;  ^ud  be  completely  s^Q^elWd.  The 
^example  being  followed  by  other  corpqre^tioDs^  ihis^me^suee 
proved  of  substantial  service  to  the  kiug»  who  was  thereby 
si^ncouraged  to  dissolve  the. Parliament,  and  t9Jke<j^  sense 
of  the  people,  which  was  almost  univen^aUy  in.  favour  of 
the  Protestant  succession.  The  zeal  sir  Thomas  had  dis- 
played^ in  l^is  ailair,  as  well  93  his  steady  adber^ice  to  the 
•eivil  and  religious  privileges  estajbilished  by  the  Hevolutiou^ 
-rendered  him  so  popular,  that  his  fellow^i^isea»  elected 
kkkn  their  representative  in  parliament.    He  wsl%  «4s0  one  cf 

1  Biog.   Brit.— Tanner.— Pitts.— Dod's   Church   History.— Wood's  AtheiwB, 
vol.  I. — Archsologia,  rol.  XUI.  wbere  the  inscriptions  in  the  Jomer  are^ 
plained  by  Mr.  Bi^nd.  .        ^ 

A  B  N  E  Y.  ^ 

the  first  promoters  of  the  Bank  of  England,  and  for  many 
years  before  his  death  was  one  of  its  directors.  He  died 
Feb.  6,  1721-29  aged  83,  after  having  survived  all  hi$ 
senior  brethren  of  the  court  of  Aldermen,  and  become  the 
]£atther  of  the  city.  He  was  a  man  of  strict  piety  *  and  inde- 
pendence of  mind,  and  munificent  in  his  charities.  Having 
been  educated  among  the  dissenters,  he  attended  their 
places  of  worship  in  common,  but  in  his  magistracy  at- 
jtendedthe  church  on  all  public  occasions,  and  when  soli« 
^itecl  to  support  public  charities.  The  moat  remaorkable 
circumstance  of  his  hospitality,  is  the  kind  and  lasting  asy- 
lum which  he  provided  for  the  celebrated  Dr.  Watts  at  his 
house  at  Stoke  Newington.  That  eminent  divine  was  at- 
tacked by  an  illness  in  1712,  which  incapacitated  him  £jt 
public  service.  ^^  Tbis  calamitous  state,"  says  Dr^  Johnson^ 
^^madethe  compassion  of  his  friends  necessary^  and  drew 
upon  him  the  attention  of  sir  Thomas  Abney,  who  received 
him  into  his  house ;  where,  with  a  constancy  of  friendship 
and  uniformity  of  conduct  not  often  to  be  found,  he  was 
treated  for  thirty^siic  years  with  all  the  kindness  that  friend- 
ship could  prompt,  and  all  the  attention  that  respect  could 
dictate.  Sir  Thomas  died  about  eight  years  afterwards^ 
but  he  continued  with  the  lady  and  her  daughters  to  the  end 
Of  bis  life." 

.  Sir  Thomas  wafi  married,  first,  to  a  younger  daughter  of 
the  Rev.  Joseph  Caryl,  by  whom  he  had  seven  children^ 
*  who  all  died  before  him.  In  1700  he  married  Mary  Gun^ 
stoR,  eldest  daughter  of  John  Gunston,  of  Stoke  Newing- 
ton, esq.  by  whom  he  had  a  son,  who  died  in  infancy,  and 
three  daughters,  who  survived  hinr;  the  last,  Elizabeth^ 
dyuig  unmarried  in  1782,  aged  78..  By  this  second  wife, 
Bir  Thomas  became :posse8sed  of  the  manor  of  Stoke  NeW- 
mgton,  and  lived  in  the  manor-nhouse.  ^ 

ABOU-HANIFAH,  or  ABOANIFA,  surnamed  Al- 
KOOMAN,  was  the  son  of  Thabet,  and  born  at  Cousa,  ia 
the.  year  of  the  Hegira  80,  and  of  the  vulgar  s&ra  700.    He 

%•     .    ,      • 

*  His  religious  observances,  whether  aiid  that  upon  the  evening  of  the  dajr 

pubFic  or  domestic,  he  never  suffered  he  entered  on  his  office,  he  without 

to  be  iottnrrupied  by  business  or  plea-  any-  notice  withdrew  from  the  public 

•urew    Lady  Abney  informed  Dr.  Gib-  assembly  at  Guildhall  after  suppert 

bont,  one  of  the  biographers  of  Dr.  went  to   hii  house,  there  performed 

Watts,  that  be  kept  up  regular  prayer  family  worship,  and  then  returned  id 

in  im  faoiily  during  all  his  mayoralty,  the  company  ! 

.  1  Life  of  sir  Thomas  Abney  appended  to  his  Funeral  Sermoo  by  Jeramiall 
Sjjiitb,  1772,  8vo.— Johnson's  Life  of  Watts.— Gibboiis's  Life  of  Watte.— Lf- 
«9B^  Bnril-0116  of  Loudota,  vol,  ll.— Brown's  History  of  Stoke  ifewiDgton. 

F  2 

*«  A  B  O  U  .  H  A  N-l  F  A  H. 

is  thief  ihost  famous  of  all  the  doctors  of  the  orthodox  trm<^^ 
sulmarts,  concerning  the  matters  of  their  law ;  for  he  held 
the  first  place  among  the  four  chiefs  of  particular  sects, 
who  may  be  followed  implicitly  in  their  decisions  on  points 
of  right.  He  was  not,  however,  in  high  estimation  during 
his  life,  as  the  calif  Almanzor  had  him  put  into  prison 
at  Bagdat,  for  refusing  to  subscribe  to  the  opinion  of  abso* 
lute  snd  determinate  predestination,  which  the  mussulman^ 
term  cadha :  but  Abu-Joseph,  sovereign  Judge,  and  a  ^ort 
of  chancellor  of  the  empire  under  the  calif  Hadi,  brought 
his  doctrine  into  such  reputation,  that,  in  order  to  be  a 
good  mussulman,  it  was  necessary  to  be  a  Hanifite.  Ne- 
vertheless he  died  in  the  prison  of  Bagdat ;  and  it  was  not 
till  335  years  after  his  death  that  Melikshab,  sultan  of  the 
race  of  the  Seljuk  dynasty,  caused  to  be  built  for  him  in 
the  same  city  a  noble  mausoleum,  to  which  he  added  a 
college  particularly  for  those  who  made  profession  of  hift 
sect.  This  was  in  the  year  485  of  the  Hegira,  of  the 
vulgar  cera  1092.  Several  of  the  most  illustrious  author9 
among  the  Mohammedans  have  written,  in  a  style  of  com- 
mendation, the  life  of  this  doctor  \  Zamakhschari,  Korderi, 
Marghinani,  Deinouri,  Sobahazmouni,  are  of  that  number : 
and  some  of  them  have  even  found  his  name  in  the  Old 
Testament,  and  assert  that  he  was  foretold  in  the  sacred 
writings,  as  well  as  their  prophet.  All  the  historians  agree 
^at  he  excelled  not  only  in  the  knowledge,  but  also  in  the 
practice  of  the  mussulman  law:  for  he  led  a  life  of  great 
austerity,  entirely  detached  from  the  manners  of  the  world  ;' 
which  has  caused  him  to  be  considered  as  the  first  chief 
and  iman  of  the  law  by  all  the  orthodox,  and  he  is  only 
ejected  by  t!ie  Shiites,  or  followers  of  Ali.  The  author"  of 
Kabialabrar  relates  the  opinion  of  this  doctor  concerning 
the  authority  of  tradition  in  these  terms  :  ^^  As  to  what 
regards  the  things  we  have  received  from  God  and  from 
his  prophet,  we  respect  them  with  perfect  submission :  as 
to  what  is  come  down  to  us  from  the  companions  or  con** 
temporaries  of  the  prophet,  we  select  the  best  of  it ;  H^it 
as  to  what  the  other  doctors  who  succeeded  them  have  left 
us,  we  look  upon  it  as  coming  from  persons  who  were  men 
like  us."  Houssain-Vaez,  expounding  that  verse  of  the 
chapter  of  Amram,  where  God  says  he  has  prepared  Para- 
dise for  those  who  restrain  their  anger,  and  pardon  such  as. 
have  trespassed  against  them',  relates  a  fact  of  Abou-Ha* 
nifah  that  deserves  to  be  not^.    That '  doctor,  liaving  re- 

A  B  O  U  -  H  A  N  I  F  A  H.  «« 

eeived  a  blow  on  the  face,  said  to  him  who  had  tbe,4Ui<}a« 
<ity  to  strike  him  :  "I  might  return  you  injury  for  injury; 
but  I  will  not  do  it.  1  might  carry  my  complaint  to  the' 
calif;  but  1  will  not  complain.  I  might  at  least  lay  before 
God  in  my  prayers  the  outrage  you  h%ve  done  me;  but  I 
will  not.  Lastly,  I  might,  at  the  day  of  judgment,  require 
God  to  avenge  it;  but,  far  from  doing  so,  if  tha^  terrible 
day  were  to  arrive  this  moment,  and  my  intercession  might 
avail,  I  would  not  enter  into  Paradise^  except  in  your 

The  principal,  writings  of  Abou-Hanifah  are:  ^'The 
Mesnud,''  i.  e.  The  Support,  in  which  he  establishes  all 
the  points  of  Mussulmanism  on  the.  authority  of  the  Koran, 
and  that  of  tradition.  A  treatise,  ^'  Filkelam,  on  scholastic 
theology;*'  and  a  catechism,  or .  instruction,  under  the 
title  of  "Moallem,"  that  is.  The  Master;  in  which  be 
maintains  tiiat  the  faithful  who  adhere  to  the  faith,  never  be«- 
come  the  eneuiies  of  God,  though  they  fall  into  many  sins ; 
tliat  sius  do  not  cause  a  man  to  lose  the  faith,  and  that  grace 
is  not  incompatible  with  sin.  These  propositions,  and 
others  of  a  tike  nature,  gave  a  handle  to  Vazai  to  write 
against  him  the  book  ^VEkhtelaf  Abi*Hanif»h,''  or,  Th<i 
^contradictions  of  Abou-Hanifah.  V 

ABOULOLA  (Ahmed  ben  Souman),  an  Arabian  poet^ 
was  born  in  the  town  of  Maara,  A.  D.  973.  He  was  blind 
irum  three  years  old,  having  lost  his  sight  at  that  age  by 
the  small-ppx;  but  this  defect  was  compensated  by  the 
qualities  of  his  mind.  He  adopted  the  vegetable  diet  ot 
the  Bramins,  but  appears  in  other  respects  to  have  believed 
io  no  religious  principles.  His  principal  work  was  >entitled 
Sekth-alrzend,  a  poem  which  was  greatly  esteemed  in  the 
East  He  was  considered  as  one  of  the  most  celebrated 
poets  of  bis  nation.  .  He  died  in  1057.  Fabricius  in  163S, 
and  Golius  in  1^56,  published  some  extracts  from  his  poem.* 

ABOU-RIHAN,  a  native  of  Biroun,  in  the  province  of 
Khovarezme,.  who  flourished  about  the  beginning  of  the 
eWentb  century,  attained  the  title  of  AUMobakapad,  or 
the  subtle  philosopher,  on  account  of  his  knowledge  of  the 
^i»fences,  and  particularly  his  skill  in  astrology.  He  was 
contemporary  and  rival  to  Avicenna,  a  more  celebrated 
Arabian  writer.  Abou^rilian  wrote  some  treatises  on  Geo^ 
grapby,  the  fixed  istars^  and  the  sphere.  ^ 

»  Moreri.^— irHerbelot  B»^l.  Orient. 

»  D»Herb«l©t/^Dict  Hist.  •  P'H«rb«lot— Moreri. 


A.B  R  A  B  A  N  E  L. 

ABRABANEL  (Isaac)^   a  famous  r^bbi,  was  born  at 
Lisbon  in   1437,  of  a  family  who  boasted  their  descent 
from  king  David.     He  raised  himself  considerably  at  the 
court  of  Alphonso  V.  king  of  Portugal,  and  was  honoured 
with  very  high  offices,  which  he  enjoyed  till  this  prince'* 
death ;  but,  upon  his  decease,,  he  felt  a  strange  reverse  of 
fortune  under  the  new  king.     Abrabanel  was  in  bis  45tb 
year,  when  John  IL  succeeded  his  father  Alphonso.     All 
those  who  had.  any  share  in  the  adtpinistration  of  the  pre« 
ceding  reign  were  discarded :  and,  if  we  give  credit  to  oup 
rabbi,  their  death  was  secretly  resolved,  under  the  prcr 
text  of  their  having  formed  a  design  to  give  up  the  crowci 
of  Portugal  to  the  king  of  Spain.     Abrabanel,  however, 
suspecting  nothing,  in  obedience  to  the  order  he  received 
to  attend  his  majesty,  set  out  for  Lisbon  with  all  expedi- 
tion ;  but  having,  on  his  journey,  heard  of  what  was  plot- 
ting against  his  life,   fled  immediately  to   bis   Castilian 
majesty's  dominions.     A  party  of  soldiers  were  dispatched 
after  him,  with  orders  to  bring  him  dead  or  alive ;  how- 
ever, he  made  his  escape,  but  his  possessions  were  con- 
fiscated.    On  this  occasion  he  lost  all  hid  books ;  and  also 
the  beginning  of  his  Commentary  upon  the  book  of  Deu- 
teronomy, which  he  much  regretted.     Some  writers  affirm, 
that  the  cause  of  his  disgrace  at  this  time  was  wholly  owing 
to  his  bad  behaviour ;  and  they  are  of  the  same  opinion  in 
regard  to  the  other  persecutions  which  he  afterwards  siff- 
fered.     They  affirm  that  he  would  have  been  treated  with' 
greater  severity^  had  not  king  John  contented  himself  with 
banishing  him.     They  add  that  by  negociating  bills  of  ex«» 
change  (which  was  the  business  he  followed  in  Castile),  be 
gQt  introduced  at  the  court  of  Ferdinand  and  Isabella:  that 
he  amassed  prodigious  wealth,  by  practising  the  usual  tricks 
and  frauds  of  the  Jewish  people,  that  he  oppressed  the  poor, 
and  by  usury  made  a  prey  of  every  thing ;  that  he  had  die 
yanity  to  aspire  at  the  most  illustrious  titles,  such  as  the 
noblest  houses  in  Spain  could  hardly  attain,  and  that  being, 
a  determined  enemy  of  the  Christian  religion,  he  was  Ae 
principal  cause  of  that  storm  which  fell  upon  him  and  the 
rest  of  his  nation.     Of  the  truth  of  all  this,  some  doubt 
may  be  entertained.     That  he  amassed  prodigious  wealth 
seems  not  very  probable,  as  immedkitely  on  his  settling  in 
Castile,  he  began  to  teach  and  write.     In  1494,  he  wrote 
his  "  Commentary  upon  the  books  of  Joshua,  Judges,  and 
Samuel''     Bein^g  afterwards  sent  for  to  the  court  of  Fer^ 

A  B  R  A  B  A  N  £  L.  7| 

dinandand  Isabel,  he  was  advanced  to  preferment';  wbicb 
he  enjoyed  tili  1492,  when  the  Jews  w^re  driven  out 
of  the  Sparfish  dominions*  He  used  his  utmost  endea'v 
vours  to  avert  this  dreadful  storm ;  but  ail  proved  ineifeo* 
tual ;  so  that  he  and  all  his  family  were  obliged  to  quit  the 
kingdom,  with  the  rest  of  the  Jews.  He  retired  to  Naples; 
and,  in  1 493,  wrote  his  ^^  Commentary  ou  the  books  of 
the  Kings.*'.  Having  been  bred  a  courtier,  he  did  not 
neglect  to  avail  himself  of  the  knowledge  he  had  acquired 
lit  the  courts  of  Portugal  and  Arragon,  so  that  he  soon  iu* 
gratiated  himself  into  the  favour  of  Ferdinand  kiag  of  Na- 
ples, and  afterwards  into  that  of  Alphonso.  He  followed 
the  fortune  of  the  latter,  accompanying  him  into  Sicily^ 
when  Charles  VIII.  the  French  king,  drove  him  froui 
Naples.  Upon  the  death  of  Alphonso  he  retired  to  th^ 
island  of  Corfu,  where  he  began  his  **  Commentary  on 
Isaiah^'  in  1495;  and,  about  this  time,  he  had  the  good 
fortune  to  find  what  he  had  written  on  the  book  of  I>eu<» 
teronomy.  The  following  year  he  returned  to  Italy,  and 
went  to  MoQopoli  in  Apulia,  where  he  wrote  several  booksi 
In  1496  be  finished  his  ^^  Commeutary  on  Deuteronomy  ;*' 
and  also  composed  his  '^  Sevach  Pesach,**'  and  his  *^  Na«* 
chalath  Avoth.'*  In  the  succeeding  year  he  wrote  his 
^' Majene  Hajeschua  ;*'  and  in  1498  his  <^  Maschmia  Jes* 
chua,"  and  his  ^'  Commeutary  on  Isaiah.*'  Some  time  after, 
he  went  to  Venice,  to  settle  the  disputes  betwixt  the  Ve* 
netians  and  Portuguese  relating  to  the  spice  trade ;  and 
on  this  occasion  he  displayed  so  much  prudence  and  ca«> 
pacity,  that  be  acquired  the  favour  and  esteem  of  both 
those  powers.  In  1504  he  wrote  his  '^Commentary  oil 
Jeremiah ;"  and,  according  to  some  authors,  his  *'  Com- 
mentary on  Ezekiel,  and  the  twelve  minor  prophets."  lit 
1506  he  composed  his  '^  Commentary  on  Exodus;"  and 
died  at  Venice  in  1508,  in  the  7ist  year  of  his  age.  Se« 
▼eral  of  the  Venetian  nobles,  and  all  the  principal  Jews^ 
attended  his  funeral  with  great  pomp.  His  corpse  was 
interred  at  Padua,  in  a  burial-place  without  the  city. 
Abrabanel  wrote  several  other  pieces,  besides  what  we 
have  mientioned,  the  dates  of  which  are  not  settled,  and 
some  have  not  been  printed.  The  following  list  appears  iji 
the  Leipsie  Journal  (Nov.  1686),  and  is  probably  correct: 
1.  '^  Commentaries  on  Genesis,  Leviticus,  and  Numbers/* 
^.  <*  Rach  Amana."  3,  "  Sepher  Jeschuoth  'Moschici,  a 
treatise  on  the  traditions  relating  to  the  Messiah.''     4k 

72  A  B  R  A  B  AN  EL- 

*'  Zedek  Olammim^  upon  future  rewards  and  punishments/* 
5.  ^' Sepber  Jemoth  Olam,  a  history  tronv- the  time  of 
Adam."  6.  *^  Maamer  Machase  Schaddai,  a  treatise  on 
prophecy  and  the  vision  of  Ezekiel,  against  rabbi  Maimo"* 
nides."  7,  "  Sepher  Atereth  Sekenim."  8,  "  Miphabth 
Elohim,  works  of  God.".  9.  ^' Sepher  Schamaim  Chadas^ 
chim.^'  10.  "  Labakath  Nebhiim."  His  "  Commentary  on 
Haggai"  was  translated  into  Latin  by  Adam  SUerzerus, 
and  inserted  in  the  Trifolium  Orieutale,  published  in 
Leipsic  in  1663,  where  bis  ^^  Commentary  on-  Joshua, 
Judges,  and  Samuel,"  was  alsp  printed  in  1686,  tbiio. 
In  this  same  year  his  *^  Annotations  on  Hosea,"  with  a 
preface  on  the  twelve  minor  prophets,  were  translated  into 
French  by  Erancis  ab  Husen,  and  published  at  Leyden. 
In  1683,  Mr.  de  Veil,  a  converted  Jew,  published  at  Lon- 
don AbrabanePs  preface  to  Leviticus.  His. commentaries 
on  the  Scriptures,  especially  those  on  the  prophets,  ai^ 
filled  with  so  much  rancour  against  our  Saviour,  the  church, 
the  pope,  the  cardinals,  the  whole  clergy,  and  all  Chris-> 
tians  in  general,  but  .in  a  particular  munner  against  the 
Boman  catholics,  that  father  Bartolocci  was  •  desirous  the 
Jews '  should  be  forbid  the  perusal  of  them.  And  he 
tells  us  that  they  were  accordingly  not  allowed  to  read  or 
to  keep  io  their  houses  AbrabanePs  commentaries  on  the 
latter  prophets.  He  was  a  man  of  so  great  a  genius,  that 
most  persons  have  equalled  him,  and  some  even  preferred 
him)  to  tb(3  celebrated  Maimouides.  The  Jews  set  a  high 
value  upon  what  he  has  written  to  refute,  the  arguments 
and  objections  of  the  Christians ;  and  the  latter,  though 
they  hold  in  contempt  what  be  has  advanced  upon  this 
head,  yet  allow  great  merit  in  bis  other  performances, 
wherein  he  gives  many  proofs  of  genius,  learning,  and  pe* 
netration.  He  does  not  blindly  follow,  the  epinions  of  his 
superiors,  but  censures  their  mistakes  with  great  freedom. 
The  persecutions  of  the  Jews,  under  which  iie  had  been  a 
considerable  sufferer,  affected  him  to  a  very  great  degree ; 
so  that  the  remembrance  of  it  worked  up  his  indignation, 
and  made  bim  inveigh  against  the  Christians  in  the  strong** 
est  terms.  There  is  hardly  one  of  his  books  where  he  has* 
omitted  to  shew  bis  resentmeut,  and  de«ire  of  reVenge; 
and  whatever  the  subject  may  be,  he  never  iails  to  bring 
in  the  distressed  condition  of  the  Jews.  He  was  mo^t  as- 
iiduous  in  his  studies,  in  -which  he  would  spend  whole 
oig^hts,  and  would  fast  for  a  considerable  lime. .  He  had  % 


great  f4cility  in  writiog ;  and  though  he  discovered  an  im- 
placable hatred  to  the  Christians  in  his  compositions,  yer^ 
when  ill  company  with  tbem^  he  behaved  with  great  po« 
liteuess^  and  would  be  very  cheerful  in  conversation.  ^ 

ABUAHAM  (Nicholas),  9  learned  Jesuit,  was  born  in 
the  diocese  of  I'oui  in  Lorruin,  in  15S9  ;  he  entered  into  the 
society  of  Jesus  in  1609,  and  took  the  fourth  vow  in  1623. 
He  taught  the  belies  lettres,  and  was  made  divinity  pro-> 
fessor  in  the  university  of  Pont^a-Mousson,  whiph  place  he 
enjoyed  17  years,  and  died  Sept.  7,  1655. 

His  v^orks  are :  1.  **  Commentaries  on  Virgil's  JEneid,*' 
printed  at  PoQt-u*Moussony  1632,  Svo;  and  again  atTou* 
louse,  1644;  at  Rouen,  1637  and  1648.  2.  "Comment 
tary  on  the  third  volume  of  Cicero*s  Orations,''  Paris,  1631, 
2  vols.  fol.  His  Analyses  of  the  Orations  were  publi^ed 
separately  at  Pont-a-Mousson,  1633,  4to.  3.  *^Pharu« 
Veteris  Testament!,  sive  sacrarum  questionum  libri  XV.'* 
Paris,,  1648,  fol.  This  is  the  modt  esteemed  of  his  works. 
4.  '^  Nonni  Neopolitani  paraphrasis  sancti  secundum  Jo* 
annem  £vangelii.  Accesserunt  notae  P.  N.  A,  soc.  Jes.'* 
Paris,  1623,  Svo.  These  notes  were  from  the  p'^en  of  bur 
author.  He  published  also  a  Hebrew  grammar  in  Latin' 
verse,  and  translated  into  French  Bartoli's  Italian  pieces, 
"  The  Life  of  Vinant  Caraffa  ;'  «  The  Man  of  Letters,"  and 
"  Contented  Poverty."  As  an  original  writer  he  is  unconi*- 
monly  prolix,  but  displays  much  learning  and  acuteness. 
Bayie  gives  most  praise  to  his  commentary  on  Cicero,  by  ' 
which  Osorius  and  Olivet  profited  much ;  but  others  prefer- 
his  Pbarus.  It  may  be  necessary  to  add  what  is  meant  by  his 
taking  the  fourth  vow.  In  addition  to  the  vows  of  poverty, 
chastity,  and  obedience,  the  fourth  is,  that  the  person  taking 
it  shall  labour  to  promote  the  salvation  of  others,  by  instruct-* 
i^g  youth,  preaching,  administering  the  sacraments,  and  by 
becoming  misatonarie&t  among  heretics  and  idolaters,  ^ 

ABRAHAM  (B£N  Chaila),  a  Spanish  rabbi,  of  the 
thirteenth  century,  practised  astrology,  and  assuming  the 
character  of  a  prophet,  predicted  the  coming  of  the  Mes«- 
8iab  to  be  in  1358,  but  died  himself  in  1303,  fifty-five 
years  before  the  time  when  his  prediction  was  to  be  fuU 
filled.  A  treatise  of  his,  ^^De  Nativitatibus,'*  was  printed 
at  Rome  in  1545,  4to.    He  is  also  said  to  have  written  a 

1  Gfn*  Dict,<— Moreri.-i^Simon  Crit.  Hist.     • 

*  Bajple  in  Gen.  Diet. — Kooigti  Bibl.  Vet.  et  Nov.— Baillet  Jugemens,  ton* 
2.  p..240,  24  U 



treatise  on  the  figure  of  the  earth,  in  Hebrew  and  Latih^ 
which  was  published  at  Basil,   1546,  4to.  * 

ABRAHAM  (Usque),  a  Portuguese  Jew,  though  Ar- 
naud  thinks  him  a  Christian,  joined  with  Tobias  Athias  in 
giving  a  Spanish  translation  of  the  Bible  in  the  1 6th  cen- 
tury.     The  title  of  tliis   famous   version  is   as  follows  t 
^^  Biblia  en  lengua  Espagnola,  traduzida  palabra  por  pala- 
bra  de  la  verdad  Hebraica,  por  mui  excellentes  letrados^ 
en  Ferrara,"   1553,  folio,  in  gothic  characters.     Though 
the  nouns  and  the  verbs  are  translated  according  to  the 
strictest  rules  of  grammar,  this  translation  is  looked  upon 
as  nothing  more  than  a  compilation  from  Kimchi,  Rasci, 
Abenezra,    the   Chaldee   paraphrast,   and    some  ancient 
Spanish  glosses.     This  version  is  extremely  rare,  and  much 
sought  after.     Another  edition  has  been  made  for  the  use 
of  the  Spanish  Christians,  which  is  neither  less  scarce  nor 
less  inquired  for.     The  curious  are  desirous  of  having  both, 
in   order  to    compare   tbem    together.     Notwithstanding 
their  apparent  conformity,  the  discrepancies  are  very  ob- 
servable in  the  various  interpretations  of  several  passages, 
according*to  the  belief  of  those  for  whom  they  were  printed. 
The  version  for  the  use  of  the  Jews,  which  is  the  most  in 
request^  is  addressed  to  sennora  Gracia  Naci,   with  the 
subscription  d' Athias  and  d' Usque;  the  other  is  dedicated 
to  Hercules  d'Est,  and  signed  by  Jerome  de  Vargas  and 
Duarte  PineK« 
ABRAHAM  (Echellensis).     See  ECHELLENSIS. 
ABRESCH  (Frederic  Louts),  an  eminent  Greek  scho- 
lar and   commentator,  was  born  at  Hamburgh,  Dec.  29, 
1699.     At  the  ^e  of  thirteen,  he  went  to  a  village  called 
Dabhausen,   or  Taubhausen,  near  the  town  of  Griefen-^ 
stein,   where  there  was  then  a  French  colony,  to  ieani 
that  language ;  and  made  so  much  progress  within  seven 
months,  that  it  appeared  to  be  his  native  tongue.     On  bis 
return  home,  he  studied  Latin  and  Greek;  and,  as  his 
father  designed  him  for  the  church,  he  was  sent,  in  17 17*^ 
to  the  college  of  Herborn,  a  small  town  in  the  principality 
of  Nassau*Dillenburgb,  where,  for  two  years  and  a  haif,  he 
went  through  a  course  of  philosophy,  and  studied  Hebrew 
and  divinity.     In  1720,  he  removed  to  the  university  of 
Utrecht,  where  the  instructions  of  the  celebrated  Draken* 
burgh  and  Duker  inspired  him  with  a  decided  taste  for 
ancient  literature,  and  he  gave  up  divinity.     About  the 


1  Diet  Hist  >  Moreri.—- Gen.  Diet.—- Simon  Hist  Crit 

A'  B  R  E  S  C  H.  Tf 

end  of  1723,  when  be  had  finished  his  studies  at  Utrecht, 
and  wnfaed  to  go  through  the  same  course  at  Leyden,  ho 
was  appointed  vice-director  of  the  coljege  of  Middleburgh. 
In  1725,  hfe  was  promoted  to  he  rector  of  the  same  col- 
lege; and,  in  17 41,  he  filled  the  same  office  in  that  of 
Zwol,  in  Over-yssel,  where  he  remained  until  his  death^ 
in  1782. 

At  Middleburgh  he  became  first  known  to  the  learned 
world  by  many  valuable  pieces  of  criticism  on  ancient 
authors,  Herodotus,  Thucydides,  Xenophon,  H^sycbius, 
.£schylus,  &c.  wliich  he  sent  to  a  literary  journal  then 
printed  at  Amsterdam,  under  the  title  of  ^^  Miscellanea^ 
Observationes  criticse  in  auctores  veteres  et  recentiorcs,** 
Some  of  these  have  his  name  appended,  others  are  marked 
by  an  H.  or  H.  L.  or  P.  B.  A.  A.  H.,  and  the  fictitious 
name  of  Petrobasilius.  He  published  also  separately  some 
critical  works  in  high  estimation:  1.  ^^  Animadversionum 
ad  ^schylum  libri  duo;  accedunt  annotationes  ad  quas* 
dam  loca  Novi  Testament!,"  Middleburgh,  1743,  8vo.  To 
this  work  is  added  a  list  of  words  in  iEschylus  which  arei 
not  in  Stephens's  Thesaurus.  2.  "  Aristaeneti  Epistolae, 
Gr.  cum  notis,"  Zwolle,  1749,  8vo,  a  most  excellent  edi- 
tion, not  only  on  account  of  the  learned  editor's  notes;^ 
but  also  for  the  emendations  of  Tollius,  D'Orville,  and 
Valckenaar.  3.  With  the  assistance  of  J.  J.  Reiske,  he 
published  a  **  Supplement"  to  the  preceding,  Amsterdam, 
1751,  or  1752,  8yo.  4.  "  Dilucidationum  Thucydidearum, 
pars  prima,"  Utrecht,  1753,  8vo;  and  the  second  part  in 
1755.  In  this  are  many  valuable  observations  on  other 
authors  incidentally  introduced ;  but  the  author  has  not 
been  thought  lo  happy  in  illusirations  oil  the  text  of  Thn- 
cydides.  In  1763,  he  published  a  "Supplement**  to  this, 
and  a  continuation  of  his  remarks  on  ^schylus.  We  also 
owe  to  Abresch  a  new  and  much  improved  edition  of  Cat- 
^tiei^s  "  Gazophylacium  Grsecorum,'*  (which  was  first  pub- 
lirfied  at  Paris  in  1651)  Utrecht,  1757,  8vo.* 

ABRIANI  (Paul)  of  Vincenza,  was  a  priest  of  the  Carme^ 
lite  artier,  and  a  professor  atGenoa,  Verona,  Padua,  and  Vin^ 
cenza.  In  16<?4,  he  was  obliged,  we  are  not  told  why,  to  quit 
thereligious  habit;  and  died  at  Venice,  16^9,  in  the  92d  year 
of  his  age.  He  published  :  1.  Academical  Discourses,  en-» 
titled    "  Funghi,"    because   they  grew,    as  he  said,    like 

i  Biograph^e  Universelle,  1811.— Dr.  Clarke's  Bibliographical  Dictionary .— 
Sasii  Onomasticoa, 

7«  A  B  R  I  A  N  i 

mushrpoms  in  his  uncultivated  mind.  2.  "II  VagliO)"  or 
the  Sieve,  answers  to  the  remarks  of  Veglia  on  the  God- 
trey  of  Tasso,  Venice,  1662  and' 1687.  3.  "Poetry,  Son- 
nets, &c.*'  Venice,  166i3  and  1604,  12mo.  4.  "  L'Arte 
Poetica  d' Horatio,  tradotta  in  versi  sciolti,"  Venice,  1663, 
12mo.  5.  "  Ode  di  Orazio  tradotte,'*  Venice,  16S0,  12mo, 
This,  and  the  translation  of  the  Ars  Poetica,  have  been 
often  re-printed,  6.  "A  translation  of  Lucan,"  Venice, 
1668,  8vo.» 

ABSTEMIUS  (Laurentius),  an  Italian  writer,  was  borti 
at  Macerata,  in  La  Marca  de  Ancona,  and  devoted  himself 
early  to  the  study  of  polite  literature,  in  which  be  made 
great  progress.  He  taught  the. belles-lettres  at  Urbino, 
where  he  was  librarian  to  duke  Guido  Ubaldo ;  to  whom 
he  dedicated  a  small  piece  entitled  "  Annoiationes  variae," 
explaining  some  dark  passages  in  the  ancient  authors. 
He  published  it  under  the  pontificate  of  Alexander  VL 
and  another  treatise  also,  entitled  "  Hecatomythiuro,'* 
Venice,  1499,  4to,  from  its  containing  a  hundred  fables, 
which  he  inscribed  to  Octavian  Ubaldini,  count  de  Mer- 
catelli.  His  fables  have  been  often  printed  with  those  of 
jEsop,  Phtcdrus,  Gabrias,  Avienus,  &c.  He  has  these 
ancient  mythologists  generally  in  view,  but  does  not  al- 
ways strictly  follow  their  manner;  sometimes  intermixing 
his  fable  with  ludicrous  stories,  and  satires  on  the  clergy, 
which,  as  usual  in  such  cases,  abound  in  indecent  allusions 
to  the  Holy  Scriptures.  Some  of  his  conjectures  on  par- 
ticular passages  in  the  ancients  a^re  inserted  in  the  first  vo- 
lume of  Gruterus^s  Thesaurus  criticus,  under  the  title  of 
Annotationes  varije ;  but  they  are  few  in  number.  He 
wrote  also  a  preface  to  the  editio  princeps  of  Aurelius 
Victor  published  at  Venice,  1505,  and  a  work  entitled, 
"  Libri  duo  de  quibusdam  locis  obscuris  in  libro  Ovidii  in 
Ibin,  bactenus  male  interpretatis,'*  Venice,  4to,  without 
date.  The  date  of  his  birth  and  death  are  not  known,  but 
his  works  appeared  at  the  end  of  the  fifteenth  and  begin- 
ning of  the  sixteenth  century. « 

ABUCJVRAS  (Theodore),  bishop  of  Caria,  in  the  8th 
century,  attached  himself  to  the  party  of  the  learned  Pbo- 
tius,  during  the  disputes  which  at  that  time  disturbed  theT 
church  at  Constantinople.     He  undertook,  with  Zachary, 

*  Biographie  Universelle,  1811. 

s  Diet.  Hist.  ISlO.-^Fabric.  Bibl.  Latin.— G niter,  Thesaar.  Crit.  torn. 1.  p, 
873.  Saxii  Ooomast. 

A  p  U  C  A  R  A  S.  77 

bishop. of  Chalcedon,  an  eoftb^ssy  to  the.  emperor  Lewis  I, 
to  present  to  him  a  book  svhich  Photius  had  written  against 
pope  Nicholas,  and  to  endeavour  to  persuade  him  to  shake 
oflf  the  pope**  yoke.  On  his  journey  he  was  recalled  by 
Basil,  who  had  usurped  the  empire ;  and  soon  afterwards, 
finding  it  no  longer  safe  to  support  the  interest  of  Photiusi 
he  pruciently  abandoneil  it,  and,  before  the  council  of 
Constantinople,  entreated  pardon,  which  was  granted,  and 
he  restored  to  his  place  in  the  council*  Forty-two  trea* 
tises,  written  by  him  against  Jews,  Mahometans,  and  he- 
retics, wf^re.  collected  by  Cretser,  and  published  in  4to, 
at  Ingolstadt,  1606.  Andrew  Arnold  published  another 
treatise  by  him  f*  .De  Unione  et  In^arnatione,'*  Pari^, 
1685,  9.yo,  the  manuscript  of  which,  it  is  said^  he  found 
in  the  Bodleian  library. ' 

ABULFARAGIUS  (GREGoav),  commonly  called  Ibn- 
Hakima,  sou  to  Aaron  a  Christian  phys<ician,  was  born  in 
1226^  in  the  city  of  Malatia.  near  thq  source  of  the  Eu-^ 
phrates  in  Armenia.  He  is  said  by  some  to  have  followed 
the  profession  of  his  father,  and  practised  with  great  suc- 
cess, numbers  of  people  coming  from  the  most  remote 
parts  to  a^k  his  advice ;  bnt  others  doubt  this  account* 
However,  he  would  hardly  have  been  known  at  this  time, 
ha4  his  knowledge  been  confined  to  physiq  ;  but  he  applied 
himself  to  the  study  .of-  the  Greek,.  3yriac,  and  Arabic 
languages,,  as  well  ,as  philosophy  ^nd  divinity ;  and  he 
wrote  a  history,  which  does  honour  tq  his  memory.  It  is 
written  in  Arabic,  anddivided^intp  dynasties.  It  consists 
of  .ten  pacts,  beit^g  an.  ^pitpn^e  of  uoriversal  history  from 
the  creation  of  the  worl4>to  his  own  time.  Dr.  Pocpcke 
publishe4  i^r  ^^^k  a  Latin  translation  in  1663,  Oxford^. 
2  vols.  4tp,  and  addqd,  by  way  of  supplement,  a  short 
continuation  relating  to  the  history  qf  the  Eastern  princes. 
Dr.  Pococke  had  published  in  .1650,  an  abridgment  of  the. 
ninth  dynasty,,  as  a  "  Specimen  Uistorioe  Arabum." 

Al^ulfars^ius  was  ordained  bishop  of  Guba  at  20  years 
9f  age,  by  Ignatius,  th^  patriarch  of  the  Jacobites.  In 
}1247  be  .was  promoted  .to  the  see  of  Lacabena,  and  some 
years  after  to  that  of  AJeppo.  About  the  year  1266  he 
was  elected  primage  of  the  Jacobites  in  the  East.  As  Abul- 
taragius  lived  in  the  13th  century,  an  age  famous  for  mi* 
lacles,  it  woyldseem  ^tr^nge  if  somq  had  not  been  wrought^ 

.^  Faliric*  Bibl.  Grec.  in  wUtch  is  a  complete  list  of  liis  w9rks.-*>Bayle,  Qeii.. 
l>ict.— ^Saz.  Qoomast! 


bybiniy  or  in  bis  behalf:  he  himself  mentions  two*  Ohe 
IiappeDed  in  Easter  holidays,  when  he  was  consecrating^ 
tbe  chrism  or  holy  ointment ;  which,  though  before  con- 
secration it  did  not  fill  the  vessel  in  which  it  was  contained, 
yet  increased  so  mnch  after,  that  it  would  have  run  over^ 
bad  they  not  immediately  poured  it  into  another.  Tbe 
other  happened  in  1285.  The  church  of  St.  BarnagOiie 
having  been  destroyed  by  some  robbers,  Abulfaragiuft 
built  a  new  one,  with  a  monastery,  in  a  more  secure  place^ 
and  dedicated  it  to  the  same  saint ;  and  as  he  desired  the 
relics  of  tbe  saint  should  be  kept  in  the  new  churob,  he 
sent  some  persons  to  dig  them  out  of  the  ruins  of  the  old 
<me :  but  they  not  finding  the  relics,  the  i^int  appeared 
to  some  Christians^  and  told  them,  if  the  primate  himself 
did  not  come,  they  would  never  be  found.  Abnlfaragiu^^ 
hearing  of  this,  wOUW  -not  believe  it ;  and  feigning  to  be 
sick,  shut  himself  up  m  biscell  from  Friday  till  the  Sunday 
evening ;  when  a  glorified  boy  appeared  to  him,  and  told 
him,  the  relics  were  deposited  under  tb6  altar  of  the  old 
church.  Upon  this  the  primate  went  immediately  with  his 
brother  and  two  bishops  in  quest  of  those  holy  remains^ 
which  they  found  according  to  the  boy's  direction. 

The  Eastern  nations  are  genecally  extravagant  in  their 
applause  of  mth  of  learning ;  and  have  bestowed  A^ 
highest  encomiums  and  titles  upon  Abutfafagius,  as,  %he 
prince  of  the  learned,  tbe  most  exoeltelfit  of  tboae  wbo^ 
Biost  excel,  theexariiple  of  his  twnes,  the*  pfafo&trix  6f  bis 
age,  the  glory  of  wise  men.  Sic-  Our  historian.  Gibbon, 
esteems  him  *'  eminent  both<in  his  life  and  death.  In  his 
life  be  was  an  elegant  writer 'o€  the  Syriac  aftd  Arabic 
tongues,  a  poet,  physician,  and  a/  moderate^  divines  In 
his 'death,  bis  funeral  was  attended  by  his  rival  tbe  Nesto* 
nan  patriarch,  w'rth  a  train  of  Greeks  atid  Armeniairs^  wha 
forgot  their  disputes,  and  mingled  their  teans  over  the 
grave  of  an  enemy."     His  death  took*  place  in  12S6.  * 

ABULFEDA  (Ishmael),  a  learned  Arabian  geogiriapher 
and  historian,  was  born  at  Damas  in  1275,  succeeded  in 
1310  to  tbe  rights  of  .'lis  ancestors,  the  emirs  and  shieks 
of  Hamah  in  Syria.  He  did  not  however  obtain  peaceful 
possession  before  the  year  1319,  and  in  1320  was  ackno#<« 
ledged  sultan  or  king  by  the  caliph  of  Egypt.  He  died  itt 
f33i,  or  1332.     His  writings  are  a  lasting  monument  of 

I  Ca^e  Hist.  Lit.>-Fabr.  Bibl.  GrsBC— Bayle  itt  Geii«  Dfct-^Herbebt  Biti^ 
wOrieat—Asseman.  Bibliotb.  Orient,  -.:.-.. 

A  B  U  L  F  ED  A, 


ids  knowledge  in .  geography  and  mtoy .  other  sciences. 
Attached,  however,  as  he  was  to  study,    he  appears   to 
have  for  some  time  led  a  military  life,,  and  in  his  youth  fol- 
lowed his  father  in  many  of  his  expeditions,  pai:ticularly  in 
the  wars  against  the  Tartars  and  French  in   Syria.     He 
speaks  in  his  writings  of  otber  expeditions  in   which  he 
bore  a  part  before  he  arrived  at  the  throne.     His  works 
are:- 1.  A  system  of  Universal  Geography,  under  the  title 
of    **Tekwyita    el   Boldaan,"    or   Geographical   Canons^ 
which  ends  at  the  year.  1321.     It  consists  of  preliminary 
matter,  a  general  view  of  land,  water,  rivers,  mountains, 
&c.  twenty-four  tables  of  longitude  and  latitude,  with 
marginal  notes  descriptive  of  the  countries,  and  twenty* 
four  chapters  describing  the  principal  towns.     There  are 
manuscripts  of  this  work  in  the  Imperial  Library  at  Paris, 
in  the  Vatic&n,  and  in  the  Bodleian.     That  in  the  library 
ef  the  university  of  Leyden  was  written  under  the  inspect 
tion  of  the  author,  with  some  notes,  supposed  to  be  by 
his  own  band.     2.  ^^  An  Universal  History,*'  from  the  cre- 
ation pf  the  world  to  the  birth  of  Mahomet,  which  forms 
about  fifty  or  sixty  pages.     Various  portions  of  these  two 
works  have  been  translated ;  as,  I.  ^^Chorasmias  et  Ma* 
waralnahrsc;"  i.e.  ^^Regionum  extra  iluvium  Oxum  de- 
scription Arab,  et  Lat.  ex  interpret,  Joan.  Grievii  *,'•  Lon- 
don, 1650|  4to.  reprinted  by  Dr.  Hudson,  in  his  Collec- 
tion of  the -lesser  Geographers,  Oxford,  1698 — 1712,  4 
vols.  8vo.  with  a  description  of  Arabia  by  Abulfeda,.  Arab. 
et  Lat.  and  the  same,  translated  into  French,  was  added, 
by  Ant.  de  la  Roque,  to  his  "Voyage  en  Palestine,"  Paris, 
,  1717,  l2nio.     3.  "Caput  primum  Geographi«  ex  Arabico 
in  Latinum  translate  promulgari  jussit  L.  A.  Muratorius,  in 
Antiq.  Italiois  roedii  sevi/'  Dissert.  54,  p.  9.41,  942.     4. 
^^  Tabula  Syrise,   Arab*,  et  Lat.  cum  notis  Koehleri,   et 
animadversionibus  Jo.  Jac.   Reiskii,*'    Lips.    1766,  4to. 
5.  <*' Annates  Moslemici,  Arab,  et  Lat.  d  Jo.  Jac.  Reiskio,^* 
Lips^  1754,    4to.      6.    "  AbulfedsB   Anualen  Mo9lemici| 

*  Mr.  Gr«aves  consulted  6ve  dlf-  uses  of  it;   Casta! diis  corrected  the 

ferent    manuscripts:     the    first,    that  longitudes  and  latitudes  by  it;  Oite- 

ivhich  Er  pen  his  had  transcribed  fr(»m  '  lius  mentions  it  often  in  his  Theiiauruit 

Iheoopy  in  the  Palatine  library;  the  Qeographicus ;    and   Erpeoius  wouki 

second,    the    copy  afterwards    in  the  have  published  it,   had  he  not  beea 

•  Vatican ;   two    other   manuscripts   in  prevented  by  death.     Schickard   fiift 

«  Ar.  Pococketa  possession  ;  and  a  filth  extracted  several  remarks,  and  insetted 

that  had  been  purchased  in  Constanti-  them  in  hi&.'<Tarich  persicum;'*  but 

aople.     Ramusius    first    praised   this  the  principal  labour  and  credit  of  the 

••rk  of  Abalfedsi-and  pointed  out  the  work  f«U  to  Mf.  Greaves.  Oeot  J>io». 

M  A  B  U  L  P  E  D  A. 

Arab,  et  Lat^  opera  et  studiis  J.  J.  Reiske,  sumptibds^ 
at^jtie  auspiciis  P.  F.  Submii,  niioc  primum  edidit  J.  G.  Ch« 
AcHer,'*  Copenhagen^  1789 — 1794,  5vols.  4to. .  7.  "De- 
Sfrriptia  Egypti,  Arab,  et  Lat,  ed.  Jo.  Dav,  Michaelis/'  Got- 
tiiigen,  1776,  4to.    8.  "Africa,  Arab,  cuoi  notis ;  excudi 
caravit  I.  G.  Kickborn,"  Gotti|igen^  1790,  8vo.  Eickhoru's 
uoteft  and  additions  are  in  the  4th  vol.  of  the  "Biblio.<* 
theque  Theologique  Universelle,"  with  M.  Rinck's  addi« 
tions  and  corrections.    9.  ^'TabulsB  quaedam  Geographies^ 
et  aiia  ejusdem  argomenti  specimina,  Arabice,*^  by  Fred* 
Tbeoph.  Kinck,  Lips>  1791,  8vo.     10.  "Geographia  La- 
tina  facta  ex  Arabico,  a  Jo.  Jac.  Reiskio,"     11.  "  Ahul- 
fedae  descriptio  regionum  Nigritarum,"   printed  at  the  . 
end  of  Rinck's  edition  of  Macrizi^s  ^  Hifitoria  regum  Isla- 
miticornm  in  Abyssinia,*'  Leyden,  1790,  4to.     12.  "Ta- 
bula, septima  ex  Abulfedas  Geographia,   Mesopotamiam 
exhibens,  Arabice,  cura  E.  F.  C«  RosenmuUer,.  notas  ad- 
spersit  H.  E.  G.  Paulus,"  1791 ;  inserted  in  the."NQUveau 
Kepertoire  de  la  Litterature  Orientale,*'  vol.  3*  13.  "  Abul- 
fedaD  ArabioB  descriptio,"   with  a  Commentary  by  Chr, 
Rominel,  Gottingen,  1801,  4to.     In  171^8,  Gagnler  pub- 
lished the  prospectus  of  a  translation  of  Abuiteda^s  Geo- 
graphy, and  had  made  some  progress  in  the  printing  of  it, 
when  he  died.     This  occasioned  the  mistake  of  some  Bib-^ 
liographers,  who  speak  of  this  translation,  as  having  beea 
published  at  London  in  1732,  fol.  Gagnier,  however,  pubr 
lished,  14.  "De  Vita  et  rebus  gestis  Mohammedis  liber, 
Arab,  et  Lat.  cum  notis,"  Oxford,  1725,  fol.    15.  "Auc* 
tarium  ad  vitam  Saladini,  extractum  ex  Abulfed®  Histofia 
universal!,  cum  versione  Lat.  Alb.  Scultens  *."  .this  appears 
at  the  end  of  Bohadinus's  Life  of  Saladine,  Leiden,  1732» 
or  1755,  fol.     16.  "  Climats  Alhend  et  Alsend,"  trans^ 
lated  into  Latin  from  Abulfeda,  may  be  found  in  Theve* 
notfs  Voyages,  Paris,  1696,  2  vols.  fol.     And,  17.  In  Mu- 
ratori's  Italian  Historians,  i$  the  History  of  the  Saraceqs^ 
18. 1'he  last  publication  we  shall  notice,  is,  some  extracts  , 
respecting  the  history  of  Africa  and  Sicily,  under  the  em- 
pire of  the  Arabs,  by  Gregorio,  in  his  collections  for  ^ 
history  of  Sicily,  1790.    It  remains  yet  to  be  mentioaed, 
that  a  manuscript  of  Abulfeda' s  Universal  History  is  ia 
the  library  of  St.  Germain-des-Pres,  and  another  in  the. 
French  imperial  library.      Several  chapters  of  the  first , 
part  of  the  Universal  History,  which  had  never  been  pub- 
lishedi  are  printed,  Arab,  et  Lat.  iu  the  new  editloh'of 


l^ococke*s   *' Specimen  HistoriaB  Arabom,"  by  Professor 
White,  of  Oxford,  1806/    : 

ABULGASI  (Bayatur)^  khan  of  the  Tartars,  worthy 
of  a  place  in  this  Dictionary,  as  well  on  account  of  his  lite^ 
rary  talents  as  from  the.  circumstance  of  his  being  the  Only 
Tartar  historian  with  whom  the  nations  of  Europe  are  ao- 
iquaioted.     He  was  born  in  the  city  of  Urgens,  capital  of 
the  country  of  Kharasm,  in  the  year  of  the  hegira  1014^ 
answering  to  the  year  1605  of  the  Christian  lera^     He  waa 
the  fourth,'  in  order  of  birth,  of  seven  brothers,  and  4e« 
^cended  in  a  direct  line,  both  on  his  father's  and  his  mow^ 
therms  side,  though  by  different  bratiches,  from  Zingii 
kban»     His  youth  was  mariied  by  misfortunes,  which  con* 
tnbuted  not  a  little  to  form  his  character,  and  to  fit  him 
for  the  government  of  his  states  when  he  came  to  the  sp^ 
vereignty  of  the  country  of  Kharasm,  which  happened  in 
the  year  of  the  hegira  1054»     He  reigned  20  years ;  and, 
by  his  conduct  and  courage,  rendered  himself  formidablf^ 
to  all  his  neighbours.     A  short  time  before  his  death,  h^ 
resigned  tlie  throne  tq  his  son  Anuscha  Mohammed  Baya*^ 
cur  khan,  in  order  to  devote  the  remainder  of  bis  life  t^ 
the  service  of  God.    It  was  in  his  retreat  that  he  wrot^ 
the  famous  '^  Genei^Iogical  History  of  the  Tartars;"  but» 
being  attacked  by  the  mortal  disease  that  put  an  end  t^ 
his  life  in  the  year  1074  of  the  hegira,  corresponding  t0 
1663  of  our  qsra,   before  be  could  complete  it,  wh^en 
dying  be  charged  his  son    and    successor    to    giv^    it 
the  finishing  hand,  which  he  did  accordingly  two  ye^rs 
afterwards.     As  a  specimen  of  the  style  and  manner  of 
this  historian,  the  reader  will  not  be  displeased  to  see  thf* 
preface  to  that  work,  which,  in  English,  is  as  follows  s 
*^ There  is  but  one  God;  and  before  him  none  other  di4 
ever  exist,  as  after  him  no  6tber  will  be*     He  forw^ 
seven  heavens,  seven  worlds,  and  eighteen  C]^eations«    By 
him,  Mohao^med,  the  friend  of  God,  was  sent,  in  .quali^jf 
of  his  prophet,  to  all  mankind*     It  is  under  his  auspicei 
that  I,  Abulgasi  Bayatur  khan,  have  taken  in  baiKi  t0 
write  this  book.    My  fiither,  Arsep  Mohammed  khan,  d^^ 
scended  in  a  direct  line  from  Zingis  khan,  and  was,  be^ 
fore  me,  sovereign  prince  of  the  country  of  Kharasm.     I 
shall  treat  in  this  book  of  the  house  of  Zingis  khan,  and 

*  Pict.  Hiit  ISIO;  an  aiiiete  ootttribute^  bj  M.  Maltc-Brao*    But  a««  mlM 

Vot.L  O 

92  A  B  U  L  G  A  S  I. 

of  its  origin ;  of  the  places  where  it  was:  established,  of 
the  kingdoms  and  provinces  it  conquered,  and  to  what  it 
arrived  at  last.  It  is  true  that,  before  me,  many  writers, 
both  Turks  and  Persians,  have  employed  their  pens  on 
this  subjeqt;  and  I  have  in  my  own  possession  18  books  of 
these  several  antlers,  some  of  which  are  tolerably  well 
composed.  But,-  perceiving  that  there  was  much  to  cor- 
rect in  many  places  of  these  books,  and,  in  other  places, 
a  number  of  things  to  be  added,  I  thought  it  necessary  to 
have  a  more  accurate  history :  and,  especially  as  ouii 
countries  are  very  barren  in  learned  writers,  I  find  myself 
obliged  to  undertake  this  work  myself;  and,  notwithstand- 
ing that,  before  me,  no  khan  has  thought  proper  to  take 
this  trouble  upon  him,  the  reader  will  do  me  the  justice  to 
be  persuaded  that  it  is  not  from  a  principle  of  vanity  that 
I  set  up  for  an  author,  but  that  it  is  necessity  alone  that 
prompts  me  to  meddle  in  this  matter:  that,  if  I  were  de- 
sirous of  glorying  in  any  thing,  it  could,  at  most,  be  only 
in  that  conduct  and  wisdom  which  I  hold  as  the  gift  of 
God,  and  not  from  myself.  For,  on  one  hand,  I  under- 
stand the  art  of  war  as  well  as  any  prince  in  the  world, 
knowing  how  to  give  battle  ^ually  well  with  few  troops  as 
with  numerous  armies,  arid  to  range  both  my  cavalry  and 
my  infantry  to  the  best  advantage.  On  the  other  hand,  I 
have  a  particular  talent  at  writing  books  in  all  sorts  of 
languages,  and  I  know  not  whether  any  one  could  easily 
be  found  of  greater  ability  than  myself  in  this  species  of 
literature,  except,  indeed,  in  the  cities  of  Persia  and  In- 
dia ;  but,  in  all  the  neighbouring  provinces  of  which  we 
have  any  knowledge,  I  may  venture  to  flatter  myself  that 
there  is  nobody  that  surpasses  me  either  in  the  art  of  war 
or  in  the  science  of  good  writing ;  and  as  to  the  countries 
that  are  unknown  to  me,  I  care  nothing  about  them. 
Since  the  flight  of  our  holy  prophet,  till'  the  day  that  I 
began  to  write  this  book,  there  have  elapsed  1074  years 
[1663  of  the  Christian  cera].  I  call  it  A  Genealogical 
History  of  the  Tartars ;  and  I  have  divided  it  into  nine 
parts,  in  conformity  with  other  writers,  who  universally 
hold  this  number  in  particular  regard." 

The  original  manuscript  of  this  history  was  purchased 
by  some  Swedish  officers,  who  happened  to  be  prisoners 
in  Siberia,  from  a  merchant,  and  had  it  translated  into 
the  Russian  language. .  Count  Strahlenberg  translated  it 

A  B  U  L  G  A  S  I.  ii 

itito  German;  and  a  French  translation  was  published  at 
.Ley den,*  1-726,  .12ino.     Martiniere  has  copied  it  almost 
entirely  in  his  Geographical  Dictionary..* 

ABU-NOWAS,  or  ABOU-NAVAS,  an  Arabian  poet 
of  the  first  class,  was  born  in  the  city  of  Bassora,  in  ti^e 
year  762,  and  died  in  810.  He  left  his  native  country  in 
order  to  go  to  settle  at  Cufa;  but  did  not  continue  long 
there,  as  the  caliph  Haroun  Al  Raschld  would  have  him 
near  his  person  at  Bagdad,  and  gave  him  an  apartment  in 
bis  palace  with  Abou-Massaab  and  Rekashi^  two  other  ex- 
cellent poets.  His  principal  works  have  been  collected 
into  a  body,  called  by  the  Arabians  a  Dizean^  or  voluipe, 
by  various  persons;  for  which  reason  there  is  a  great  dif- 
ference in  the  copies  of  this  author. ' 

ABUNDANCE  (John),  a  name  assumed  by  a  French 
poetical  writer  of  the  16th  century,  who  likewise  some- 
times called  himself  Maistre  Tyburce.  He  resided  at  the 
town  of  Papetourte,  whence  he  published  or  datqd^most 
of  his  productions,  and  called  himself  clerk  or  royal  notary 
of  Pont- St.- Esprit.  He  died,  according  to  some  biogra- 
phers^ in  1540  or  1544;  and,  according  to  others,  in  1550. 
He  wrote  :  1.  "Morality,  mystere,  et  figure  de  la  Passion 
de  N.  S.  Jesus  Christ,'*  Lyons,  printed  by  Benoit  Rigaut, 
Svo,  without  date,  and  now  so  rare  that  only  one  copy 
is  known  to  exist,  which  is  in  the  imperial  library  of  Paris, 
aiid  formerly  belonged  to  that  of  La  Valliere.  2.  *^  La 
Joyeulx  Mystere  des  trois  Roys,"  MS.  in  the  same  libr3.ry. 
3.  "Farce  nouvelle  tres  bonne  et  tres  joyeuse  de  la  Cor- 
nette,"  MS.  4.  "  Le  Gouvert  d' Humanity,  morality  a 
personnaiges,'*  printed  at  Lyons.  5.  "  Le  Monde  qui 
tourne  le  dos  a  chascun,  et  Plusieurs  qui  n'a  point  de  con- 
science," printed  also  at  Lyoiis.  According  to  the  prac*- 
tice  of  the  writers  of  his  age,  he  assumed  a  device,  which 
was  fin  sans  fin.  The  titles  and  dates  of  his  other  works 
are  given  in  the  Bibliotheque  of  De  Verdier,  and  consist 
of  short  poems,  ballads,  rondeaus,  songs,  &c.3 

ABU  TEMAM,  or  Habib  EbN  Aws  Al-Hareth  Ebn 
Kais,  an  Arabian  poet  of  great  eminence  in  his  time^  was 
born  in  the  190th  year  of  the  hegira,  or  A.  D.  805,  at  Ja- 
sem,  a  little  town  between  Damascus  and  Tiberias.     He 

was  educated  in  Egypt,  and  died  at  Mawsel,  in  the  year 

«       -  ■  •     •  >  .  ■ .     ■ 

^  Moreri.  <  Morcri.— D'Herb«lot. 

•  JBiographie  Univenelle,  I8l1.  .  • 

Q  2 

U  A  &  t^    t  B  M  A  M« 

84  J.  His  poeooB  consist  chiefl  j  of  dulbgiums  on  sevMtl 
of  the  caliphs,!  who  richly  rewarded  him.  He  collected 
his  compositions  into  a  volume,  entitled^  **  Al  Hamasah/* 
according  to  D*Herbelot;  but,  according  to  Dr.  Pococke> 
this  was  a  selection  from  the  ancient  Arabic  poets  made 
by  him,  and  not  bis  own  compositions.  He  was  long  con** 
sidered  as  the  prince  of  Arabian  poets,  and  none  but  Al 
Motanabbi  disputed  precedence  with  him.  Bakhteri,  an«- 
other  celebrated  poet,  candidly  as  well  as  critically  said 
of  him,  '^Such  verses  as  are  good  in  Abu  Temam  excel 
tbe  best  of  mine ;  but  such  of  mine  as  are  bad,  are  mora 
endurable  than  where  he  falls  off/'  ^ 

ABYDENUS,  or  ABYD1NU6.     This  word,  which  sig- 
nifies a  native,  or  inhabitant  of  Abydos,  is  given  by  Eiise^ 
bius,  Cyril,  and  Syncellus,  as  tbe  proper  name  of  a  Greek 
liistorian,  to  whom  some  authors  ascribe  two  works,  *^Ab^ 
syriaca,**  and  *^  Chaldaica,^'  or  the  history  of  th^  Assy« 
riaas  and  Chaldeans ;  but  it  is  probable  that  these  are  th« 
titles  of  parts  of  the  same  veork.     The  fragments  quoted* 
by  Easebius,  in  his  **  Pra^paratio  Evangelica,"  St.  Cyril,^ 
in  his  writings  against  Julian^  and  Syncellus,  in  his  Cbro- 
nography>  have  been  collected  and  commented  on  by 
Scaliger,  in  his  Thesaurus,  and  in  his  **  Emendatio  Tem*» 
porum.^*     But  Scipio  Tettius,  a  Neapolitan  writer  of  die 
sixteenth  century,  in  his  Catalogue  x>f  scarce  MaftUBcripts^ 
quoted  by  Labbe,  in  his  ^^  Biblioth.  Nov.  libror.  Manuscr.** 
pu  167,  informs  us,  that  the  entire  work  of  Abydenus 
exists  in  manuscript  in  a  library  in  Italy.     The  recovery 
of  this  would  be  of  importance^  as  Abydtous  appears  %!»• 
have  taken,  as  the  basis  of  his  work,  the  Babylonish  bis«> 
tory  of  Berosus,  of  which  only  fragments  remain^  unlets* 
we  admit,  what  is  universally  denied,  the  authentici^  of' 
the  edition  published  by  Annius  of  Viterbo. 

The  age  and  country  of  Abydenus  are  uncertain,  the 
name  Abydos  being  common  to  four  cities.  As  Bero-^ 
sus,  however,  finished  his  work  at  Alexandria,  undefr  Pto<i> 
lemy  Philadelpbus,  it  may  be  probable  that  our  Abyde^. 
nus,  who  followed  him,  was  an  Egyptian  priest  belongping 
te  the  tempie  of  Osiris  at  Abydos,  and  that  he  flourished 
under  the  first  Ptolemys^  while  the  love  of  letters  wat 
encouraged  at  tbe  court  of  Al^candria.  Some  wrtterr 
have  supposed  that  he  was  quoted  by  Suidas,  because  b^ 

I  D'HerbeloL-^MorarL— Cleo.  Diet. 

A  B  Y  D  E  N  U  S.  «« 


Pal»]^hatai-Abydeniis,  a  historian.  This  person, 
koweTer,  whose  proper  name  was  Pal^sphatus,  was  the 
disciple  and  friend  of  Ari^totle^  and  may  liave  written  the 
histories  of  Cyprus^  Delos,  and  Athens,  which  Suidas  at* 
tributes  to  hini|  after  Philo  of  Hieraclea,  and  Theodore  of 
Ilium;  but  the  history  of  Arabia)  which  Suidas  also  attri^ 
butes  to  bioiy  from  the  nature  of  the  subject/  must  belong 
to  the  author  of  the  history  of  the  Assyrians  and  ChaldeanS| 
or  perhaps  been  a  different  title  to  the  same  work.  Such 
is  die  opinion  of  Malte*Brun ;  but  Vossius  has  ventured 
on  another  conjeeture,  although  without  giving  his  au^ 
thority.  > 

ACACIUSy  surnamed  Lusccs,  from  his  having  but  one 
eye,  the  disciple  of  Eusebius  bishop  of  CeBsaiea*  whom  he 
succeeded  in  the  year  338  or  340,  Though  scarce  inferior 
to  the  former  in  erudition,  eloquence,  aiid  reputation,  he 
was  deposed  by  the  council  of  Sardica,  together  with  se» 
▼eral  other  bishops,  who  had  declared  themselves  of  his 
opinion ;  and  who  afterwards  assembled  at  Philippolis,  in 
Thrace ;  where,  in  their  turn,  they  fulminated  against 
Athanasius,  pope  Julius,  and  the  rest  of  their  antagonists. 
Acacius  had  also  a  great  share  in  the  banishment  of  pope 
Liberiu9,  and  bringing  Felix  into  the  see' of  Rome.  He 
gave  liis  name  to  a  sect  who  were  called  Acaciani.  He  was 
a  man  of  great  genius  and  distinguished  learning;  and 
wrote  several  books  before  he  was  made  a  bishop,  and 
particularly  a  book  against  Marcellusof  Ancyrai  of  which 
Epiphanius  has  given  us  a  fragment.  Some  time  after  he 
was  made  a  bishop,  he  wrote  the  *'  Life  of  Eusebius'*  his 
predecessor ;  not  now  exunt,  but  metitioned  in  Socrates* 
history.  St.  Jerome  says  that  be  wrote  17  volumes  of 
eommentaries  on  Ecclesiastes,  or  probably  a  commentary 
in  17  books  ;  and  six  volumes  of  miscellanies..  He  died  in 
the  year  36S.  * 

ACACIUS,  patriarch  of  Constantinople,  succeeded  Gen* 
aadiiis  in  that  see  in  the  year  4T  I.  He  maintained  that  hia 
see  ought  to  have  the  pre*eminen.ce  over  those  of  Aiexaa« 
dria,  Antioch,  and  Jerusalem  }  and,  to  compass  this  design^ 
prevailed  on  the  Emperor  Leo  to  restore  and  confirm  alt 
the  pririleges  which  the  churches  once  enjoyed,  and  eape* 

t  Iftiofraphie  UniTCneUe,  1811.— VoMhit.«-Pabric.  9lbl.  Grac.-*Moifii 
*  Csv«,  v«l«  L-*Mor«ru-i4UuL  Xftut. 

86  A  C  A  C  I  U  S. 

cially  that  of  Constantinople.  He  was  afterwards  excom* 
municated  by  pope  Felix  lit.;  and  in  return  be  erased  the 
pope's  name  out  pf-the  sacred  diptics,  or  the  list  of  those 
bishops  whose  names  were  mentioned  ia  the  public  prayers : 
but,  being  supported  by  the  emperor  of  the  east,  he  en-*- 
joyed  his  bishoprick  quietly  till  his  death,  which  happened 
in  the  year  4.88.  There  are  two  letters  of  his  extant  in 
vol.  4  ot  the  Councils ;  one  to  Peter  the  Fuller,  or  Petrus 
jFuUo,  in  Gr.  and  Lat.  the  other  to  pope  Simpliciusi,  in 
Lat.  respectingj:he  state  of  the  church  of  Alq^andria.  Cave 
entertains  a  hip^ber  opinion  of  Acacius,  thar^  the  Editors 
of  the  General  Dictionary  ;  but  the  account  in  the  latter  is 
the  more  copious^  ^ 

ACACiUS,  bishgp  of  Bercpa  in  Syria,  in  the  fourth  and 
beginning  of  thehfth  century,  was  at  the.  council  of  Con* 
stai^tinople,  held  in  the  year  381,  in  which  were  present 
150  bishops,  ^  He  was  the  friend  of  Epiphanius  Fiavianus, 
^nd  jthe  enemy  of  John  Ghrysostom)  bishop  of  Constant 
tinople,  whom  he  caused  to  be  deposed.  He  also,  when 
110  years  of  age,  wrote  t,o  the  empeJror ,  Theodosius  the 
younger,  %o  advise  him  to  ponfiirm  the  sentence  pro-, 
nounced  against  Cyril,  bishop  of  Alexandria,  who  bad 
been  deposed  in  a  conventicle  of  schismatics.  Kpitr 
withstanding  these  rigorous  prpceedings,  Theodor^t  as^ 
sures  us  that  he  was  enunent  bqth  for  his  wisdom  jeind 
the  sanctity  of  his  life.     He  died  s^bout  th§  year  432.^ 

ACACIIJS,  bishop  of  Amida,  o<r  of  Constance  on  the 
Tigris  in  Mesopotamia,  was  highly  celebrated  in  the  fifth 
century  for  his  piety  and  cjavity*  In  .the  year  420  during 
the  war  betvfeen  the  emperor  Theodosius  the  youpger^ 
|ind  Varanius,  the  king  of  Persia,  Acacius,  seeing  7000 
Persian  slaves  made  prisoners  by  the  Roman  soldiers,  and 
periiihing  in  want  and  misery,  determined  to  alleviate  th^ 
horrors  of  their  situation.  To  accomplish  this,  he  sold  thl^ 
sacred  vessels  belonging  to  his  church,  and  with  the  pur* 
4:base  of  them  fed  the  poor  prisoners,  and  sent  them  home 
with  some  inoney.  This  action  appeared  so  extraordinary 
to  the  king  of  Persia,  that  he  desired  <to  see  the  bishop  ; 
^d  Theodosius  allowed  hini  to  go  to  Persia  .  The  inter- 
view was  probably  agreeable  on  both  side^,  a^  it  was  fol^ 
lowed  by  a  peace  between  Theodosius  and  the  king  of 

1  Gen.  Bict.-^^aTe,  ▼©!.  I. 
s  Gen.  Diet.— Da  Pib.— -Moreri. 

A  C  A  C  I  U  S.  87 

Persia.  In  the  Latin  church,  he  is  commemorated  on  the 
9th  of  April.* 

ACACIUS,  bishop  of  Melitene  in  Armenia  Secunda, 
flourished  about  the  year  43 1.  He  was  a  warm  opposer  of 
Nestorius,  and  equally  zealous  for  Cyril.  He  was  present 
at  the  Council  of  Ephesus,  where  he  had  a  private  con- 
ference with  Nestorius,  and  refuted  his  opinions  as  soon  as 
the  Council  assembled.  There  are  extant  in  the  Councils 
vol.  ^y  a  homily  of  his  against  Nestorius,  Gr.  and  Lat.  and 
a  Latin  letter  to  Cyril,  among  the  ^^  EpistoIsB  EphesinsB^' 
published  by  Lupus.  ^ 

ACCA  (St.)  bi&hop  of  Hagustald,  or  Hexham,  in  Nor- 
thumberland, succeeded  Wilfrid  in  that  see,  in  the  year 
709.  He  was  a  monk  of  the  order  of  St.  <  Benedict,  an 
Anglo-Saxon  by  birth,  and  had  his  education  under  Bosa, 
bishop  of  York ;  and  was  then  taken  under  the  patronage 
of  Wilfrid,  whom  he  accompanied  in  a  journey  to  Rome. 
Here  he  improved  himself  in  ecclesiastical  usages  and  dis- 
cipline ;  which  his  historian,  Bede,  tells  us  it  was  imprac- 
ticable for  him  to  learn  in  his  own  country.  This  prelate 
by  th^  help  of  architects,  masons,  and  glaziers,  hired  in 
Italy,  ornamented  his  cathedral  to  a  great  degree  of  beauty 
and  magnificence,  furnished  it  with  plate  and  holy  vest- 
ments, procured  a  large  collection  of  the  lives  of  the  Saints, 
and  erected  a  noble  library,  consisting  chiefly  of  ecclesias- 
tical learning.  About  the  year  732,  he  was  driven  from 
his  see  into  banishment,  but  for  what  cause  is  unknown; 
He  was  esteemed  a  very  able  divine,  and  was  remarkably 
skilled  in  cburch-niusic.  He  not  only  revived  and  improved 
church  music,  but  inti*oduced  the  use  of  many  Latin 
bymns  hitherto  unknown  in  the  northern churchesof  England. 
Acca  wrote  the  following  pieoes;  ^^  Passiones  Sanctorum ;" 
or  the  Sufferings  of  the  Saints.;  ^^  Oflicia  suaei  Ecclesise  ;^' 
and  '^  EpistplsB  ad  Amicos :''  a  treatise  also  for  explaining 
the  Scriptures,  addressed  to  Bede,  which  occurs,  or  at 
least  part  of  it,  in  tbe  catalogue  of  the  Bodleian  library. 
He  died  in  the  year  740,  having  governed  the  church  of 
Hexham  24  years,  under  Egbert  king  of  the  Northumbrians. 
His  body  was  buried  with  great  solemnity  in  tbe  church  at 

1  Moreri. — Baillet,  Vies  de  Saints, — Socrates,  lib.  7.  c.  21. — Gibbon  notices 
this  prelate,  with  his  usual  regard  for  ecclesiastics. 
*  Cave,  Tol.  1.;  but  a  morecopioas  account  in  Chaufepie. 
)  Biog.  Brit — ^Tanner.— Bale. — ^Pitts.— Cave,  vol.  I.  « 

ACCAItlftI  (AttERT),  «  native  df  Centbin  the  dueby  cf 
Ferrara,  lived  in  the  sixteenth  century.  He  publisliea  in 
1545,  a '^  Vocabulary,  Grainoiar,  and  Orthography  of  the 
Vulgar  Tongue/*  which  Fontanini  praises  very  bighly, 
but  is  wrong  in  supposing  it  the  first  Italian  vocabulary^ 
liUcilio  Minerbi  having  published  a  Vocabulary  from  hot* 
cacio  in  1535,  and  Fabricio  Luna  another  in  1536.  Ac<* 
earisi  also  wrote  **  Observations  on  the  vulgar  Tongue)** 
which  were  printed  by  Sansovino  in  1562,  8vo,  with  oiher 
observatbns  on  the  same  subject  by  Bembo,  Gabrielio^ 
Fortunio^  and  others. '         . 

ACCARISI  (FRANCisy,  an  eminent  Italian  civilian,  born 
in  Ancona,  studied  at  Sienna,  where  Bargalio  and  Ben-* 
iFolente  taught  the  law  with  considerable  reputation.  Bar* 
galio  very  much  promoted  bis  studies,  and  appears  to  have 
entertained  a  high  opinion  of  his  talents.  I'tie  first  public 
employment  Accarisi  obtained,  was  that  of  explaining 
Justinian*s  institutes  in  Sienna,  which  he  continued  for  t^ix 
years.  H«  was  afterwards  desired  to  explain-  the  Palideets : 
and  as  several  foreigners  resorted  to  Sienna,  for  the  pur-* 
pose  of  pursuing  their  studies,  the  great  duke  Ferdinand 
^e  first  ordered  that  a  professor  should^  be  appointed  to 
explain  the  civil  law,  in  the  sanie  mannei^  as  Cujacius  had 
done.  Accarisi  was  chosen  for  this  purpose,  and  acquitted 
himself  very  honourably  ;  after  which  he  was  raised  to  the 
ehair  of  law-professor  in  ordinary,  vacant  by  xbie  death  of 
Sargalio,  and  filled  it  with  great  reputation  for  'iO  years. 
Hift  fame  spread  so  far  th&t  every  university  in  Italy  wished 
to  have  him,  and  made  him  very  liberal  offers,  which  Im 
long  resisted.  At  length  his  patron  duke  Ferdinand  -no- 
minated him  law-professor  in  the  university  of  Pisai  wbkdi 
he  occupied  until  bis  death,  Oct.  4,  1622.* 

ACCARISI  (JAMts),  of  Bologna,  was  professor  of  rbe« 
topic  a(  lyi^ntua  in  the  academy  fouiMled  by  tbeduke  Fet** 
dinand  in  1627,  ^nd  died  bishop  of  Vesta  in  1654.  A 
volume  b^  been  published  of  his  discourses,  ororatiptis 
on  various  subjects  of  divinity.  When  lecturing  at  Rome 
in  1636,  fipom  A^^^etle^s  book  on  the  beaveux,  be  main- 
tained tbat  the  sun  mov^  |iouf|d  the  earthy  and  published 
his  opinion  1637,  4ta  Mi^ny  of  his  other  works  yet  re* 
main  in  manuscript,  ampilg  whicl|  are :  I.  *^  De  nMitibUs 

1  Diet.  HitL  18ia— Biognipbie  UiiiirerMlli^  ISiU 
I  Q«a.  Oict.<M;bJiuf«pif .•*^Moftrt. 

L  ♦*  ■  ** 

ACQ  AVLtSt  t* 

VirgUa.?  S.  ^  Pt  eoMcnbenda  Tragcedia.'*  91  ^<  His- 
tQfia  rerum  gestarum  a  aacra  congregaltotie  de  fide  pmpa^^ 
gaaikt  &c.  diiobus  anmt  laSO  et  163  K**  4.  ^*  Epistoto 
iAtinas.*'  3.  <*  Benttvoglio'a  Hialoty  of  the  Wars  in  Flan- 
ders, translated  into  Latin.'*  * 

AGCIAIOLI  (DuNATu)  was  of  an  iHnstrious  famihfi 
being  descended  on  tbe  fatber^s  side  frooi  Justin,  nepbev 
to  Justinian  emperor  ot  Constantinople,  ani  also  from  the 
dukes  of  Athens,  Bohemia^  and  Corinth.  His  ancestors 
bad  eiijojf  ol:  very  hononrabie  posts  in  the  kingdom  of 
Naples,  and  bad  also  been  Ticeroysof  ^ioilj,  and  generals. 
Some  oi  them  bad  Ailed  very  high  employments  in  the  re^ 
pubiic  of  Florenee,  bati  been  ambassadors  to  several  po^i^rs 
of  Europe^  were  related  to  ail  the  princes  of  the  Morea 
and  adjacent  islands,  raised  to  the  dignity  of  cardinal ;  and 
had  erected  several  splendid  Car^usian  monasteries  in  Fkn 
rence,  Naples,  &;c.  Our  anUior,  theson  of  Neri  Aociaioli 
and  Lena  Stroszi,  was  born  at  i^lope&ce  in  1428.  His  first 
preceptors  were  James  Amraanati,  afterwards  cardinal  of 
ravia,  and  Leonard  d^AreasRO.  He  afterwards  studied 
Greek  under  Arvyropiltts^  and  became  one  of  the  first 
Creek  scholars  of  bis  time.  He  was  one  of  the  telebrated 
literary  parties  at  which  Lorenao  de  Meciici  presided.  E>« 
celling  in  rhetoric,  philosophy,  and  mathematics,  he  would 
have  attained  a  very  high  rank  in  the  re{>ublic  of  letters, 
if  his  weak  state  of  healthy  and  tbe  part  he  took  in  the 
aiairs  of  his  country,  had  not  interrupted  his  studies*  He 
filled  several  employments  in  tbe  state,  and  gave  universal 
.saftistaotion*  In  I4TS  he  was  gonfi^lpnier,  or  ensign  of 
tbe  repul^lic^  and  died  in  1498  at  Milan,  when  on  his  way 
to  Paris  as  ambassador  from  tbe  Florentines;  This  cir** 
enmbtaaee  was-  a  subject  of  the  sincerest  grief  to  the  Fio« 
leatitif  sy  who  well  know  how  to  appreciate  tbe  virtues  of 
their  £aikow-^tiaens,  and  omitted  no  opportunity  of  in« 
citing  the  patriotism  of  the  living,  by  tbe  honours  they 
bestowed  on  -ttio  memory  of  the  deadi  A  sumptu^s  fu-* 
nerat  was  decreed  to  bis  remains,  which  were  brought  to 
Fk^fcnce  for  that  purpose.  Lorenzo  de  Medici  and  three 
other  eaainwit  oitieons  W€ve  appointed  curators  of  his 
l^biHfeB,  and  the  daughters  bad  considerable  portions  as« 
•^pgM4  fM^ '  from  the  public  treasury.  Tbe  celebrated 
Angdo  Potitiaa  wvote  his  epitaph,  and  Christopher  Lan*^ 
dino  pronounced  tbe  funeiul  oration.    Ub  works  are : 

*  ]ioiirir-^Biosra|»luc  tJnhreneUe,  1811; 

90  A;  C  C  I  A  I  a  L  I 

1.  ^'E^positio  super  libros.  Ethicorum  Aristotdis,  iu  uovaoEi 
tcaductionem  Argjropili,"  Florence,  1478,  fol.  2.  *Mn . 
Aristoteiis  libros  pcto  Polkicorum  commeotarii,*'  Venice, 
1566,  Svo..  3.  la  the  Latin  transtatba  of  Plutarch,  he 
translated  the  lives  of  Alcibiadestyaid  Demetrius,  and  added 
to  the  same  collection  those  of  Hannibal  and  Scipio  from 
hisownpenji  with  a  Jiifeof  Charletuagne.  4.  ^^  The  Latin 
hi^ory  of  Floreace,  by  Leonard  d^Arezzo,  translated  into 
Italian,"  Venice,  147  3 j  foj.  and  :oft«n  reprinted.  He  left 
some  other  works, .  orations,  •  letters,  and  mificellanies,  both 
in  prose  and  verse,  which  have  not  been  committed  to 
the  press. »         ' 

ACCIAIOLI  (John),  son  to  Marcellus,  of  the  same  family 
with  the  former  Acoi^ioli,  was  a  native  of  Florence,  first 
educated  to  the  bar,  where  .he  presided  in  quality  of  se« 
natpr,  but  afterwards  acquired  a  prodigious  stock  of  ge- 
neral learning  and  $qience.  He  took  a  journey  to  Padua, 
and  because  SQ  distinguish^,  as  a. disputant  in  scholastic 
knowledge,  that  the  Venetian  nobility  crowded  to  bear 
him.  Nor  did  he  acquire  less -reputation  in  FlcNrence  in 
1565,  where  he  disputed  publicly  for  several  days  befcnre 
a  great  coiico.urse  of  .le$ucned  men^ .  He  .left  only  the  foU 
low:ing  work,  ^^  MuUa  doctissimorum  probieinatum  monu- 
mental magno  studip  et  iug^nio  ^ucubrata.'V  He  is  men- 
tioned with  great  honour  by.  Francis  Boccbi^  in  his  Eiogia 
of  the  most  celipbr^^ed  FJonentine  writers.  ^ 

ACCIAIOLI,  ^or  ACCIAIUQLI  (Zanobio)*   probably 
of  the  same  family  with  tb€^  preoeding,  was  born  at  Florence ; 
in  1461,  and  having  b^en  bapished  in  his  infancy  with  his 
relations,  was  rec^led  when  about  16  years  of  age  by  Lo-* 
renzo  the  magnificent, .  and  educated  by  his  directions  with 
Lorenzo,  the  son  of  Pier- Francesco  de  Medici,  to  whom  ^ 
Zanobio  was  nearly  related.     He  became  very  eminent. as. 
a.  Greek  and  Latin  scholar,  and  had  much  intercourse  witb 
Angelo   Politian,    Marsilius  Ficinus,    and  other  eminent- 
Florentine  scholars..    After  the    death .  of  Lorenzo  ,tbe 
magnificent,   he  became  disgusted  with  the  eonunotions 
which  agitated  his  native  place,  .aigid .  devotiog  ^  himself  to , 
a  monastic  life,  received  from  the  fampus  Savpnarola^  aJbout 
1494,  the  habit  of  a  DominicaD.     At  this  time  he  studied 
Hebrew  with  great  industry;  but  bis  chief  .^mploymeMtwaa:^ 
I  the  examination  of  the  Gr^ek  manuscripts  in  the  library  <£ 

*  -J    .    .      * 

I  Gen.   Diet.— Moreri.— Roscoe's  Life  of   Lorenzo. — Sax.   OnomaSticoD.-*-* 
Biographic  Univers«Ue.  '  Gea.  J[)ict.--ChaufFpi^. 

A  C  C  I  A  I  O  L  L  91 

the-Medici,  and  in  that  of  St  Mark  at  Flpirtice.  On  the 
elevation  of  Leo  X.  he  went  to  Rome,  anpl  was  enrolled 
by  Leo  among  his  constant  attendants,  with  an  honourable 
stipend,  and  a  residence  in  the  oratory  of  S.  Silvestro.  In 
1518  Leo  appointed  him  librarian  to  the  Vatican,  where 
he  undertook  the  laborious  task  of  selecting  and  arranging 
the  ancient  public  documents,  of  which  he  formed  an  in- 
dex, published  since  by  Montfaucon,  in  his  Bibl.  Biblio- 
thecarum  MSS.  vol.  L  p.  202.  His  industry  probably 
shortened  his  days,  as  he  did  not  long  enjoy  his  office^ 
having  died  July  27,  1519,  and  not  1^36,  as  Fabricius 
asserts.     Saxius  gives  1520  as  the  date. 

While  attending  a  general  chapter  of  his  order  at  Naples 
in  1 5 1 5,  he  made  an  oration  in  Latin  in  praise  of  the  cijty 
of  Naples,  which  he  afterwards  published.  H^  also  trans- 
lated into  Latin,  Eusebius  of  Caesarea,  Olympiodoriis,  and 
Theodoretji  and  is  supposed  to  have  been  the  translator  ot 
the  greater  part  of  the  works  of  Justin  Martyr,  Among 
bis  remaining  works  is  an  oration  in  praise  of  the  city  of 
Rome,  printed  in  4to,  without  place,  printer,  or  date;  but 
the  dedication  to  the  cardinal  Julio  de  Medici  is  dated  26 
May  1518.  In  1495. he  published  Pqlitian's  Greek  epi^. 
grams,  which  were  recommended  to  his  care  by  the  author 
in  his  last  moments.  He  translated  also  into  Latin  verse 
the  Greek  address  of  Marcus  Musurus  to  Leo  X,  prefixed 
to  the  first  edition  of  Plato.  Giraldi,  in  his  first  dialogue 
**  De  Poetis  nostrorum  temporum,''  admits  him  among  the 
good  poets  of  his  age  y  and  others  have  bestowed  great  ap- 
plause on  ^is  verses,  a  specimen  of  which  may  be  seen  in 
the  work  first  quoted  below.  * 

ACCIO-ZUCCO  (surnamed  Da  SuMMA  Campagna),  an 
Italian  poet  of  the  fifteenth  century,  was  born  at  Verona, 
and  flourished  about  1470,.  His  principal  work  was  printed 
at  Verona,  1479,  4to,  and  entitled  "  Acci  Zucchi  Summa,. 
Campanese,  Veronensis,  viri  eruditissimi  in  £sopi  Fabulas 
interpretatio  per  rhythmos,  in  libellum  Zucharinum  in- 
scriptum,,  &c.''  In  this  work  each  fable  is  preceded  b)"^  a 
Latin  epigram,  and  followed  by  a  sonnet  containing  the 
moral.  It  was  a  work  of  .considerabje  popularity,  as  there 
were  no  less  than  three  editions  in  the  sam,e  century;  viz. 
in   1491^   1493,  and  1497..   MafFei  speaks  of  him  i^  his 

**  Verona  illustrata." '    . 

f    .      •  ♦     •     ,     '   . 

>  jinetH^n  Life^ofLeb.-^Geik.  Diet— Biographic  UnirerseUe,— >Moreri. 
*  Bio8MpM«  lAiiverMUt. 

#t  A  C  O  I  U  S. 

ACCIUS  (Lucius)^  a  Latin  tragic  poet/tbe  son  of  n 
Ireed-man,  and  according  to  St  Jerome,  bom  in  the  con^ 
aulship  of  HostiUus  M^ncinus  and  Attilius  Serranus,  in  t)ie 
year  of  Rom^  583  ;  but  there  appears  somewhat  of  confii- 
$ion  and  perplexity  in  this  chronology.  He  made  himself 
]tnown  before  the  death  of  Pacuvius,  a  dramatic  piece  of 
his  being  exhibited  the  same  year  that  Pacuvius  brought 
one  upon  the  stage,  the  latter  being  then  80  years  of  age, 
and  Accius  only  30,  We  do  not  know  the  name  of  this 
piece  of  Accius,  but  the  titles  of  several  of  his  tragedies^ 
are  mentioned  by  various  authors.  He  wrote  on  the  most  ce- 
lebrated stories  which  had  b^en  represented  on  the  Athenian 
stage,  as  Andromache^  Andromeda,  Atreus,  Clytemnestra, 
Medea,  Meleager,  Philocletes,  the  civil  wars  of  Thebes, 
Tereus,  the  Troades,  &c.  He  did  not  always^  however, 
take  his  subjects  from  the  Grecian  story ;  for  he  composed 
one  dramatic  piece  wholly  Roman  ]  it  wasi  entitled  Brutus, 
Slid  related  to  the  expulsion  of  the  Tarquins,  It  is  af- 
firmed by  some,  that  he  wrote  iilso  comedies;  which  is 
not  unlikely,  if  he  was  the  author  of  twq  pieces,  "  The 
Wedding,"  and  **  The  Merchjint,*'  which  have  been  as- 
cribed to  him.  He  did  not  confine  himself  to  dramatic 
writing;  for  he  left  other  productions,  partipularly  his 
Annals,  mentioned  by  Macrobius,  Priscian,  Festus,  and 
Konius  Marcellus.  Decimus  Brutus,  ^ho  was  consul  \n 
the  year  of  Rome  6 1 5,  and  had  the  honour  of  a  triumph 
for  seterai  victories  gained  in  Spaii^  was  his  particular 
fiiend  and  patron.  This  general  was  so  highly  pleased 
with  the  verses  which  Accius  wrote  in  his  praise,  that  ha 
had  them  inscribed  at  the  entrance  of  the  temples  and  mo- 
numents raised  out  of  the  spoils  of  thevanauished.  Though 
this  might  proceed  from  a  principle  of  vanity^  ^nd  may  not 
be  so  much  a  proof  of  his  affection  for  the  poet  as  his  love 
of  applause ;  yet  it  proves  that  Bri^tus  had  an  opinion  of 
Accius's  poetry,  and  Brutus  was  far  from  being  a  con-, 
teroptible  judge.  He  has  been  censured  for  writing  in  too 
liarsh  a  style,  but  was  in  all  other  respects  es^emed  a  v-erv 
sreat  poet.  Aulus  Gellius  tells  us,  that  Accius,  being  on. 
bis  way  to  Asia,  passed  through  Tarentum,  wherp-  he  paid  ^ 
a  visit  to  Pacuvius,  and  read  to  him  his  play  of  Atreus ; 
that  Pacuvius  told  him  his  verse  was  lofty  and  sonorous, 
but  somewhat  harsh  and  crude.  **  It  is  as  you  observe,*' 
said  Accius  j  *^  nor  am  I  sorry  for  it,  since  HQ^y  fi>tMTe.|Hrp* 
ductions  will  be  better  upon  this  account ;  £cir  at  w  £nai 

AC  CI  us:  ft 

V>  1^  geniuses,  those  whicb  are  at  first  harsh' and  soiiri  be** 
eome  meliovr  and  agreeable ;  but  such  as  are  at  first  sofi 
and  sweet)  grow  in  It  short  time  not  ripe,  but  rotten.'* 
Accius  vras  so  much  esteemed  by  the  public,  that  a  come-* 
dian  was  punished  for  only  mentioning  bis  name  on  the 
stage.  Cicero  speaks  with  great  derision  of  one  Accius 
who  had  written  a  history ;  and,  as  our  author  wrote  an- 
oals,  some  insist  that  he  is  the  person  censured ;  but  as 
Cicero  himself,  Horace,  Quintilian,  Ovid,  and  Paterculus^ 
have  spoken  of  our  author  with  so  much  applause,  he  can« 
not  be  supposed  the  same  whom  the  Roman  orator  censures 
with  so  much  severity.  Nothing  remains  of  Accius,  but  some 
few  fragments  collected  by  Robert  Stephens,  and  the  titletf 
of  his  pieces.  He  is  supposed  to  have  died  at  an  advanced 
'age,  but  the  precise  time  is  not  known. ' 

ACCOLTI  (BfiKEDETTO),  an  eminent  lawyer  and  his«^ 
torian  of  the  fifteenth  century,  and  tlie  first  of  that  ancient 
Tuscan  family  who  acquired  a  name  for  literary  talents, 
was  bom  at  Areaeo,  ia  1415.  His  father  was  Michei 
Accolti,  a  civilian  of  Florence,  and  his  mother  a  daughter 
of  Roselli  of  Areszo,  also  a  lawyer.  After  a  classical 
education,  he  studied  the  civil  law,  and  was  made  professor 
at  Florence^  where  his  opinions  acquired  him  much  popu* 
larity.  The  Florentines^  after  conferring  on  him  the  rights, 
ofettisenship,  cbose  him  in  1459  to  be  secretary  of  the 
i^poUio^  in  the  room  of  Poggius,  which  office  he  retained 
until  Us  death  in  1466.  The  account  of  his  transactions 
in  pablifi  afiurs  are  preserved  in  four  books,  with  a  great 
collection  of  his  letters  to  foreign  princes^  which  evince 
his  sagacity  as  a  statesman,  and  bis  politeness  as  a  vmter* 
He  married  Laura  Frederigi,  t^e  daughter  of  a  lawyer  and 
patrician  of  Florence,  by  whom  he  hs^  a  numerous  family, 
of  whom  Bernard  and  Peter  will  be  noticed  hereafter.  His 
memory  is  said  to  have  been  so  retentive,  that  on  one 
occasion,  after  bearing  the  Hungarian  ambassador  pro* 
nounce  a  Latin  address  to  the  magistrates  of  Florence,  hn 
repeated  tibe  whole  wtird  for  word.  His  inclination  for  the 
study  of  history  made  him  rdax  in  the  profession  of  the 
law,  and  produced :  l .  ^  De  bello  a  Christianis  contra  Bar« 
bares  gesto,  pvo  Christi  sepulchro  et  Judsea  recuperandis^ 
libri  quatuor,*'  Venice,  1 S32,  4to,  and  reprinted  at  Basle, 
Venice,  and  Florence,  the  latter  edition  with  notes  by 
'Ekamm  Daipsicr,  1623,  4to,  and  at  Groninguen,  by  Henrys 

9i  A  C  C  O  L  T  I. 

Hoffnider,  1751,  8vo.  It  was  also  translated  into  Italian^ 
by  Francis  Baldelli,  and  printed  at  Venice,  1 549,  8  vo.  Yves 
Ducbat  of  Troyes  in  Champagne,  translated  it  into 
French  and  Greek,  and  printed  it  at  Paris,  1620,  8vo.  This 
is  a  work  of  considerable  historical  credit,  and  in  the  suc- 
ceeding century,  served  as  a  guide  to  TorquatoTasso,  in  his 
immortal  poem,  the  Gerusalemme  liberata.  It  was  dedicated 
to  Piero  de  Medici,  and  not  to  Cosmo,  as  Moreri  asserts. 
Paulo  Cortesi,  a  severe  censor,  allows  that  it  is  a  work  of 
great  industry,  and  that  it  throws  considerable  light  on  a 
very  difficult  subject.  A  more  recent  critic  objects  to  the  pu- 
rity of  his  style,  and  the  length  of  the  speeches  he  puts  in 
the  mouths  of  his  principal  personages.  2,  "  De  prasstantia 
virorum  sui  aevi,"  Parttia,  1689,  or  1692,  the  tendency  of 
which  is  to  prove  that  the  moderns  are  not  inferior  to  the 
ancients.  It  appeared  originally  in  the  Bibliotheque  of 
Magliabechi,  and  has  been  often  reprinted  since,  particu- 
larly at  Coburg,  in  1735,  in  the  first  volume  of  John  Ge- 
rard Meuschen's  "  Vitae  summorum  dignitate  et  eruditiohe 
virorum." ' 

ACCOLTI  (Bernard)  was  one  of  the  sons  of  the  pre- 
ceding, and,  on  account  of  the  great  fame  of  his  poetry, 
called  Unico  Aretino ;  but  such  of  his  works  as  have  de- 
scended to  our  days  are  not  calculated  to  preserve  the  very 
extraordinary  reputation  which  he  enjoyed  from  his  con- 
temporaries. According  to  them,  no  fame  could  be  equal 
to  what  he  obtained  at  the  court  of  Urbino  and  at  Rome, 
in  the  time  of  Leo  X.  When  it  was  known  that  the  Unico 
was  to  recite  his  verses,  the  shops  were  shut,  and  all  bu- 
siness suspended ;  guards  were  necessary  at  the  doors,  and 
the  most  learned  scholars  and  prelates  often  interrupted 
the  poet  by  loud  acclamations.  The  testimony  of  his  con- 
temporaries, and  among  them,  of  the  Cardinal  Bembo,  will 
not  permit  us  to  doubt  that  his  merit  was  extraordinary; 
but  it  is  probable  that  he  owed  his  fame  more  to  his  talents 
at  extempore  verse,  than  to  those  which  he  prepared  by 
study.  In  the  latter,  however,  there  is  an  elegance  of 
style,  and  often  the  fancy  and  nerve  of  true  poetry.  His 
poems  were  first  printed  at  Florence  in  1513,  under  the 
title  ^^  Virginia  comedia,  capitoli,  e  strambotti  di  messer 
Bernardo,  Accolti  Aretino,  in  Firenze  (al  di  Francesco 
Rossegli),"  8vo;  and  at  Venice,  1519,  "  Opera  nuova  del 
preclarissimo  messer  Bernardo  Accolti  Aretino,  scrittore 

1  Moreri.— Bioffraphie  UniyeneUe,  1811^->— Koscoe's  Lorenzo, 

AC  C  O  L  T  X.  &5 

apostolico  ed  abbrefiatore,  &t.'^  S^Oy  and  have  been  often 
•  re-printed.    In  tliis  Volume,  his  comedy  "Virginie/*  writ- 
ten, according  to  the  custom  of  the  age,  in  the  ottava 
rima,  and  other  .measures,  obtained  its  name  from  a  natu- 
ral daughter,  whom  he  gave  in  marriage  to  a  nobleman, 
with  a  large  dowry.     Leo  X.  who  had  an  esteem  for  him, 
•gave  him  the  employment  of  apostolic  secretary;  and  is 
likewise  said  to  have  given  him  the  duchy  of  Nepi;  but 
^ccoki  informs  us,  in  one  of  his  letters  to  Peter  Aretin, 
that  he  purchased  this  with'  his  own  money,  and  that 
Paul  lit.  afterwards  deprived  him  of  it.     The  dates  of  his 
birth  and  death  are  not  known ;  but  he  was  living  in  the 
time  of  Ariosto,  who  mentions  him  as  a  person  of  great 
consideration  at  the  court  of  Urbino.  ■ 

ACCOLTI  (Francis),  the  brother  of  Benedetto,  aitd 
usually  called  Francis  D'Arezzo,  or  Aretin,  from  the 
place  of  his  birth,  was  born  in  1418.  The  celebrated 
Francis  Philelphus  was  his  preceptor  in  polite  learning ; 
after  which  he  studied  law  under  the  ablest  professors, 
and  became  himself  one  of  their  number,  teaching  that 
faculty  at  Bologna,  Ferrara,  and  Sienna.  He  was  for  five 
years  secretary  to  the  duke  pf  Milan,  and  died  of  the 
stone  at  the  baths  of  Sienna,  in  1483.  He  has  been  ac- 
cused, but  without  proof,  of  the  grossest  avarice.  If  he 
Irft  vast  wealth,  it  was  owing  to  the  profits  of,  his  profes- 
sion, of  which  he  was  acknowledged  to  be  the  ablest  and 
most  successful  practitioner.  A  journey  which  he  made 
-to  Rome,  when  Sixtus  IV.  was  Pope,  has  given  rise  to 
another  story,  equally  without  proof,  that  he  solicited  to 
be  made  Cardinal,  which  the  Pope  refused,  on  pretence 
of  the  injury  that  would  accrue  to  leai^ning  from  such  a 
promotion.  -  Another  story  is  recorded,  more  to  his  honour. 
While  professor  of  law  at  Ferrara,  he  had  occasion  to  lec- 
ture to  his  scholars  on  the  advantages  of  a  character  known 
for  ^probity  and  honour ;  and,  in  order  to  exemplify  his 

•  doctrine,  he  went  in  the  night,  accompanied  by  only  one 
servant,  broke  open  the  butchers'  stalls,  and  took  away 
some  pieces.  The  law-students  were  immediately  sus- 
pected of  the  robbery,  and  two  of  them,  of  indifferent 

•  character,  were  imprisoned.  The  Professor  then  went 
before   the  Duke,  demanded  their  release,  and  accused 

•  himself:,  having  proved  the  fact,  which  was  with  difficulty 

>  Biofraphie  Uaivenetle,  1811.-^Ginguene,  Hist.  Litteraire  d'ltalie,  toI.  IIL 
p.  5i6<<-^a]<  additional  particulars  are  ia  Roscoe's  Life  of  Leo. 

^    I 

99  AfJCOLTt 

1>eliei^4  he  took  the  op^ortiinity  to  thoir  tke  aidiNuitigi 
of  a  good  churacter,  9im  the  xlangers  of  e  bad  one. 

He  left  several  works.  The  principal  are :  1.  ^^  S4  Cbty^ 
sostomi  homiUas  in  Evangeiium  S.  Joaanis^^nterprete  F.A.? 
|loaiei  1470,  fuL  Erasmus  b  of  opinion  tiiat  this  transla^ 
ti6n  is  deHcient  in  fidelity^  and  that  the  author  was^  not 
mfficientiy  acquainted  with  the  Greek  language,  l^*  *'  Pha^ 
Jaridis  Epistolie,^*  Rome,  about  146d»  8vo}*afterwar«ds 
re*printed  in  1471|  1474,  1475.  8.  '^Diogenis  Cyniu 
philosopbi  Epistol®.^*  4  ^^  Autboris  iiu:erti  libeilus  de 
Thermis  Putedloruoi,  et  victnis  in  ftalia^  aFr*  de  Accoltt$ 
A^tino  repertus,  pubiicatus^  &;c.^'  Naple^^  1475,  4to. 
iSome  writers,  not  attending  to  the  title  of  this  work^  have 
considered  him  as  the  author  of  it.  5.  ^  Consilia  aeu  Ue>* 
iponsa/'  Pisa,  a  collection  of  consultations  on  questions 
of  l^w.  6.  <<  Cooimentaria  super  Lib.  IL  Decretalium," 
3onon.  1481.  7.  '^Commentaria,"  Pavia,  1495,  fol.  He 
also  cultivated  Italian  poetry,  and  the  libraries  of  Chigi  and 
Strozzi  contain  several  of  his  poetical  pieces  in  manu^ 
scripi  Crescembini  inserted  some  of  his  sonnets  in  his 
history  of  Italian  poetry.  His  Latin  letters  are  in  the  Am* 
brosian  library  at  Milan.* 

ACCOLTl  (Peter),  another  of  the  sons  of  Benedetto 
the  historian,  was  bom  at  Florence  in  14*55,  and  studied 
law  at  Pisa,  where  be  became  doctor  and  professor.  He 
afterwards  went  into  the  church,  was  promoted  to  the 
bishoprick  of  Anoona^  and  six  years  after,  to  be  Cardinal, 
uuder  the  title  of  St.  Eusebius,  but  is  better  known  by  the 
title  of  Cardinal  of  Ancona.  He  afterwards  held  seven 
bisbopricks  in  Spain,  Flanders,  France,  and  Italy;  and 
attained  the  higher  honours  of  oardinaKvicar  and  legate* 
He  died  at  Rome  Dec.  12,  1532,  aged  77 ;  and  left  some 
worirs  on  law  of  no  great  importance.  He  tvas  the  author 
of  the  bull  against  Luther,  which  condemned  forty-one 
propositions  of  that  reformer.  One  of  his  natural  sons,. 
Benedict  Accolti,  was,  in  1 564,  the  chief  of  the  Florentine 
eonspiracy  against  Pius  IV.  for  which  he  was  executed.  ^ 


ACCORSO,  or  ACCURSIUS  (FiANCis),  an  eminent 
lawyer,  who  first  collected  the  various  opinions  and  deci«* 
sieas  of  hb  predecessors,  in  the  Roman  law^  into  oae  body^ 

1  Biographie  Uiiitene1le«  1811. 
•  Ibid.— Q«a.  DicC-^Mwefi, 

AC  caR  s  q:  »? 

was  bb^n  at  Florence^  in  llSl/or,  according  to  some 
writers,  in  1182.  He  was  the  scholar  of  Azzo,  and  soon 
became  more  celebrated  ttian  his  ipaster.  Yet  it  is  thought 
that  he'  did  not  begin  the  sjtudy  of  law  before  he  was  forty 
years  old.  When  professor  at  Bologna,  he  resigned  his 
office  in  order  to  complete  a  work  on  the  explanation  of 
the  ikwsy  which  he  had  long  meditated,  and  in  which  he 
was  noiv  in  danger  of  being  anticipated  by  Odefroy.  By 
dint  of  perseverance  f oi;  seven  years,  he  accumulated  the 
Vast  collection  known  by  the  title  of  the  "  Great  Gloss," 
or  the  **'.Contiriued  Gloss''  of  Accursius.  He  may  be  con- 
sidered as  the  first  of  glossators,  and  as  the  last,  since  no  one 
has  attempted  the  same,  unless  his  son  Cervot,  whose 
work  is  not  in  much  esteem;  but  he  was  deficient  in  a 
.proper  knowledge  of  the  Greek  and  Roman  historians^ 
and  the  science  of  coins,  inscriptions,  and  antiquities, 
which  are'  frequently  necessary  in  the  explanation  of  the 
Roman  law.  On  this  account,  he  was  as  much  undervalued 
by  the  learned  lawyers  of  the  fourteenth  and  sixteen^ 
centuries,  as  praised  by  those  of  the  twelfth  and  thirteenth, 
who  named  him  the  Idol  of  Lawyers.  They  even  esta- 
blished it  as  a  principle^  that  the  authority  of  the  Glosses 
should  be.  universally  received,  and  that  they  should  rally 
round  this  perpetual  standard  of  truth.  The  different  stu- 
dies pursued  in  the  ages  of  Accursius'  friends  and  enemies, 
will  account  for  their  different  opinions  of  his  merits ;  the 
one  consisted  o:!^  accumulated  learning,  interpretation,  and, 
commentary,  the  other  approached  nearer  to  nature  and  > 
facts,  by  adding  the  study  of  antiquities,  and  t)f  the  Greek 
and  Latin  histbirians.  Another  reason  probably  was,  that 
Accursius.  who  has  been  careless  in  his  mode  of  quotation, 
became  blamed  for  many  opinions  which  belong  to  Irne* 
rius,  Hugoliuus,  Martinus  Bulgarus,  Aldericus,  Pileus,  &c, 
and  otbiers  his  predecessors,  whose  sentiments  be  has  not 
accurately  distinguished.  The  best  edition  of  his  great 
work  is  that  of  Denis  Godefroi,  Lyons,  15S9,  6  vols.  fol. 
Of  his  private  life  we  have  no  important  materials.  He 
lived  in  splendour  at  a  magnificent  palace  at  Bologna, 
o^  at  his  villa  in  the  country ;  and  died  in  his  78th  year,  in 
1229.  l^ho^e  who  fix  his  death  in  1260  confound  him 
with  one  of  his  sons  of  the  same  name.  All  his  family, 
without  exception,  studied  the  law ;  and  he  had  a  daugh- 
ter, a  lady  of  great  learning,  who  gave  public  lectures  on 
the  Roman  law  in  the  university  of  Bologna.  Buiyle  doubts 
Voul.  H 

H  A  C  C  0  H  S  O. 

this ;  btit  it  is  confirmed  by  Pancirollus,  Fravenldbius,  and 
Paul  Freyer.  The  tomb  of  Accm^ius,  in  the  church  of 
the  Cordeliers  at  Bologna,  h  remarkable  only  for  the. 
simplicity  of  his  epitaph — "  Sepulchrum  Accursii  glossa* 
toris  legum,  et  Francisci  ejus  filii."  * 

ACCORSO,  or  ACCURSIUS  (Francis),  eldest  son  of 
the  preceding,  was  professor  of  law  at  Bologna,  where  he 
attained  great  reputation.  When  Edward  I.  king  of  Eng- 
land passed  through  Bologna,  in  1275,  after  his  return 
irom  the  Holy  Land,  he  wished  to  engage  Accursius  to 
teach  law  in  the  French  provinces  under  his  dominion ; 
but  the  government  of  Bologna,  unwilling  to  part  with  so 
iible  a  professor,  threatened  to  confiscate  his  goods  if  he 
dared  to  leave  the  city.  Accursius,  however,  took  his 
leave,  and  after  having  taught  law  at  Toulouse  for  three 
years,  was  invited  to  Oxford  by  king  Edward,  and  lodged 
in  his  palace  at  Beaumont.  The  king  gave  him  also  the 
manor  of  Martlegb,  and  in  the  grant  styles  him  "  dilectus 
et  fidelis  Seciretarius  noster  ;'*  and  in  another  charter,  **  il- 
lustris  regis  Angliae  consiliarius."  In  1275,  he  read  law 
lectures  at  Oxford,  or  more  probably  in  1276,  if  he  re- 
mained thi'ee  years  at  Toulouse.  In  1280,  he  returned  to 
Bologna,  and  was  restored  to  his  chair  and  his  property. 
His  death  took  place  in  1S21.  None  of  his  writings  remain.* 

His  brother  Cervot  published  some  glosses  in  addi- 
tion to  his  father's,  but  they  are  hot  macfa  esteemed. 
He  studied  law  with  such  success  as  to  be  admitted  doctor 
in  that  faculty  in  his  seventeenth  year,  but  not  without  a 
serious  discussion  in  the  academy  of  Bologna,  on  the  le- 
gality of  this  degree.  • . 

ACCORSO,  or  ACCURSIUS  (Mariangelus),  a  native 
t){  Aquila,  in  the  kingdom  of  Naples,  and  one  of  the  mo^t 
eminent  critics  of  his  time,  flourished  in  die  beginning  of 
the  sixteenth  century,  and  lived  for  thirty-three  y^rs  in 
the  court  of  Charles  V.  who  had  a  great  respect  for  him. 
He  was  well  acquainted  with  the  Greek,  Latin,  French, 
Spanish  and  German  languages,  was  one  of  the  most  inde- 
fatigable antiquaries  of  the  age,  tmd  enriched  Naples  with 
a  great  number  of  monuments  of  antiquity.  His  favourite 
employment  was  to  t^drtect  the  editi6tis  of  ancient  atithors 
by  the  aid  of  manuscripts,  Nvbich  be  sbught  out  with  great 

1  Biographte  tJnhenetfo.s—GiiigQene  Hist.  Lit.  D' Italic,  vol.  L.p^  371.*. 
Gen.  Diet. 

s  Blogri^pliie  X7nlv«rs«ll«,  tSl I.^Woo^'s  Atfnftis  Of'O^M.        \  Ibid*.      ' 

A  C  C  O  R  S  O.  9& 

care ;  and  his  first  work  is  a  lasting  proof  of  his  industry 
and  acutene&s.  This  was  his  '^  Diatribae  in  Ausonium, 
Solinum,  et  Ovidiuno,"  Rome,  1524,  fol.  The  frontispiece 
is  an  engraving  of  antique  statues,  among  which  are  the 
Apollo  Beividere,  and  a  Minerva,  and  two  bas-reliefs  of 
the  rape  of  Proserpine  and  the  death  of  Meleager.  At  the 
end  of  the  work  is  a  fable  entitled  "  Testudo."  .  The  Dia- 
tribae  have  been  reprinted,  but  not  entirely,  as  the  title- 
page  asserts,  in  the  variorum  edition  of  Ausonius,  printed 
at  Amsterdam,  1671,  8vo.  They  are  also  incorporated 
in  the  Delphin  edition,  by  John  Baptist  Soucfaay,  Paris^ 
1730,  4to. 

This  writer  has  left  an  example  of  an  author^s  jealousy^ 
and  fear  of  being  thought  a  plagiarist,  which  is  too  curions 
to  be  omitted.  Having  been  accused  of  owing  his  notes 
on  Ansonius  to  Fabricio  Varano,  bishop  of  Camarino,  he 
endeavoured  to  clear  himself  by  the  following  very  solemn 
oath :  ^*  In  the  name  of  God  and  man,  of  truth  and  sin- 
cerity^  I  solenmly  swear,  and  if  any  declaration  be  more 
binding  than  an  oath,  I  in  that  form  declare,  and  I  de-* 
sire  that  my  declaration  may  be  received  as  strictly  true, 
that  I  have  never  read  or  seen  any  author,  from  which  my 
own  lucubrations  have  received  the  smaUest  assistance  or 
improrement:  nay,  that  I  have  even  laboured,  as  far  as 
possible,  whenever  any  writer  has  published  any  observa* 
tions  which  I  myself  had  before  made,  immediately  to  blot 
them  out  of  my  own  works.  If  in  this  declaration  I  am 
foresworn,  may  the  Pope  punish  my  pei^ury ;  and  may  an 
evil  genius  attend  my  livritings,  so  that  whatever  in  them  is 
good,  or  at  least  tolerable,  may  appear  to  the  unskilful 
multitude  exceedingly  bad,  and  even  to  the  learned  trivial 
and  cont^nptible ;  and  may  the  small  reputation  I  now 
possess  be  given  to  the  winds,  and  regarded  as  the  worths- 
less  boon  of  vulgar  levity."  This  singular  protestatipn, 
which  is  inserted  in  the  Testudo,  has  been  often  quoted. 
in  1533,  he  published  at  Augsburgh  a  new  edition  of  ^^Am- 
niianus  Marcellinus,"  fol.  more  CQmplete  than  the  pre* 
ceding  editiou  (which  is  the  princeps),  and  augmented  by 
five  books,  not  before  known,  and,  as  stated  in  the  title, 
with  the  correction  of  above  five  thousand  en'ors*  In  the 
same  year  and  place,  he  published  the  ^^  Letters  of  Cassio* 
dorus,"  and  his  "  Treatise  on  the  Soul."  This  is  the  first 
complete  collection  of  these  letters,  and,  with  the  Trea- 
tisci  is  improved  by  many  corrections.     He  also  had  made 


ioo  A  C  C  O  R  S  0. 

preparations  for  an  edition  of  Claudian,  and  had  corrected 
stbove  seven  hundred  errors  in  that  author ;  but  this  has  not 
been  published.  At  his  leisure  hours,  he  studied  music, 
optics,  and  poetry.  We  have  a  specimen  of  his  poetry  in 
his  "  Protrepticon  ad  Corycium,"  of  eighty-seven  verses, 
which  is  printed  in  a  very  rare  work,  entitled  "  Coryciana,'* 
Rome,  1524,  4to.  This  Cory cius,  according  to  La  Mon- 
noie,  was  a  German  of  the  name  of  Goritz.  The  volume 
contains  the  poems  of  various  Neapolitan  authors^  as 
Arisio,  Tilesio,  &c. 

In  Accorso's  time,  it  was  the  fashion  with  many  Latif> 
writers  to  make  use  of  obsolete  words.     This  he  endea* 
Toured  to  ridicule,   and  with  considerable  success,  in  a 
dialogue    entitled  "  Osco,  Volsco,    Romanaqne  eloque^- 
tia  interlocutoribus,    dialogus  ludis  Romanis  actus,  &c.** 
153l,  8vo,  without  place,  or  the  name  of  the  author ;  but 
La  Monnoie  thinks  it  miist  have  been  printed  before,  as  it 
is  quoted  by  Tori  in  his  "  Champ- Fleuri,"  which  appeared 
in  1529.     At  the  end  of  this  volume  is  a  small  work,  en« 
titled  "  Volusii  Metiani,  jurisconsulti   antiqui  distributiow 
item  vocabula  ac  notse  partium  in  rebus  pecuniariis,  pon- 
dere,  numero,  et  mensura."     The  Dialogue  wasTeprinted 
at  Rome,  1574,  4to,  with  the  author's  name,  andwitiitbe 
title  of  '^  Osci  et  Volsci  Dialogus  ludis  Romanis.  actus  a 
Mariangelo  Accursio.^'     There  is  another  4to  edition,  with-* 
out  date  or  name  of  the  author.     In  the  imperial  librarj* 
of  Paris  are  two  editions,  both  of  Cologne,  1598.     It  ap^ 
pears  by  the  dedication  of  the  fable  Testudo,  that  Accorso 
was  employed  on  a  history  of  the  bouse  of  Brandenbourg ; 
but  this,  and  his  other  works,  were  lost  on  the  death  of 
his  son  Casimir,  who  was  a  man  of  letters,  and  had  intend- 
ed to  publish  all'his  father^s  works.     Toppi,  in  bis  Bib- 
lioteca  Napolet.    among  other  inaccuracies,   attributes  to 
Accorso  a  work  entitled  "  De  Typographicae  artis  luven* 
tore,  ac  de  libro  primum  omnium  impresso ;''  but  the  mis- 
take seems  to  have  arisen  from  a  few  manuscript  noticei^ 
on  the  subject,  written  by.  our  author  in  a  copy  of  Dona- 
tus'  grammar,  a  very  early  printed  book. ' 

ACERNUS  (Sebastian  Fabian),  a  native  of  Poland, 
whose  real  name  was  Klonowicz,  was  born  in  1551,  and 
became  burgomaster  of  Lublin.  His  Latin  poem,  *^  Vic- 
toria Deorum,  in  qua  continetur  veri  Herois  educatio,'* 

1  Gea.  Diet.—- Biograpbie  Universelle,  1811. — Saxii  Onoma&ticoii.— Moreri. 
— For  Ums  CoryciaMA,  see  Rossoe'a  Life  of  Leo,  and  art.  Gonizio  in  this  work 

A  C  E  R  N  U  S.  101 

cm  which  he  spent  ten  years,  procured  him  the  name  of 
the  Sarmatian  Ovid.  This  poem,  which  was  printed  at 
Bacow  by  Sebastian  Sternacius,  the  Socinian  printer,  in 
1600,  is  become  very  rare,  as  the  impression  was  ordered 
to  be  burnt.  He  wrote  also  in  the  Polish  language,  a 
poem  on  the  Navigation  of  the  Dantzickers,  1643  ;  a  Me- 
morial of  the  Dukes  and  Kings  of  Poland,  and  other  works, 
and  "  Disticha  morali^  Catonis,  interprete  Seb.  Fab.  Klo- 
nowicio,"  Cracow,  1595.  He  died  in  1608  in  great  dis- 
tress, owing  to  the  extravagance  of  his  wife.  * 

ACH^US,  a  Greek  poet,  a  native  of  Eret^ia,  the  son 
of  Pythodorus,  flourished,  according  to  Saxius,  between 
the  74th  and  8 2d  olympiad,  or  between  484  and  449 
before  the  Christian  sera,  and  consequently  was  the  con- 
temporary of  ^schylus.  He  was  both  a  tragic  and  satirical 
poet,  having,  according  to  some,  composed  thirty  trage- 
dies, and  according  to  others,  more  than  forty.  These 
are  all  lost,  except  some  fragments  which  Grotius  collected 
in  his  "  Fragmenta  Tragic,  et  Comicorum  Graecorum.** 
AchsBus  carried  off  the  poetical  prize  only  once.  His 
satirical  pieces  have  likewise  perished,  but  Athenaeus 
quotes  them  often.  There  was  another  Greek  poet  of  the 
same  name,  quoted  by  Suidas,  who  also  composed  trage- 
dies, of  which  there  are  no  remains. » 

ACHARD,  bishop  of  Avranches  in  Norm«.ndy,  usually 
sumamed  St.  Victor,  flourished  in  the  twelfth  century. 
His  biith-place  is  much  contested;  but  it  appears  most 
probable  that  he  was  a  Norman,  of  a  noble  family  ;  and  as 
Normandy  was  at  that  time  subject  to  the  King  of  England^ 
it  was  supposed  he  was  an  Englishman.  He  was,  how- 
ever, a  Canon-regular  of  the  order  of  St.  Augustine,  and 
second  abbot  of  St.  Victor  at  Paris.  He  was  preferred  to 
the  bishoprick  of  Avranches  in  1162  by  the  interest  of 
.King  Henry  II.  of  England,  \iith  whom  he  appears  to 
have  been  a  favourite,  as  he  stood  god-father  to  Eleanor^ 
daughter  to  that  prince,  and  afterwards  wife  of  Alphonso 
IX.  king  of  Castile.  He  died  March  29,  1172,  and  was 
interred  in  the  church  of  the  Holy  Trinity,  belonging  to 
the  abbey  of  Luzerne,  in  tbe  diocese  of  Avranches.  His 
epitaph,  which,  the  authors  of  the  General  Dictionary  say, 
is  stiU  remaining,  speaks  his  character :  ^'  Here  lies  bishop 
Achard,  by  whose  charity  our  poverty  was  enriched."     H^ 

1  Biogr.  Univenelle,  1811. 

f_  Jbid.-^Saxii  Ooomasticoii.— Fabric.  Bibl.  G)r»c. 

102  A  C  ft  A  It  D. 

was  a  person  of  great  eminence  for  piety  and  learning. 
His  younger  years  he  spent  in  the  study  of  polite  litera- 
ture and  philosophy,  and  the  latter  part  of  his  life  in 
intense  application.  His  works  were :  "  De  Tentatione 
Christi,"  a  MS.  in  the  library  of  St.  Victor  at  Paris. 
*  De  divisione  Animse  &  Spiritus,'*  in  the  same  library  ; 
copies  of  which  are  in  the  public  library  at  Cambridge, 
and  in  that  of  Bene't.  His  "  Sermons"  are  iti  the  library  of 
Clairvaux.  He  likewise  wrotie  "  The  Life  of  St.  Geselin,*' 
which  was  published  at  Douay,  12mo,  1626.' 

ACHARD  (Anthony),  a  learned  Prussian  divine,  was 
bom  at  Geneva  in  1696,  took  orders  in  1722,  and  in  1724 
was  promoted  to  the  church  of  Werder  in  Berlin.  He  en- 
joyed the  protection  of  the  prince-royal  of  Prussia ;  and 
having  in  1730  accompanied  the  son  of  M.  de  Finkenstein 
to  Geneva,  was  admitted  into  the  society  of  pastors. 
Eight  years  after,  the  king  of  Prussia  appointed  him  coun- 
sellor of  the  supreme  consistory,  and  in  1740,  a  member 
of  the  French  directory,  with  the  title  of  Privy -counsellor. 
Having  been  received  into  the  academy  of  Berlin  in  1743^ 
he  was  also  appointed  inspector  of  the  French  college,  and 
director  of  the  Charity-house.  He  died  in  1772.  He  was 
long  the  correspondent  of  the  Jesuits  Colonia,  Toume- 
mine,  Hardouin,  Poreus,  and  of  father  Le  Long,  and 
Turretine,  Trouchin,  and  Vernet  of  Geneva.  He  often 
preached  before  the  royal  family  of  Prussia ;  and  such  were 
his  powers  of  oratory,  that  a  celebrated  French  come- 
dian at  Berlin,  who  there  taught  the  theatrical  art,  recom* 
mended  his  pupils  to  hear  Achard.  He  was  of  a  very 
feeble  constitution,  and  for  twenty  years  subsisted  entirely 
on  a  milk-diet.  In  the  Memoirs  of  the  Academy  of  Berlin, 
for  1745,  there  is  the  outline  of  a  very  considerable  work, 
in  which  he  proves  the  liberty  of  the  human  mind  against 
Spinosa,  Bayle,  and  Collins.  Two  volumes  of  "  Sermons 
sur  divers  textes  de  TEcriture  Sainte,"  were  published  at 
Berlin  after  his  death. 

His  son  Francis,  born  at  Berlin  in  1753,  a  member  of 
several  academies,  has  furnished  many  dissertations  for 
the  Literary  Journal  of  Berlin,  and  other  Memoirs  of 
learned  societies.  Senebier  in  his  literary  history  of  Ge-- 
neva  gives  a  list  of  all  his  pieces,  and  a  collection  of  them 
was  published  in  German,  in  two  volumes.  ^ 

*  Gen.  Diet.— Moreri.— Tanner. 

*  Bi<^raphie  Universelle,  1811.  See  Monthly  Review,  vols.  72,  75,  77,  80,  &u 

A  C  H  A  B  D.  10? 

ACHARD  (Claude  Francis),  a  French  physician,  9^- 
cretary  to  the  academy  of  Marseilles,  and  librarian  of  that 
city,  was  born  in  1753,  and  died  in  1809.     He  published, 

1.  "  Dictionnaire  de  la  Provence,  et  du  Comtat  Venaissin,'* 
Marseilles,  1785 — 87,  4  vols.  4to.  The  first  two  volumes 
contain  a  French  and  Provenjal  vocabulary,  and  the  last  t^wo 
the  lives  of  the  celebrated  characters  of  Provence.  Bouche, 
the  abbe  Paul,  and  some  other  authors,  assisted  in  this  work. 

2.  "  Description  historique,  geographique,  et  topogr^- 
phique  de  la  Provence  et  du  Couitat  Venaissin,"  Aix,  1787, 
4to. ;  one  volunie  only  of  this  has  been  published.  3.  "  Ta- 
bleau de  Marseilles,'*  intended  to  be  comprized  in  two 
vols. ;  of  which  one  only  h^s  appeared.  4.  '^  Bulletin  des 
Societ^s  savantes  de  Marseilles  et  de  departements  du 
Midi/*  1802,  8vo.  5.  "  Cours  elementaire  de  Bibliogra- 
phie,  ou  la  Science  du  Bibliothecaire,*'  Marseilles,  1807, 
3  vojs.  8vo,  very  incorrectly  printed,  and  little  more  than 
a  compilation  from  Fournier's  "  Manuel  Typographique,'* 
and  ^  Peignoj's  "  Dictionnaire  de  Bibliolpgie ;"  and  it  is 
objected  to  him  that  the  immense  knowledge  he  requires 
in  a  librarian  would  repder  bibliography  impossible,  and 
tiresome.     He  also  published  a  Catalogue  of  the  Abbe 

*Rive*s  library,  1793,  8vo,  and  another  of  the  library  of 
Marseilles;  and  had  published  four  numbers  of  the  first 
volume  of  a  Catalogue  of  the  Museum  of  Marseilles.  * 

AC  HARDS  (ElsiA^ar-Fkancis  de  tA  Baume  pe)  was 
born  at  Avignon,  Jan.  29,  1679,  of  a  noble  and  ancient 
family.  After  having  embraced  the  ecclesiastical  profes- 
sion, he  became  not  only  distinguished  by  the  excellence 
of  his  doctrines,  but  particularly  by  his  charitable  exertions 
during  the  plague  in  1721  ;  and  bis  subsequent  promotions 
had  no  other  etiect  on  him  than  to  increase  his  zeal  and 
his  piety.  Pope  Clement  XII.  informed  of  his  talents  and 
conciliating  spirit,  employed  hiin  in  the  capacity  of  apos* 
tolic  vicar,  to  settle  the  disgraceful  disputes  that  had  ariseii 
among  the  missionaries  of  China.  Achards,  who  was  then 
bishop  of  Halicarna^sus,  undertook  this  commission ;  an4 
after  a  tedious  voyage  of  two  years,  ?ind  two  years'  resi- 
dence in  China,  where  he  ineffectually  laboured  to  accom- 
plish the  object  of  his  mission,  died  at  Cochin,  April  2, 
1741,  a  martyr  to  his  indefatigable  and  benevolent  zeal. 
The  Abbe  Fabre,  his  secretary,  published  an  account  of 
this  mission,  entitled  '^  JLettres  edifiantes  et  curieuses&ur  la 

1  Biographic  Universelle,  13 11. 

104  A  C  H  A  R  D  S. 

visite  apostolique  de  M.  de  la  Baume,  eveque  d*Halicar« 
nasse,  a  la  Cochinchine,"  Venice,  1746,  4to,  &  1753, 
3  vols,  l^mo,  with  the  translation  of  a  funeral  oration  de-> 
livered  on  his  death  by  a  Chinese  priest.  * 

ACHEN,  or  ACH   (John  Van),  an  eminent  painter, 
was  bom  at  Cologne,  in  1556,  of  a  good  family.     He 
discovered  a  taste  for  his  art  from  his  earliest  years,  and  at 
the  age  of  eleven,  painted  a  portrait  with  such  success,  as 
to  induce  his  parents  to  encourage  his  studies.     After  hav- 
ing been  for  some  time  taught  by  a  very  indifferent  pain- 
ter, he  became  the  disciple  of  de  Georges,  or  Jerrigh,  a 
good  portrait-painter,  with  whom  he  remained  six  years ;  • 
and  afterwards  improved  himself  by  studying  and  copying 
the  works  of  Spranger.     In  his  twenty-second  year  he  went 
to  Italy,  and  was  introduced  at  Venice  to  a  Flemish  artist, 
named  Gaspard  Reims.     This  man  no  sooner  learned  that 
Van  Achen  was  a  German,  than  he  recommended  him  to 
an  Italian  who  courted  necessitoua  artists  that  he  might 
make  a  trade  of  their  labours.    With  him  Van  Achen 
made  some  copies,  but,  being  unable  to  forget  the  recep- 
tion which  Reims  had  given  him,  he  painted  his  own  por^ 
trait,  and  sent  it  to  him.    Reims  was  so  struck  with  the  per-  , 
formance,  that  he  apologised  to  Van  Achen,  took  him 
into  his  house,  and  preserved  the  portrait  all  his  life  with 
great  veneration.     At  Venice,  he  acquired  the  Venetian 
art  of  colouring,  and  thence  went  to  Rome  to  improve  his 
design,  but  never  quitted  the  mannered  forms  of  Spranger. 
His  best  performances  at  Rome  were  a  Nativity  for  the 
church  of  the  Jesuits,  and  a  portrait  of  Madona  Venusta, 
a  celebrated  performer  on  the  lute.     His  talents,  however, 
and  polite  accomplishmei^ts,  pecpipmended  him  to  several 
of  the  gjreatest  princes  of  Europe,  and  particularly  to  the 
elector  of  Bavaria,  and  the  emperor  Rodolph,  by  both  of 
whom  he  was  patronized  and  honoured.     He  was  one  qf 
that  set  of  artists  who,  in  the  lapae  of  the  sixteenth  cen- 
tury, captivated  Germany  and  its  princes  by  the  intro- 
duction of  a  new  style,  or  rather ,  manner,  grossly  com- 
pounded from  the  principles  of  the  Florentine  and  Vene-^ 
tian  schools.     He  died  at  Prague  in  1 62 1.  • 

ACHENWALL  (Gqdfriy),  a  celebrated  publicist, 
and  considered  by  some  as  the  father  of  the  science  of 
Statistics^  was  born  at  Elbing,  a  Prussian  town,  OcU  2^^ 

1  Bingraphie  Universelle,  IStl;— >Dict.  Historique. 

*  Biogirapt^ie  Uifiverselle,  lSn««-»Pilkii^gtoii'8  Diet,  by  Fusdu 

A  C  H  E  N  W  A  L  L,  105 

1719.  He  receired  his  academical  education  at  Jena, 
Halle,  and  Leipsic.  In  1746  he  took  up  his  residence  at 
Marbourg,  where  he  taught  history,  the  law  of  nature  and 
nations,  and  statistics,  of  which  he  appears  to  have  formed 
very  jui&t  notions,  but  at  first  confined  himself  to  a  know- 
ledge of  the  constitutions  of  the  different  states.  In 
1748  he  went  to  Gottingen,  where,  some  years  after,  he 
became  one  of  the  professors  of  that  university,  and  one  of 
its  greatest  ornaments :  here  he  remained  until  his  death. 
May  1,  1772.  He  had  often  travelled  in  Switzerland, 
France,  Holland,  and  England  ;  and  published  several  works 
on  the  states  of  Europe,  and  political  law  and  oeconomy. 
Those  in  highest  estimation  are,  his  ^^  Constitution  des 
royaumes  et  etats  d' Europe,"  and  "  Elementa  Juris  Na- 
turae,'* of  which  six  editions  were  printed  in  a  very  short 
time,  each  retouched  and  improved  with  great  care.  Ill 
his  researches  on  the  subjects  of  national  wealth,  resources, 
and  means  of  prosperity,  he  availed  himself  of  the  qbser* 
vations  of  all  historians  and  travellers,  and  was  much  as« 
sisted  by  Hermann  Conring,  of  Helmstadt,  and  Eberhard 
Otto,  who  had  made  large  collections  for  the  same  purpose. 
Achenwall  gave  his  new  science  the  name  of  Statistics j  or 
Scientia  Statisiica.  His  last  work  was  *^  Observations  sur 
les  Finances  de  la  France.*' " 

ACHERI  (Luc  D*),  a  Benedictine  of  the  congregation 
of  St.  Maur,  was  bom  at  St.  Quintin,  in  Pioardy,  in  1609. 
He  became  celebrated  as  the  editor  of  valuable  manuscripts 
which  lay  buried  in  libraries.  The  first  piece  he  published 
was  the  epistle  ascribed  to  St.  Barnabas.  Father  Hugh 
Menard,  a  monk  of  the  same  congregation,  intended  to 
publish  this  epistle,  and  for  that  purpose  had  illustrated  it 
jwith  notes,  but  having  been  prevented  by  death,  D*Acheri 
gave  an  edition  of  it  under  the  title  of  ^^  Epistola  Catho^ 
hca  S.  Barnabae  Apostoli,  Gr.  &  Lat.  <;um  notis  Nic.  Hug. 
Menardi,  fst  elogio  ejusdem  auctoris,*'  Paris,  1645,  4to. 
In  1 648  he  collected  into  one  volume  the  ^*  Life  and  Works 
of  LanfVanc,  archbishop  of  Canterbury,"  Paris,  fol.  The 
Life  is  taken  from  an  ancient  manuscript  in  the  abbey  of 
Bee ;  and  the  works  are.  Commentaries  on  the  epistles  of 
St.  Paul,  taken  from  a  manuscript  in  the  abbey  of  St. 
Melaine  de  Rennes,  and  a  treatise  on  the  Sacrament, 
jftgainst  ^erenger.  The  appendix  contains  the  Chronicle 
,  pf  the  Abbey  of  Bee  from  its 'foundation  in  1)04  to  1437  } 

1  Biograpfaie  Uniyerselle. — ^Pict  Hi8tori(|ae,  1810. 

106  A  C  H  E  B  t 

ibe  li/e  of  St*  Heduiniis,  founder  snd  6ni  abbot,  of  aomtf 
ef  his  successors,  a^d  of  St.  Austin  the  apostle  of  England^ 
9nd  some  treatises  on  the  eucharist.  His  catalogue  of  asce- 
tic works  appeared  the  same  year,  entitled  ^  Ascetico- 
rum,  viilgo  spiritualium  opusculorum,  quae^  inta*  Patrunr 
opera  reperiuntur,  Indiculus,''  Paris>  1648^  4to.  This 
curious  work  was  reprinted  by  father  Reani,  at  Paris,  in 
1^71.  In  1651,  D'Acheri  published  the  "  Life  and  Works 
of  Guibert,  abbot  of  Nogent-sous-Couci/'  and  the  lives  of 
^me  saints,  and  other  pieces,  Paris,  foL  There  is  much 
antiquarian  knowledge  in  this  work,  respecting  ti>e  foun-* 
dation,  &c.  of  abbeys,  but  the  dates  are  not  always  cor* 
lect.  In  1653  he  republished  father  Grimlaic's  "  Regie 
dcfii  Solitaires,"  12n)o,  Paris,  with  notes  and  observations* 
Bis  most  considerable  work  is  ^^  Veterum  aliquot  scrip* 
tommy  qui  in  Gallise  bibliothecis,  maxime  Benedictino-* 
ruott,  latuerunt,  Spicilegium,  &c."  1653 — ^1677,  13  vpls. 
4to.  Under  the  modest  title  of  Spicilegium,  it  contains  a 
very  curious  collection  of  documents  pertaining  to  eccle* 
siastical  affairs;  as  acts,  canons,  councils,  chronicles,  lives 
of  the  saints,  letters^  poetry,  diplomas,  charters^  &c.  taken 
from  the  libraries  of  the  different  monasteries.  This  work 
)>ecoming  scarce  and  much  sought  after,  a  new  edition 
was  published  in  1725,  in  3  vols.  foL  by  Louis-Francis* 
Joseph  de  ia  Barre,  with  some  improvements  in  point  of 
arrangement,  but  at  the  same  time  some  improper  liber-i^ 
ties  taken  with  the  text  of  D' Acheri,  and  particularly  with 
his  learned  prefaces*  D'Acheri  contributed  also  to  Mai* 
billon's  ^^  Acta .  Sanctorum  ordinis  S.  Benedict],'*  &c.*<-^ 
fie  lived  a  life  of  much  retirement,  seldom  going  out,  or 
admitting  triSiug  visits,  and  thus  found  leisure  for  those 
vast  labours  already  noticed,  and  which  procured  him  th« 
esteem  of  the  popes  Alexander  VII.  and  Clement  X«  who 
honoured  him  with  medals.  Although  of  an  infirm  habit^ 
be  attained  the  age  of  seventy- six,  and  died  in  the  abbey 
of  St  Germain-des-Pres,  April  29,  1685.  He  was  in- 
terred und^  the  library  of  which  he  had  had  the  care  for 
so  many  y'ears,  and  where  his  literary  eorrespondence  is 
preserved.  There  is  a  short  eloge  on  him  in  the  Journal 
de  Trevoux  f^r  Nov.  26,  16B&;  bjat  that  of  Maugendre^ 
printed  at  Amiens  in  1775,  is  more  complete.  Pupin  says 
be  was  one  of  the  first  learned  men  that  the  congregation 
of  St.  Maur  produced. ' 

1  Biographic  UniirctrieUe,  lSll.*--Dict.  Hist  l8lO.«^Mm«ri.ii-Geii.  Diet-* 


ACHILLES  (Alexander),  a  nobleman  of  Prussia,  liweii 
4t  the  court  of  Uladislaus,  king  of  Poland,  and  died  at 
Stockholm  in  1675,  in  the  ninety-first  year  of  his  age. 
The  king  of  Poland  sent  him  as  ambassador  to  Persia,  and 
die  elector  of  Br&ndenburgh  employed  him  on  a  similar 
mission  to  the  Cossacks.  He  wrote,  in  German,  a  trea- 
tise on  Earthquakes,  and  left  some  manuscripts  political 
and  philosophical.  ■ 


ACHILLINI  (Alexander),  a  native  of  Bologna,  where 
he  was  bom  Oct.  29,  1463,  was  a  philosopher  and  physiciaut 
and  professed  both  those  sciences  with  great  reputation.  He 
had  scholars  from  all  parts  of  Europe.  He  died  in  his  owa 
country,  August  2,  1512,  at  the  age  of  40,  with  the  sur« 
name  of  The  great  philosopher,  after  having  published  va- 
rious pieces  in  anatomy  and  medicine.  To  him  is  ascribed 
the  discovery  of  the  little  bones  in  the  organ  of  hearing. 
He  adopted  the  sentiments  of  Averroes,  and  was  the  rival 
of  Pomponacins.  These  two  philosophers  mutually  de^ 
cried  each  other,  and  Pomponacius  had  generally  the  ad- 
vantage,  as  he  had  the  talent  of  mixing  witticisms  with  his 
arguments,  for  the  entertainment  of  the  by^standers,  while 
Achillini  lowered  himself  with  the  public  by  his  singular 
and  slovenly  dress.  His  philosophical  works  were  printed 
in  one  vol.  folio,  at  Venice,  in  1 506,  and  reprinted  with 
considerable additi<His  in  1545,  1551,  and  1568.  .  His  prin- 
cipal medical  works  are:.l.  ^^  Annotationes  Anatomic®,'* 
Bonon.  1520,  4to,  and  Venice,  1521,  8vo.  2.  <^  De  hur 
mani  corporis  Anatomia,^'  Venice,  1521,  4to.  3.  ^' In 
Mundini  anatomiam  annotationes,'*  printed  with  Kathanrs 
**  Fasciculus  Medicinse,*'  Venice,  1 522,  fol.  4.  "  De  subr 
jecto  Medicinoe,  cum  annotationibus  Pamphili  Montii,^* 
Venice,  1568.  5.  **  De  Chirpmanti»  principiis  et  Physi- 
ognomisB,''  foL  without  place  or  year.  6.  *^  De  Univer- 
salibus,''  Bonon.  1501,  fol.  7.  *^  De  subjecto  Chiromantite 
et  Physiognomiee,''  Bonon.  1503,  fol.  &  Pavia,  1515,  fol. 
-—Achillini  also  cultivated  poetry ;  but  if  we  may  judge 
from  some  verses  in  the  collection  pubhshed  on  the  death 
of  the  poet  Seraphin  dall'  Aquila,  not  with  much  success.* 

ACHILLINI  (John  Phjlotheus),  youngBr  brother  of 
the  preceding,  was  born  at  Bologna  in  1466,  where  he 
died  in  1558.     He  was  learned  in  the  Greek  and  Latin 

1  BiOfraphie  Univ^rselle. 

f  Oeu.  I^et—- Moreri.— -fiiographie  UnirerieUe^  1811. 

lOS  A  C  H  I  L  L  I  N  L 

languages,  in  theology,  philosophy,  and  music,  and  the  study 
of  law  and  antiquities,  but  is  most  celebrated  as  a 
poet,  although  his  works  are  not  free  from  the  faults  pe- 
culiar to  his  age.  Yet  he  gave  even  these  a  turn  so  pecu- 
liarly original,  that  they  appear  to  have  been  rather  his 
own  than  acquired  by  imitation.  He  published,  among 
many  other  works:  1.  A  scientific  and  moral  poem,  writ- 
ten in  the  ottava  rima,  entitled  "  II  Viridario,*'  Bologna, 
4to,  which  contains  eulogiums  on  many  of  his  learned  con- 
temporaries. 2.  "  II  Fedele,"  also  in  heroics.  These  are 
both  scarce,  as  they  never  were  reprinted.  3.  "  Annota- 
2ioni  della  lingua  vdlgare,"  Bologna,  1556,  8vo.  Thi$ 
was  intended  as  an  answer  to  those  who  complained  of  the 
provincialisms  in  his  style.  4.  He  also  published  a  collec- 
tion of  poems  on  the  death  of  Seraphin  dall'  Aquila,  men- 
tioned in  the  preceding  article,  Bologna,  1 504,  4to.  He 
has  more  stretch  of  mind  than  most  of  bis  contemporaries,  * 
ACHILLINI  (Claude),  grandson  of  the  preceding,  and 
son  of  Clearchus  Achillini  andPolyxena  Buoi,  was  bom  at 
Bologna  in  1574,  After  studying  grammar,  the  belles 
lettres,  and  philosophy,  he  entered  on  the  study  of  the 
law,  and  prosecuted  it  with  so  much  success,  that  he  was 
honoured  with  a  doctor's  degree  at  the  age  of  twenty, 
Dec.  16,  1594,  and  became  a  professor  of  that  science  at 
Bologna,  Ferrara,  and  Parma,  where  he  acquired  great 
reputation.  His  learning  was  so  much  admired  that  an 
inscription  to  his  honour  was  put  up  in  the  public  schools, 
and  both  popes  and  cardinals  gave  him  hopes,  which  were 
never  realized,  of  making  his  fortune.  Towards  the  end 
of  his  life  he  lived  principally  in  a  country  house  called  II 
Sasso,  and  died  there  Oct.  1,  1640.  His  body  was  car- 
ried to  Bologna,  and  interred  in  the  tomb  of  his  ai>cestoi*& 
in  the  church  of  St.  Martin.  He  is  principally  known  now 
by  bis  poetry,  in  which  he  was  an  imitator  of  Marino,  and 
with  much  of  the  bad  taste  of  his  age.  It  has  been  asserted 
that  he  received  a  gold  chain  worth  a  thousand  crowns 
from  the  court  of  France,  for  a  poem  on  the  conquests  of 
Louis  XIII. ;  but  this  reward  was  sent  him  by  the  Cardinal 
Kichelieu,  in  consequence  of  some  verses  he  wrote  on  the 
birth  of  the  dauphin.  His  poems  were  printed  at  Bologna, 
1632,  4to,  and  were  reprinted  with  some  prose  pieces, 
under  the  title  "Jftime  e  Prose,"  Venice,  1651,  13mo. 

1  Biogmphie  Universelle,  ISIL^-Hist.  Litteraire   d'  Italie,  par  G)n£;ucne4 
Tol.  ill.  p.  548.^-Gcn.  Dict—Moreri. 

A  C  H  I  L  L  I  N  L  109 

He  published  also  in  Latin  ^^  Decas  Epistolarum  ad  Jaco« 
bum  Gaufridum/*  Parma,  1635,  4to.  > 

ACHMET,  an  Arabian  author,  who  is  supposed  to  bare 
lived  about  the  fourth  century,  and  is  styled  the  son  of 
Seirim,  wrote  a  book  ^^  On  the  interpretation  of  Dreams, 
according  to  the  doctrine  of  the  Indians,  the  Persians,  and 
the  Egy^ians,''  which,  with  all  its  absurdities,  has  been 
translated  into  ^^reek  and  Latin,  and  published,  together 
with  ^'  Artemidorus  on  Dreams  and  Chiromancy,^^  by  M« 
Rigault  in  Paris,  1 603,  4to.     The  original  is  lost.  * 

ACIDALIUS  (Valens),  a  young  man  of  great  erudi- 
^on,  whom  Baillet  has  enrolled  among  his  <<  Enfans  cele- 
ores,"  and  who  would  have  proved  one  of  the  ablest  critics 
of  his  time,  had  he  enjoyed  a  longer  life,  was  born  at 
Wistock,  in  the  march  of  Brandenbiirgh,  in  1567.  In  his 
seventeenth  year  he  composed  some  poetical  pieces  in 
Latin,  which  are  not  very  highly  esteemed.  In  1589,  he 
went  to  Helmstadt  to  pursue  Iiis  studies,  and  there  pub- 
lished some  of  his  poemi,  which  were  reprinted  after  his 
death,  at  Leibnitz,  in  1605,  with  tlu)se  of  Janus  Lemu- 
tius  and  Janus  Gulielmus.  They  are  also  inserted  iuithe 
first  volume  of  the  "Deliciae  Poetarum  Germanorum  ;** 
znd  several  of  his  pieces  are  in  the  second  volume  of  Cas«- 
par  Dornavius'  *^  Amphitheatrum  sapientiae  Soicraticae  Jo- 
coseriiB,''  Hanau,  1619.  From  Helmstadt,  Acidalius  went 
to  Italy  in  1590,  and  acquired  the  esteem  and  friendship 
of  the  most  distinguished  scholars ;  and  here  he  studied 
medicine,  but  does  not  appear  to  have  entered  into  prac- 
tice. Before  he  went  to  Italy,  he  had  begun  his  commen- 
tary on  Paterculus,  and  published  his  edition  of  that  au- 
thor at  Padua,  in  the  above-mentioned  year,  12mo.  He 
adopted  the  text  of  Schegkius,  but  introduced  corrections^ 
and  such  new  readings  as  appeared  well  founded.  For 
this,  however,  he  has  been  censured  by  Boeder,  J.  Mer- 
rier, and  Burmann;  and  it  has  been  said  that  he  himself 
condemned  this  early  production.  His  contemporaries 
appear  to  have  thought  more  favourably  of  liis  labours,  a« 
his  notes  were  adopted  in  the  edition  of  Paterculus  pub- 
lished at  Lyons,  1595,  dvof  and  they  were  again  added 
to  an  edition  of  Tacitus  printed  after  his  death,  at  Paris, 
in  1608,  folio.  After  remaining  three  years  in  Italy,  he^ 
returned  to  Germany ;  andatNeiss,  the  residence  of  the 

'    1  Chaafiepic'.— Moreri.  -^  Diet.  Hist.— Bio; raphie  Unirerseile. 
«  l^kU  lii«t« 

no  A  C  I  D  A  L  r  U  S. 

bishop  of  Breslaw,  he  embraced  the  Roman  Cathplic  reli- 
gion. At  this  place  he  continued  hi»  critical  researches 
on  Quintus  Curtius,  Plautus,  the  twelve  ancient  Panegy- 
rics, Tacitus,  and  some  other  authors.  In  1594,  he  pub- 
lished, at  Francfort,  his  "  AnimadVersiones  in  Quintuni 
Curtium,'*  8vo ;  which  have  been  adopted  in  the  Francfort 
edition  of  thjit  author,  1597,  and  Snakeriburg's  edition, 
Leyden,  1724,  4to.  His  sudden  death,  May  25,  1595, 
at  the  age  of  28,  put  a  stop  to  his  useful  labours.  At  that 
time  his  observations  on  Plautus  were  in  the  press,  and 
wei'e  published  the  following  year  at  Francfort,  8vo,  and 
again  in  1607  ;  and  they  are  inserted  in  J.  Gruter's 
**Lampas  Critica."  They  conferred  upon  him  a  well- 
earned  reputation ;  and  Barthius  and  Lipsius,  with  others, 
bore  testimony  to  his  growing  merit  as  a  critic.  His  re- 
marks on  the  Ancient  Panegyrics  and  on  Tacitus  were 
published  in  1607,  and  the  former  were  added  to  J.  Gru- 
ter's  edition,  Francfort,  1607,  12mo.  They  are,  likewise, 
examined  and  compared  with  those  of  other  scholars,  in 
the  fine  edition  of  the  Panegyrics  published  at  Utrecht  by 
Arntzenius,  in  1790,  4to.  His  notes  on  Tacitus  are  in 
the  edition  of  that  author  printed  at  Paris,  1608,  fol. 
(where  he  is  by  mistake  called  Acidalus) ;  in  that  of  Gro- 
novlus,  Amsterdam,  1635,  4to,  and  1673,  2  vols.  8vo. 
We  also  owe  to  Acidalius,  some  notes  on  Ausonius,  given 
in  ToUius'  edition  of  that  author,  Amsterdam,  1671,  8vo. 
and  notes  on  Quintilian's  dialogue  de  Oratoribus,  added 
to  Gronoyius'  edition  of  Tacitus,  Utrecht,  1721,  4to.  It 
appears  by  his  letters,  that  he  had  written  observation^  on 
Apuleius  and  Aulus  Gellius,  but  these  have  not  been 
printed.  His  letters  were  published  at  Hanau,  1606,  8yo, 
by  his  brother  Christian,  under  the  title  of  **  Epistolarum 
centuria  una,  cui  accesserunt  apologetica  ad  clariss:  virum 
Jac.  Monavium,  et  Oratio  de  vera  carminis  elegiaci  natura 
et  constitutione.''  In  the  preface,  his  brother  vindicates 
his  character  against  the  misrepresentations  circulated  in 
consequence  of  his  embracing  the  Roman  Catholic  reli-» 
gion,  particularly  with  regard  to  the  mannfer  of  his  death. 
Some  asserted  that  he  became  suddenly  mad,  and  others 
that  he  laid  violent  hands  on  himself.  It  appears,  how- 
ever, that  he  died  of  a  fever,  brought  on  by  excess  of 
"study. — It  still  remains  to  be  noticed,  that  he  is  said  to 
have  been  the  author  of  a  pamphlet,  published  in  1595, 
entitled,  ^^  Mulieres  non  esse  homines,''  </  Women  are  not 

A  d  I  D  A  L  I  U  S,  111 

men ;  i.  e.  not  thinking  and  reasonable  beings  ;'^  but  he 
had  no  other  hand  in  this  work  than  in  conveying  it  to  his 
bookseller,  who  was  prosecuted  for  publishing  it.  It  was, 
in  fact,  a  satire  on  the  Socinian  mode  of  interpreting  the 
Scriptures;  and  a  French  translation  of  it  appeared  in 
1744,   l2mo.' 

ACKEIIMANN  (John  Christian  Gottlieb),  a  physi- 
cian and  medical  writer  of  considerable  note  in  Germany, 
and  professor  of  medicine  at  Aitdorf,  in  Franconia,  was 
born  in  1756,  at  Zeulenrode,  in. Upper  Saxony.  His 
father  was  a  physician,  and  initiated  bis  son  in  that  science 
at  a  very  early  age.  When  scarcely  fifteen,  he  prescribed 
with  saccess  to  many  of  his  friends  during  a  dangerous  epi- 
demic which  prevailed  at  Otterndorf.  He  afterwards  fi- 
nished his  studies  at  Jena  and  Gottingen,  under  Baldinger, 
and  became  a  v^ry  excellent  classical  scholar  under  the 
celebrated  Heyne.  After  having  practised  medicine  in  hi^ 
own  country  for  some  years,  and  distinguished  himself  bj 
various  translations  of  Italian,  French,  and  English  work^ 
as  well  as  by  bis  original  compositions,  he  was  appointed 
to  the  professorship  at  Altdorf.  He  was  also  a  member  of 
various  medical  societies ;  and  his  practice  is  said  to  have 
been  as  successful,  as  his  theory  of  disease  was  sound.  He 
died  at  Altdorf  in  1801.  His  principal  works  are  :  1.  **In- 
stitutiones  Historic  Medicinae,"  Nuremberg,  1792,  8vo. 
2.  "  A  Manual  of  Military  Medicine,  2  vols,  8vo,  Leipsic, 
179^^95,  in  German.  3.  ^'he  Life  of  J.  Conr.  Dippel,'* 
Leipsic,  1781,  8vo;  also  in  Geraian.  For  Harles' edition 
6f  Fabricius*  Bibl.  GraDca,  he  furnished  the  lives  of  Hippo- 
crates, Galen,  Theophrastus,  Dioscorides,  and  Aretaeus; 
which  are  said  to  be  well  executed.' 

ACKWORTH  (George),  LL.  D.  an  English  divine 
and  civilian,  of  whose  birth  and  family  we  have  no  account. 
During  the  reign  of  queen  Mary,  he  travelled  in  France 
and  Italy,  where  he  studied  the  civil  law.  In  1560,  he 
was  public  orator  at  Cambridge ;  and,  in  the  following 
year,  created  doctor  of  laws.  In  1562,  he  was  admitted 
an  advocate  in  the  Arches  court ;  and  afterwards  lived  in 
the  family  of  archbishop  Parker,  who  gave  him  a  prebend, 
probably  that  of  Southwell.  In  1567,  he  was  vicar-general 
to  Home,  bishop  of  Winchester ;  and,  in  1575,  the  arch- 
^  bishop  of  Canterbury  permitted  him  to  hold  ihe  rectory  of 

*  Bi<%riipbie  Unnrtrselte,  1811. — Gen.  Diet — Moreri.— >Saxii  Ooomaiticon. 

*  Biograpbie  Uuivenelle,  l811.«^SaxiiQaoaiaitit;oa,  tol.  8, 

112  A  C  K  W  O  R  T  H. 

Elington,  alias  Wrougfaton,  in  the  diocese  of  Sarum,  wittii. 
any  other  benefice.  In- 1576,  he  was  appointed  master  of 
the  faculties,  Setnd  judge  of  the  prerogative  court,  in  Ireland, 
after  he  had  been  turned  out  of  all  the  situations  he  held 
in  England^  on  account  of  his  dissolute  conduct.  Whea 
be  died  is  not  known.     He  wrote,  in   bis   better  days  ; 

1.  *^Orationem  encomiasticam  in  restitutione  Buceri  et 
Fagii,'*  printed  in  "Hist.  Buceri,"  Argentor.  1562,  8vo. 

2.  The  preface  to  Book  11.  of  Bucer's  works,  fol.  Basil, 
1577.  3.  **De  visibili  Romanarchia,  contra  Nic.  Sandert 
Monarchiam,"  Lond.  1622,  4to.  This  was  written  while 
he  lived  with  archbishop  Parker,  and  probably  at  his  insti*^. 
gation.  At  one  time*  he  enjoyed  the  confidence  of  thig 
great  and  good  prelate,  and  assisted  him  in  his  Antiquitates 
Britaimicae. ' 

ACOLUTHUS  (Andrew),  a  learned  Orientalist,  and 
professor  of  divinity  at  Breslaw,  was  born  at  Bernstadt, 
March  6,  1654.  It  is  said  that,  at  six  years  of.  age,  he 
could  speak  Hebrew*  He  died  Nov.  4,  1 704.  His  most 
celebrated  works  are  some  chapters  of  a  polyglot  Koran^ 
which  he  intended  to  have  completed.  The  specimen, 
which  is  very  scarce,  is  "Tetrapla  Alcoranica,  sive  Speci- 
men Alcorani  quadrilinguis  Arabici,  Persici,  Turcici,  et 
Latiui,''  Berlin,  1701,  fol.  He  published  also, '^  Obadias 
Armenus  et  Latinus,  cum  annotationibus,'^  Leipsic,  1680,  . 
4to.  In  printing  this  work,  in  which  he  followed  as  his 
guides  Ambrose  Theseus  and  Francis  Rivoli,  he  was 
obliged  to  have  the  Armenian  types  cast  at  his  own  ex- 
pence.  He  corresponded  with  many  learned  contempo- 
raries, as  Longuerue,  Spanheim,  and  Leibnitz,  who,  how- 
ever, did  not  approve  his  notion  of  the  Armenian,  being  the 
ancient  language  of  Egypt. » 


ACONTIUS,  or  ACONZIO  (James),  a  divine,  philo^  . 
sopher,  and  civilian  of  the  sixteenth  century,  was  born  at 
Trent,  where  he  was  afterwards  in  orders ;  but,  being  dis- 
posed to  a  liberality  of  sentiment  not  tolerated  there,  he  ; 
went  to  Switzerland  in  1557,  and  made  profession  of  the 
Protestant  religion  on   the  principles  of  Calvin.     From 
thence  he  went  to  Strasburgh,   and  .lastly  to  England, 
where  he  was  hospitably  received.    Queen  Elizabeth  ^ave^ 
him  a  pension,  not  as  a  divine,  but  as  an  engineerii    In 

>  Tanner  Bibl. — Masters'  IGst  of  Corpus  Christi  Coll.  Cambridge.'  ~  ~ 

!  Biof  rapbit  UniT«ri«Ue,  ISi;.— Moreri. 

A  C  O  N  T  I  U  S.  113 

gratitude,;he  addressed  to  her  his  book  on  the  *^  Stratagems 
of  Satao,"  a  work  in  which  are  unquestionably  many  senti-. 
ments  of  greater  Uberality  than  the  times  allowed^  but^  at 
the  same  time,  a  laxity  of  principle  which  would  reduce  all 
religions  into  one,  or  rather  create  an  indifFerence  about 
the  choice  of  any.  It  was  first  printed  at  Basle,  in  1565, 
under  the  title  of  "  De  stratagematibus  Satanae  in  reli- 
gionis  negotio,  per  superstitionem,  errorem,  heresim, 
odium,  calumniam,  schisma,  &c.  libri  VIIU'  It  was  after- 
wards often  reprinted  .and  translated  into  most  Europeaa 
languages.  His  latest  biographer  say^,  that  this  work  ^may 
be  considered  as  the  precursor  of  Lord  Herbert  of  Cher- 
bury,  and  those  other  English  philosophers  who  have  re- 
duced the  articles  of  religion  to  a  very  small  number,  and 
maintain  that  all  sects  hold  its  essential  principlesi.  Aeon- 
tins,  however,  had  his  enemies  and  his  supporters;. and 
even  the  former  could  allow  that,  in  many  respects,  he 
anticipated  the  freedom  and  liberality  of  more  enlightened 
times,  although  he  was,  in  many  points,  fanciful  and  un- 
guarded. A  better  work  of  his  is  entitled  ^^  De  methpdo  sive 
recta  investigandarum,  tradendarumque  artium,  .  ac  scien- 
tiarum  ratione,  libellus,''  Basle,  1558,  8vo.  This  has  often 
been  reprinted,  and  is  inserted  in  the  collection  '^  De  Stu- 
diis  bene  instituendis,^'  Utrecht,  1658.  His  ^'Ars  muni- 
eudorum  oppidorum,*'  in  Italian  and  Latin,  was  published 
at  Geneva  in  1585.  In  one  of  the  editions  of  his  '^  Strata- 
gemata,^'  is  an  excellent  epistle  by  him,  on  the  method  of 
editing  books.  He  had  also  made  some  progress  in  a  trea- 
tise on  logic,  as  he  mentions  in  the  above  epistle,  and  pre^- 
diets  the  improvements  of  after-times. 

Tanner  gives  1566  as  the  date  of  his  death,  but  we  have 
no  account  of  it.  .  We  only  know  that  he  died  in  England^ 
and  that,  in  1560,  he  belonged  to  the  Dutch  church  m 
Austin  Friars ;  and,  with  Hadriati  Hamstedius,  wa§  accused 
of  Anabaptist  and  Arian  principles,  and  fell  under  the  cen- 
sure of  excommunication  pronounced  by  Grindall,  then 
bishop  of  London,  and  bishop-superintendant  of  the  fo- 
reigners' churches.  On  this  occasion  Acontius  wrote  a 
long  expostulatory  letter  to  the  Butch  church,  which  is 
still  extant  in  the  library  at  Austin  Friars.  Our  authority 
does  not  state  how  this  matter  ended ;  but  Hamstedius  re- 
fused subscription  to  certain  articles  drawn  up  by  the 
bishop  pireviously  to  the  ceremony  of  absolution. ' 

1  Biographie  tniTenelle,  18Ll.-^Qen.  Diet.— T«ii^tr.'«»8tryp«'t  IJf«  «| 
iTriDdall,  pp.  49.  ^« 

YQL.i.  1 

114  A  b  O  S  T  A. 

ACOS'fA  (Joseph  b*),  a  celebrated .  Spanish  anthofv 
Born  at  Medifia  del  Campo,  about  the  year  1539.  At  tbe 
age  of  fburt'een,  he  entered  the  society  of  the  Jesuits,- 
whefe  hd  had  already  four  brothers,  all  of  whom  he  ex- 
celled in  knowledge  and  fentprprlze.  In  1571  he  went  to 
the  East  Indies,  ai^d  became  second  provincial  in  Peru. 
fn  1^8d,  he  retiinied  to  Spain,  and  acquire^d  tbe  good 
graces  of  Philip  JI.  by  entertaining  him  with  accounts  of 
tne  New  World.  He  then  went  to  Italy,  to  render  a 
^ore  pafticuiair  Sc^ount  to  the  general  of  the  Jesuits, 
Claude  Aquavjva,  with  whoiU  he  had  afterwards  a  differ* 
ehce,  of  little  impbrtartc6  now,  relative  to  certain  ecctesi* 
astical  offices,  and  became  isaperior  of  the  order  at  Valla*^ 
dotid,  and  tectolrot  Salamanca ;  at  which  last  place  he  died, 
teh.  1 5,  1 606.  H^  wrote  :  1 .  "  Historia  natural  y  moral  d^ 
•  la*  Ihdias,^*  Seville.  1590,  4to;  also  1591,^  8vo,  a  cor* 
fected  edition ;  and  ^ain,  Madrid,  1603  and  1610;  a 
work  ih  great  estrm^tioil,  and  often  quoted  by  Dr.  Robert- 
son. ^Ti  has  been  tY^nslated  int6  Latin  and  French;  th^ 
hitter  by  ttbbert  Regii^tilt,  who  skys  that  the  original  be* 
tame  sclirde,  th'e  Spaniai'ds  having  burnt  all  the  copies^ 
t>ut  in  this  l!e  ha&  tnisrtakeh  Acosta  for  Acuna.  It  has  ais6 
been  translated  into  Flemish,  Italian,  knd  German.  IS.  ^*  D^ 
Katura  Ndvi  Ofbis,  libri  duo,*'  Salamanca,  1589  and  159-9, 
'Svo.  I'his  was  ttan^ltited  by  the  author  into  iSpantsh,  and 
iidded  to  the  preeeditig  woVk.  S.  "De  Promulgation^ 
^vangelii  a|>ud  Barbafos,*'  Salamanca,  1588,  8 vb,  Cologne, 
15b6.  4.  ''^  De  ChfiStb  revdato,  libri  novem,"  Home,  15&0, 
416;  Lyohs,  1391,  SV6.  S.  *^Conciones,  tomi  tres,**  Sa** 
lamanca,  1596,  4to,  atid  t>ften  teprinted.  * 

ACbSTA  (URfEL|,  2i  Portuguese,  born  at  Oporto  to- 
Vrards  the  d6s6  of  the  sll^eenth  century.  He  was  ed#. 
cated  in  the  Rombh  raigion,  which  his  father  also  sin*- 
cerely  professed,  though  descended  from  one  of  those 
i^Tewidi  families  Who  hud  heel)  forced  to  receive  baptism* 
Uriel  had  a  liberal  education,  h^ing  been  insh*ucted  iu 
several  sciences ;  and  at  last  sliudied  the  law,  He  bad  by 
nature  a  good  temper  and  disposition ;  and  religion  had 
made  so  deep  an  impression  on  his  mind,  that  h^  ardehtfy 
desired  to  coufotiti  to  all  the  precepts  of  the  church.  He 
applied  with  constant  assiduity  to  re&ding  the  ^cnptut^saik^ 
rdigtous  books,  Carefully  consulting  also  the  creed  f^  the 
confessors ;  but  difficulties  occurred,  which  perples^  him 
to  such  a  d^ree,  that,  unable  to  ;SoIve  them,  he  thought 

>  <Biflvraphie  UoiT^Kelle,  lSU.«>*Moreri. 

A  CO  ST  A,  111 

it  impossible  to  fulfil  his  duty,  with  reg^d  to  the  cofidi# 

ttoDs  required  for  absoiutioni  according  to  gopd  oasiii^Ui 

At  lengtb)  he  began  to  inquire,  whether  se^erii  particulftrt 

mer^tioned  about  a  future  Kfe  were  agreeable  to  reason^ 

aud   imagined    that    reason    suggested    many  argumeatf 

a|?^  thetn.     Acosta  was  about  riwo-and-'twenty  when  hf 

entertaiiea   these   doubts;   and  the   result  was,-   that  hjs 

thaaght  he  could  not  be  saved  by.  the  reHgion  »^hich  h^ 

had  imbibed  in  his  infancy.     H^  stiK,  however,  prosecuted 

hh  studies  in  the4aw ;  and,  at  tlie  age  of  tive-and-tweuty 

years,  was  made  treasurer  in  a  coliegiate  church.     Being 

saturaHy  of  an  inquisitive  turn,  and  now  oiade  utieasy  by 

tiie  popibh  doctrines,  he  began  to  study  Moses  and  thf 

prophets;   where  he  thought  he  found  more  satisfaetioa 

dian  in  the  Gospel,  and  at  length  became  convinced  thai 

Judaisno  was  the  true  religi9n/.  but,  as  he  could  not  pro* 

less  it  in  Portugal,  he  resigned  his  place,  and  einbiurked  for 

Amsterdam,  with  his  mother aiid  brothers;  .whom  be  had 

'ventwred  to  instruct  in  the  principles  of  lihje  Jewish  ^!;elli* 

gion,  even  when  in  Pc^rtugaL    Soon  aftei*  .their  arrival  itx 

^is  city  they  became  members  of  the  synagogue,  and 

were  circnmctsed  according  to  custom ;  Aud  on  thia  oaoaif 

^on,  he  changed  bis  name  of  Gabriel  for  ib»t  of  LTneL 

A  little  time  was  suffieient  to  shew  hioit  ^^  ^^  ^Jewa  dad 

•Deitber  in  their  rites  nor  morals  conform  to  the^  law  of 

JMoses,  und'of  this/ he  de«rlared  his  disappisobfiftioni  hut 

-the  chiefs  of  thf^  synagogue  gav/e  him  to  understands  that 

ihe  must  exactly  observe  their  tenets  and  ou$toms ;  aod 

^at  he  wotrld  be  excommnndcated'  if  he  deviated  eviar  aij^ 

:little  from  them.     This  thereat,  however,  did  not  ih  Am 

Jttst  deter  him ;  for  he  thought  it  would  be  beneath  hiniy 

irfao  had  left  the  aweets  of  his  native  coanHtry  piMtdly  for 

Jftberty  of  nonseience,  to  submit  to  a  set  of  labbtt  mbo  had 

<>» jurisdiction :  and  that  it  wouki  shew  b^h  want  0f  cou/- 

irt^e.and  piety,  to  stifle  his  sentiments  on  this  cuBOifcsioa* 

He  thei^fore  persisted  in  his  ibvectives,'and,  in  Qons^*- 

tquence,  ivas  exoomfmunicated.     He  thto^  wrote  a  book  in 

•^if  justification ;  wherein  he  endeavours  lx>  j^faew,  tba^  the 

tsities  and  traditions  of  the  Pharisees  are  oontrary  io  the 

•writings  of > Moses;  and  soon  after  adopted  the  opinions  of 

«Ae  8addiics6es,  aasemng,    that  the  irewatds  .and  puniab- 

•Btjbnts  of  the  old  law  relate  only  to  this  life ;  because  Mos#s 

'Boliiiere  mentioM'  'th^  joys  of  heaven  or  A»  tonncnis  ^f 

jbaU;  \Bi»Adv«msiei  wete  ^oivegoyad  at  JbttiMihmoing  ^a 

116,  A  C  0  S  T  A. 

tenet  J  forfesefeing,  tliat  it  wonM  tend  greatly  to  JQstify,  in 
the  sight  of  Christians,  the  proceedings  of  the  synagogue 
tgainst  him.  Before  his  book  was  priuted,  there  appeared 
a  piece  upon  the  immortality  of  the  soul,  written  hy  a 
physician  in  1623,  who  omitted  nothing  he  could  sug-> 
east  to  make  Acosta  pass  for  an  atheist.  This,  however^ 
aid  not  prevent  him  from  writing  a  treatise  against  the 
physician,,  wherein  he  endeavoured  to  confute  the  doctrine 
of  the  soul^s  immortality^  The  Jews  now  made  application 
to  the  magistrates  of  Amsterdam ;  and  informed  against  him^ 
as  one  who  wanted  to  undermine  the  foundation  of  both  Jew- 
ish and  Christian  religions.  Hereupon  he  was  thrown  into 
prison,  but  bailed  out  within  a  week  or  ten  days  after ;  but 
all  the  copies  of  his  pieces  were  seized,  and  he  himself  iined 
300  florins.  Nevertheless,  he  proceeded  still  farther  in  his 
scepticism.  He  now  began  to  examine,  whether  the  laws 
of  Moses  came  from  God ;  ^nd  he  at  length  found  reasons 
to  convince  him,  that  it  was  only  a  politics^l  invention. 
Yet,  such  was  iiis  inconsistency,  that  he  returned  to  the 
Jewish  church,  after  he  had  been  excommunicated  15 
years;  and,  after  having  made  a  recantation  of  what  he 
had  written,  subscribed  every  thing  as  they  directed.  A 
few  days  after,  he  was  accused  by  a  nephew,  who  lived  in 
bis  hoiise,  that  he  did  not,  as  to  his  eating  and  many  other 
points,  conform  to  the  laws  of  the  synagogue*  On  this  he 
was  summoned  before  the  grand  council  of  tlie  synagogue ; 
and  it  was  declared  to  him,  that  he  must  be  again  excoin- 
municated,  if  he  did  not  give  such  satisfaction  as  should 
be  required;  but  he  found  the  terms  so  hard,  that  he 
could  not  comply.  The  Jews  then  again  expelled  him 
from  their  communion ;  and  he  afterwards  suffered  various 
hardships  and  persecutions,  even  from  his  own  relations. 
After  remaining  seven  years  in  a  most  wretched  situation^ 
he  at  length  declared  he  was  willing  to  submit  to  the  sen-^ 
tence  of  the  syns^ogue,  having  been  told  that  he  might 
easily  accon^modate  matters ;  for,  that  the  judges,  being 
satisfied  with  his  submission,  would  soften  the  severity  of 
the  discipline ;  they  made  him,  however,  undergo  the  pe- 
nance in  its  utmost  rigour.  These  particulars,  reUting  to 
the  life  of  Acosta,  are  taken  from  his  piece,  entitled  ^Ex- 
emplar humanae  vit^,'^  published  and  refuted  by  Lim- 
borch.  It  is  supposed  that  he  composed  it  a  few  days  be* 
fore  his  death,  after  having  determined  to  lay  .  violent 
hands  on  hiinself.    He  executed  this  horrid  resolution  a 

A  C  O  S  T  A.  1^7 

little  after  be  hud  failed  in  his  attempt  to  kill  his  principal 
etiemy ;  for  the  pistol,  with  which  he  intended  to  have 
shot  him  as  he  passed  his  house,  having  missed  fire,  he 
immediately  shut  the  door,  and  shot  himself  with  another 
pistol.  Tlus  happened  at  Amsjterdam,  but  in  what  year  is 
J^ot  exactly  known  ;  but  most  authors  are  inclined  to  place 
it  in  1640^  or  1^47. » 

ACREL  (Olaus),  a  very  eminent  Swedish  surgeoa  au4 
physician,  was  born  near  Stockholm  in  the  beginning  of 
the  eighteenjth  century.     He  studied  first  at  Upsal,  aQ4 
afterwards  at  Stockholm,  under  the  ablest  practitioners  in 
physic  and  surgery.     In  1741  he  travelled  to  Germany 
and  France,  and  served  as  surgeon  iu  the  French  army 
for  two  years.     In  1745  he  took  up  his  residence  ia  Stock- 
holm, where  for  half  a  century  he  was  con^dered  as  the 
first  man  iu  bis  profession*     HJb  introduced  many  valuable 
improvements  in  the  army-hospitals,  ajid  his  general  ta« 
lents  and  usefulness  procured  him  the  most  flattering 
marks  of  public  esteem.     He  wa«  appointed  director  ge- 
neral of  all  the  hospitals  in  the  kingdom,  had  titles  of 
nobility  conferred  upon   him,  was  created   a  knig^ht  of 
Vasa,  and  became  commander  of  tliat  order.     In   1764^ 
the  university  of  Upsal  made  him  doctor  in  n^edicine  by 
diploma,  and  he  was  enrolled  a  member  of  various  learned 
societies..     He  died  in   1807,  at  an  advanced  age.     He 
published  various  works  in  the    Swedish  language,   the 
principal  of  which  are :  1 .  "  A  treatise  on  Fresh  Wounds,** 
Stockholm,  1745.     2.  "  Observations  on  Surgery,'*  1750. 
3.  "  Dissertation  on  the  operation  for  the  Cataract,"  1766  ; 
and  4.  «  A  Discourse  on  reforms  in  Surgical  Operations^ 
J767.«  .      _,. 

ACEON,  a  celebrated  physician  of  Agrigentum  in  bi- 
eily,  Jived.,  according  to  Plutarch,  at  the  time  of  the  great 
plague  at  Athens  in  the  beginning  of  the  Peloponnesiap 
war,  in  the  eighty-fourth  olympiad,  or  444  B.  C.  He  is 
said  to  have  stopped  the  progress  of  the  contagion  by  scatr 
taring  perfumes  in  the  air ;  but  while  doubts  may  be  enters 
tained  of  the  efficacy  of  this  practice,  it  was  at  least  no,t 
new,  hafingbeen  tried  before  his  time  by  the  t-gyptian 
priests,  according  to  Suidas.     Pliny   considers  Acroii  as 

.  Tb.  re«  Life  of  Acosta  ;  f  wH^^jJ.  •^t'',  fvS, "i^n^n' n^Sl 
fea.ce  of  Christianity,   in  answer  to   Acosta's   o^y«c^^^^^^  ^^  ^„ 


A  C  R  O  N. 

the  thitf  tf  the  empirical  sect,  but  that  sect  were  not 
knowA  for  tw6  hundred  years  after.  Suidas  $ays  he  wrote 
1^  treatise  on  medicine,  and  another  on  food,  neither  of 
which  is  now  known.  * 

ACRON,  Of  ACRO  (Helenius),  the  name  df  an  an* 

•  tient  scholiast  on  Horace,  who  flourished  in  the  seventh 

century*     His  scholia  were  published  under  the  title  *^  £t- 

ritte  in  Horatii  Flacci  Opera,"  Mediolani,  1474,  4tor 
form^  the  third  edition  of  Horace,  according;  to  Dr. 
{{arwood,  and  is  so  scarce  4s  to  have  escaped  the  notice 
6f  Maittaire.  A  copy  was  purchased  at  Dr.  Askew^is  sale, 
hy  Mr.  Mason,  for  nine  guineas  and  a  half;  or,  according 
l6  the  editor  of  the  Bibliographical  Dictionary,  for  £6.  \0s. 
It  was  reprinted  at  Venice  in  1490,  fol.  Michael  Ben* 
tius  added  the  scholia  to  his  edition,  Basil,  152*7,  8 vo. 
Fabricids  enumerates  Acron  among  the  ancient  commen* 
tatofs  on  Terence  and  Persius.  * 

ACROPOUTA  (George),  one  of  the  writers  in  the 
Byzantine  history,  was  born  at  Constantinople  in  the  yeat 
mOj  and  brought  up  at  the  court  of  the  emperor  John 
)>ucal^  at  Nice.     He  studied  mathematics,  poetry,  and 
ffaetoric  under  Theodorus  Exapterygus,  and  learned  logic 
of  Nieephorus  Blemmldas.     In  his  one-and-twentiedi  year, 
lie  maintained  a  learned  dispute  with  Nicholas  the  phy- 
sician-, concerning  the  eclipse  of  the  sun,  before  the  em* 
{)eror  John.     He  was  at  length  appointed  great  iogothete, 
and  employed  in  the  most  important  affairs  of  the  empire. 
tJfohn  Ducas  sent  him  ambassador  to  Larissa,  to  establish 
u  peace  with  Michael  of  Epirus.     He  was  also  constituted 
judge  by  this  emperor,  to  try  Michael  Comnenus  on   a 
suspicion  of  being  engaged  in  a  conspiracy.    Theodorus 
'Lascaris,,  the  son  of  John,  whom  he  had  taught  logic,  ap- 
trtiinted  him  governor  of  all  the  western  provinces  of  his 
empire.'     When  he  held  this  government,   in  the  year 
125$,  being  engaged  in  a  war  with  Michael  Angelus^  he 
^Kras  tbken  prisoner  by  him.     In  1260,  he  gained  his  li- 
berty by  means  of  the  emperor  Palaologus,  who  sent  him 
ambassador  to  Constantine  prince  of  Bulgaria.     After  his 
teturn,  he  applied  himself  wholly  to  the  instruction  of 
youth,  in  which  einployment  he  acquitted  himself  with 
great  ho]K>ur  fqr  many  years ;  but  being  at  last  weary  of 

f  Biograpbite  tTnt^ridlt,  lSM.->-Blbreri^«-*MftiigMi  Biblistii. 

s  Fabr.  Bib].  JUtw0ict.  Hirt.— Moreri.-^iltrwood.-*BU>liog.  ])i«t.«i 

A  C  R  O  P  O  L  I  T  A.  .119 

the  fjftUgue,  he  resigned  it  tQ  Holgbpli^s.  In  1272,  be 
wit  as  one  of  the  judges  upon  the  cause  of  John  yecchnii, 
patria,rcb  of  Constantinople.  The  year  following  he  was 
sent  to  pope  Gregory,  to  settle  a  ppace  and  re-uniqn  be- 
tween the  t.wo  churches,  which  was  accordingly  con- 
cluded >  and  he  swore  to  it,  in  the  emperor*s  nan^f ,  at  this 
second  council  of  Ly0T|s,  in  1274.  IJe  wai?  sent  ambass^ 
dor  to  John  prince  pf  Bulgaria  in  1282,  and  cUed  soon 
after  bis  return.  His  principal  wor)c  is  his  ^^  Historia  By^- 
zautina,"  Gr.  Lat  P^ris^  fol.  1651.  Thi^  hiptory,  whiph 
he  was  well  qualified  to  write,  ^s  )ie  tpbk  an  active  p^rt  |n 
public  affairs,  contains  the  history  of  about  fifty-eiglit 
.years;  i.e.  from  120?^  when  ^aldwin,  earl  pf  Flinders, 
was  crowned  emperor,  to  1261^  when  M.  P^lscolpgus  put 
himself  in  the  place  of  Baldwin  II.  A  in%nu;^ci;^pt  trans- 
lation of  it,  by  sir  Williaoi  Petty^  was  in  Mr.  Anxes^^  cpl- 
lectioi).  The  original  wj|$  found  in  the  ^ast  ^y  Bouz^, 
9nd  ^rst  published  in  1£  14  ;  but  the  Pari^  edition  is  supe- 
rior, aod  now  yery  scarce.  His  theological  writings  were 
never  printed.      His  son  Constantine  succeeded  him  ^ 

.g^A4  logothete^    and  was  called    by  the   Greeks,    the 
ypuagiie^  Metaphrastes,  from  his  having  written  the  lives  of 
some  of  t^  s;i^i;nts  in  thq  piianqer  of  Simeon  Metaphrasteis* 
There  is  little  ej§^e  in  his  history  that  is  interesting.  * 

i^CTUARIUS  (Joijn).   The  name  Actuarius  was  given 
to  ^11  the  court  physici^Qs  pf  Constantinople,  althoura  the 

.^bject  of  thi$  article  is  th^  pply  one  known  by  it.     His 

.  fE^ther's  nam^  was  Zacharjias.     Authors  are  "not  a^re^ed  as 

,jto  }lie  tl|^6  ii>  which  l^e  lived.  Wjolfgaiig  Justus  places 
him  in  the  eleven tU  cpji|u^y ;  Morieau  in  the  twelfth  ;*  F^- 
bricius  in  thp  thirteenth,  a,n4  L^^becius  in  the  fovrteentjhi, 

,  He  was  ;tlie  first  Greek  s^^tbor  who  recommended  the  use 
of  cassia,  senna;^  mar>na^  apd  otl^^r  mild  purgatives,  and 
the  ^rst  who- mentions  distilled  w?it^,rs.  He  is  reckoned 
superior  tp  the  Arabiai)  physicians,  but  inferior  to  the 

.^reat  pby^ci^^ns  pf  iiis  nation.  H^  wrote  :  1.  A  work  on 
"  Tlusrapeutics,"  in  six  books,  pf  winch  there  \$  no  Greek 

^ edition^  but  a  Lathi  ,$r^nslation  by  Henry  Mathisius  of 
Bruges,  entitled  "  Me^tlwidi  AJedendi  libri  Sex,"  Venice, 
4to,  1554;  Paris,  156^,  8vo.  The  wprk  was  composed 
by  Actuarius  fojr  the  use  of  an  ambassador  in  the  noxj^ 

»  Geow  Diet— Pab.  Bibl.  Gr»c,  Y9L  VI.  9.  448.— Diet  BiJ)UQg.-TW«rd'i 
Ore  than  Professors, 

no  A  C  T  U  A  R  I  U  S. 

3.  Two  books  on  "  Animal  Spirits,'*  of  which  Goupil  pub- 
lished Br. Greek  edition,  Paris,  1557,.  8vo,  with  a  Latin 
version  by  Mathisius.  This  was  reprinted  by  Fischer,  Or. 
and  Lat.  Leipsic,  1774,  8vo,  with  th^  addition  of  two 
books  of  Actuarius  on  regimen.  3.  Seven  books  "  On 
Urines,"  of  which  there  is  no  Greek  edition ;  but  Am- 
brose Levon  de  Nole  published  a  Latin  version,  1519,  4to. 
and  this  was  revised  by  Goupil,  illustrated  with  note^, 
and  reprinted  under  the  title  "  De  Urinis  libri  septem.'* 
Paris,    1548,  8vo;    Basil,  1558,  8 vo;  Utrecht,  1670,  8vo. 

4.  A  Treatise  on  the  "  composition  of  Medicines,"  with 
the  commentaries  of  John  Ruellius ;  but  this  is  little  more 
than  the  fifth  and  sixth  books  of  the  Therapeutics.  The 
medical  writings  of  our  author  were  collected  and  printed, 
Paris,  1526,  8vo  ;  and  again  in  1556.  In  1567,  Henry 
Stephens  published  an  edition  of  the  whole  of  his  works, 
fol.  translated  by  different  authors,  among  the  **  Medicae- 
artis  Principes.'*  We  have  also  "  Actuarii  opera,"  Paris, 
8vo;  Leyden,  1556,  3  vols.  12mo.  There  are  some  of 
his  works  in  many  libraries  which  remain  in  manuscript.  ^ 

ACUNA  (Christopher),  a  Spanish  Jesuit  and  mission- 
ary, was  born  at  Burgos,  1597.  He  was  sent  on  a  mission 
to  the  American  Indians,  and  on  his  return  in  the  year 
1641,  published  in  Spanish,  by  permission  of  the  king, 
^^  Nuevo  Descubrimiento  del  gran  rio  de  las  Amazones,*? 
.  4to;  but  the  projects  expected  from  his  discoveries  rer 
specting  this  river,  were  discountenanced  afterwards  by 
the  house  of  Braganza,  and  Philip  IV.  ordered  all  the 
copies  of  this  curious  work  to  be  destroyed,  so  that  for 
many  years  two  only  were  known  to. exist;  one  in  the 
Vatican  library,  and  another  in  the  possession  of  Marin 
Leroi  de  Gomberville,  who  translated  it  into  French,  and 
published  it,  under  the  title  of  *^  Relation  de  la  riviere  des 
Amazones,*'  Paris,  1682,  2  vols.  12mo,  with  a  curious 
dissertation ;  but  some  passages  of  the  text  are  not  very 
faithfully  translated.  This  was  afterwards  xeprinted  in 
the  second  volume  of  Wood's  Rogers*s  Voyage  round  the 
world.  Acuna  went  to  the  East  Indies  some  time  after 
the  publication  of  his  work,  and  is  supposed  to  have  diecl 
at  Lima  about  or  soon  after  1675.  * 

ACUNA  (Fernando  de),  a  Spanish  poet,  born  at  M^r 
drid  in  the  beginning  of  the  sixteenth  century,  was  at 

1  Biographie  UniTeriene.*-i<7eD.  Dict,«— Moreri.*-*Pab.  Bibl.  Griec. 
*  Biographie  Uiiiver8«lle/-*Moreri.  '  '     ' 

AC  UN  A.  Ill 

first  remarkable  for  his  military  talents  in  the  service  of 
Charles  V.  but  more  so  afterwards  for  bis  poetieal  merits 
which  has  been  extolled  by  Louis  Zapata  and  Lope  da 
Vega.  His  first  attempt  was  a  translation  of  Olivier  de  la 
Marchess  ^  Chevalier  deliberS,"  under  the  title  of  "  £1 
Cavallero  determinando ;''  to  which  be  added  an  entire 
book  of  his  own  composition,  Antwerp,  1555,  8vp.  He 
also  composed  in  Italian  verse,  sonnets,  eclogues,  and 
other  smaller  pieces,  in  which  the  thoughts  are  natural^ 
and  the  Expression  elegant.  He  succeeded  in  translating 
Ovid  in  verse  of  nine  syllables,  which  the  Spaniards  con* 
sider  as  the  most  difficult  in  their  poetry ;  and  before  his 
death  he  had  begun  a  translation  of  Roland  from  Boyardo^ 
and  added  four  chants,  which  were  thought  equal  to  the 
original.  His  translation  of  the  "  Chevalier  delibere*^ 
was  reprinted  at  Salamanca,  1575,  with  alterations  and 
additions.  He  died  at  Grenada  in  1580;  and  in  1591,  a 
collection  of  his  pieces  was  published  at  Salamanca,  <^  Ya* 
rias  Poesias."  * 

ACUSILAS,  or  ACUSILAUS,  a  Greek  historian,  the 
son  of  Cabas,  bom  at.  Argos,  lived,  according  to  Josephus, 
a  little  before  the  expedition  of  Diirius  against  Greece, 
and  near  the  time  when  Cadmus  the  Milesian  wrote  the  first 
prose  history.  Acusilas'  work  was  entitled  "  Genealogies,** 
as  they  related  to  the  chief  families  of  Greece.  Many 
authors  quote  this  work,  but  the  only  fragments  preserved 
are  added  to  those  of  Pfaerecydes  by  M..  Sturz,  printed  at 
Gera,  1798,  8yo.^ 

ADAIR  (Jamss),  an  English  lawyer,  and  sometime  re« 
isorder  of  London^  was  born  in  that  city,  and  educated  at 
Peter-house,  Cambridge;  wliere  he  took  the  degree  of 
B.  A.  1764,  and  of  M.  A.  IH&J*  After  prosecuting  his  law- 
studies,  he  was  admitted  to  the  bar,  and  began  to  distin^ 
guish  himself  about  the  year  1770,  when  he  took  s^n  active 
part  in  the  political  contentions  of  that  period.  Having* 
sided  with  Mr.  Wilkes  in  the  memorable  dispute  between 
that  gentleman  and  his  co-patriot  Mr.  Home,  Mr.  Wilkea 
spoke  of  him  at  political  meetings  in  such  a  i^anner  as  to 
draw  the  public  eye  upon  him ;  ^and  in  1779  he  was  chosen 
recorder  of  London,  although  liot  widiout  a  contest  with 
his  opponent  Mr.  Howarth.  ThJb  situation  he  retained  for 
some  years,  while  his  advancem^t  at  the  bar  was  rapids 

U  *  Bipfraphie  Uifir^rwUc*  ?  Ibid.— DicU  Hist. 

I«  A  JD  A  1  ^ 

recoffdership  he  di^acged  witb  much  ability,  strict  ju$>» 
Uce»  and  humam^f.  iTh^  situation,  howfiyer,  was  reiiderefl 
hi  some  degree  irlcsome  .by  the  changes  of  political. nenti* 
tDeiit  which  had.  tiv ken  place  wioog  his  constituents^  tb^ 
BMtnibers  of  the  c<vrporaM^n«  When  he  was  chosen  into 
this  ofl^ce,  the  city  'was  pvit  4>f  huoiour  yi^ith  the  court,  and 
Mr;  A^ur  probably  owed  his  election  to.  his  being  reput- 
edly of  Wilkes^s  p^trt^v,  who  was  still  the  idol  of  the  citj. 
A  grea^  revolution,  ht>weyer,  tpok  place,  when  the  cQali^ 
tiodi-^administratton  (th  at  of  Iprd  North  apd  Mr*  Fo;^)  was 
cwerthrown.  Mr*  Pitis  and  his  friend^  and  by  cons^uepce 
tiie  King, and  court,  l^ec»me  highly  popular  in  the  aity, 
while.  Mr.  Adair  retained  his  old  opioions,  took  the  pa^t  of 
the  dismissed  ministers,  and  became  a  zealous  assertc»r  of 
tiie  whig  principles  which  were  then  divulged  from  a 
newly-erected  club^^  called  the  Whig  club.  This  could 
not  pl€^ise  his  city  friends ;  akboiigh  su^h  was  bis  impar«> 
tiality  and  integrity,  that  no  fault  could  be  foppd  with  thgs 
nanaer  in  which  he  .discharged  the  diiti^s  of  his  office* 
The  CommoQ^cQuncil,  however,  requiring  a  closer  attend* 
anee  at  their  eomrts  dban  he  thought  requisite,  or  was  per- 
haps  cosisistent  with  bis  uumeroiis  prof|^$^onal  engage^ 
iuents  in  the  court  ol*  Comtoon  piea^  he  chose  ti>  resigp 
the  vecordership  in  1799  ;  and  upQu  this  Qccasioo  received 
the  thanks  of  the  Couit  of  Aldermen,  and  the  fireed^Mn  ȣ 
^e  jcity  in  a  gold  boi^  of  one  hundred  guineas  vplue^  for 
bis  able  and  upright  conduct  m  that  o^^;  aud  he  wjis 
ordered  to  be  letaioed,  with  tbieaitt^niey.  and  solicitor- 
IpenerBl,  in  all  causes  in  which  the  ciliy  .was  concerned.. 

In  the  parliament  of  HftO  he  sat  as  me^nber  ftur  Codsier- 
•mouth,  but  afterwards  for  Hi^fafrnft  Jeirars^  He  w^  olso 
<»ie  of  bis  majesty's  serjeaats  at  law;,  and  wi^  nipidly  »d- 
Taaeing  in  bis  profession,  whea  tbil  revohatjjoaf^ry  p^io<|- 
pies  of  France,  making  gfeat  progr«3s$  iu  this  kf^gdoni, 
•larmed  the  minds  of  every  weU^rwisher  to,  th^  cpinfl^ttt- 
tional  monarchy.  Mr*  Adair,  among  lOthers  of  higb  ^^4ftk 
<aod  weight,  now  witMrew  from  sUi  oofineotipi)  with  d|^ 
'Whigclub;  but,  not  before  he  had  jpetil^iusiyproii^Qted  the 
aubscription  which  some  ttoblemen  aud  gentl^pi^fi.  set  Qn 
foot  to  purchase  an  annuity  for  Mr.  Foi:.  Wh^n  xkft  ^x\i^% 
«f  Hardy,  Tooke,  &.c.  and  ^ersaecus^d^high  jtr^fmPy 
were  instituted  in  1794-5,  Mr.  Adair  appeared  as  one  of 
the  counsel  for  the  crown,  and  was  a)  lowed  to  haie  ac« 

A'  D  A  I  R^  tfS 

fitted  himself  with  great  abilitjr.  In  t79B,  w)»eii  tb^ 
eosntry  was  menaced  with  threats  of  iRT^sion,  volunteer 
^ffurs  of  service  were  made  to  governmem  throughout  the 
wbote  kingdom,  and  I^^mdon  and  its  environs  raised  a  force 
ef  about  twelve  thousand  men,  fully  armed}  equipped,  and 
trained  at  their  own  expence*  Mr.  Adair,  although  hit 
age  miglit  have  formed  a  sufficii^nt  excuse,  thought  proper 
to  join  this  patriot  band  ;  and,  it  is  tiiougfat,  fell  a  sacrifice 
to  the  fatigues  attending  the  discipline.  The  day  his  cofp$^ 
returned  from  shooting  at  a  target  near  London,  July  21^ 
1798,  he  was  seized  with  a  paralytic  stroke,  ^^le  walkingr 
along  Lincoln's-inn,  and  died  in*  a  few  hours.  He  was  in« 
lierred  on  the  97ib  in  Bunhill-fields*  burying«ground,  near 
the  ashes  of  bis  father  and  mother*  At  his  death,  he  was 
king'^  prime  serjeant  at  law,  M.  P.  for  Higham  Ferrars^ 
«nd  chief  justice  of  Chester. 

'Mr.  Adair  was  not  distinguished  for  luminous  talents, 
hat  was  esteemed  an  able  constitutional  lawyer;  his  elo- 
quence was  vigorous  and  icn^iressive,  but  his  voice  was  liarsh, 
and  manner  uncourteous.    He  is  said  to  have  been  the  author 
H>f  ^'Thoughts  on  the  dismission  of  Officers^  civil  and  mi- 
htary,  for  their  conduct  in  Parliament,'*'  1764,  Svo;  which 
^  we  much  doubt,  as  at  that  time  he  had  hut  just  taken  hb 
bachelor's  degree,  and  was  probably  too  young  to  interest 
•himse>f  much  in  the  contests  of  the  times.     On  better  au* 
tfaority,  we  find  attributed  to.  him,  *' Observations  on  tbe 
power  of  {^nation  in  the  Crown  before  the  first  of  queea 
'Anne,  supported  by  precedents,  and  the  opinions  of  many 
.learned  judges ;  together  with  some  remarks  on  tbe  con- 
duct of  administration  respecting  the  case  of  tbe  duke  of 
Pwtland,?'  17es,  eve.* 

ADAIR  (James  Makfttrick),  a  physician;  a  native  ef 

.Scotlaiidt,  but  many  years  settled  at  Bath,  was  afterwards 

'l^ysician  to  the  commander  in  chief,  and  the  colonial 

troops,  of  tbe  island  of  Antigua,  and  subsequently  of  the 

Leeward  islaods,  and  also -one  of  the  judges  of  the  court 

of  King^s  Bench  and  Common  pleas  iu  Antigua.     His  abi- 

fittea  aa  a  phyaietan  have  never  been  questioned,  and  his 

-^ivate  character  is  said  to  have  been  in  some  respects 

amiable ;  b^ut  he  possessed  an  irritability  of  temper,  joined, 

'AS  it  generally  is,  with  extraordinary  self-conceit,  which 

Mcaaioiied  bia  being  constantly  engaged  in  disputes^  and 

1  Gent.  Msy.  ^U  UEVIU^^AliBaa^  Anecdotes,  vol.  1.  p.  ^9, 

*84  A  n  A  I  R 

often,  wiih  "men,  stich  as  Philip- Thickftesse,  equally  qne* 
grulous  aud  turbulent.     Towards  the  end  of  his  life,  hU 
:wriungs  partook  much  of  his  temper,  and  although  read 
•with  3ome  degree  of  pity,  were  soon  tlirowu  aside,     Scwe 
faccQunt  of  one  of  his  last  quanrels  may  be  seen  in  the  de- 
;dication  to  the  first  volume  ot  Thicknesse's  Memoirs.     He 
-died  at  a  very  s^dvanced  age,  April  24,  1802,  at  Harrow* 
•g^te  in  Yorkshire.     His  first  publications  were  on  Regimen 
^^nd  the  Materia  Medica,  in  vol.  VHI  and  IX  of  Duncan^s 
Medical  Commentaries :  2.  **  Medical  Cautiions  for  the  con- 
;sideration  of  Invalids,  those  especially  who  resort  to  Bath," 
.8vo,  1786,  an4  a  much  enlarged  edition,  1787.     3.  '-^  A 
-philosophical  and  medical  sketch  of  the  Natural  History  of 
;the  Human  Body  and  Mind,"  8vo,  1787..    4.  "  Uaanswer-* 
,able  objections  against  the  Abolition  of  the  Slave-Trade," 
8vo,   1789.      He  was  examined  on  this   subject  by  the 
,privy- council ;  but  his  objections  have  been  long  since 
.ftflly  answered.     5.  "  Essays  on  Fashionable  Diseases,^ 
.8vo,  178^.     6.  "An  essay  on  a  Non-descript,  or  newly- 
invented  Disease,"   8vo,  1790.      7.  "  A  candid  inquiry 
jnto  the  truth  of  certain  charges  of  the  dangerous  consie- 
quences  of  the  Suttonian  or  Cooling  regimen,  und^r  Iif- 
.oculation  for  the  Small  Pox,"  8vo,  1790.    8.  "Anecdotes 
.of  the  Life,  Adventures,  andVindication  of  a  Medical 
.Character,  metaphorically  defunct,  by  Benjamin  Goose- 
squill  and  Peter  Paragraph,"  8vo,  1790.     This  rambling 
.and  incoherent  production  contains  some  particulars  of 
..his  life,  but  more  of  his  quarrels  with  his  contemporaries. 
S,  "  Two  Sermons ;  the  first  addressed  to  British  seamen, 
th^  second  to  the  British  West  India  slaves,"  8vo,  17.91. 
Most  of  these  were  published  for  the  benefit  of  the  Bath 
'  hospital^  or  the  tinrminers  of  Cornwall.  • 

ADALARD,  or  ADELARD,  born  about  the  year  »53, 
was  son  of  count  Bernard^  grandson  of  Charles  Martel, 
and  cousin-german  of  Charlemagne.     He  had  been  in- 
vited to  the  court  in  his  youth,  but,  fearing  the  infection 
.  of  such  a  mode  of  life,  liad  retired ;  and,  at  the  age  of  20 
;  years,  became  a  monk  of  Corbie  in  Picardy,  and  was  at 
,  length  chosen  abbot  of  the  monastery.     His  imperial  rela* 
,  tion,  however,  forced  him  again  to  attend  the  court,  where 
he  still  preserved  the  dispositions  of  a  recluse,  and  took 
.  every  opportunity,   which  business  allowed,  for  private 

'  Gent.  If^S*"^^^^^^^  ^^  living  authon>  n99. 

A  0  A  L  A  R  I]r.  12* 

prayer  and  meditatioii.  After  the  death  of  (^harlemagtii^ 
be  was,  on  unjust  suspicions^  banished  by  Lewis  the  Meek; 
td  a  monastery  on  the  coast  of  Acqmtaiue,  in  the  isle  of 
Here.  After  a  banishment  of  five  years,  Lewis^  sensible 
of  his  own  injustice,  recalled  Adalard,  and  heaped  on  him 
the  highest  honours.  The  monk  was,  however,  the  same 
man  itr  prosperity  and  in  adversity,  and  in  the  year  823 
obtained  leave  to  return  to  Corbie.  Every  week  he  ad^ 
dressed  each  of  the  monks  in  particular  ;  he  exhorted 
them  in  pathetic  discourses,  and  laboured  for  the  spiritual 
good  of  the  country  around  his  monastery.  His  liberality 
seems  to  have  bordered  on  excess ;  and  his  humility  in-> 
duced  him  to  receive  advice  from  the  meanest  monk; 
When  desired  to  live  less  austerely,  he  would  frequently 
say,  <*  I  will  take  care  of  your  servant,  that  he  may  be  en-» 
abled  to  attend  on  you  the  longer."  Another  Adalaid^ 
who  had  governed  the  monastery  during  his  banishment, 
by  the  direction  of  our  Adalard,  prepared  the  foundation 
of  a  distinct  monastery,  called  New  Corbie>  near  Pader- 
born,  as  a  nursery  for  ecclesiastical  labourers,  .who 
should  instruct  the  northern  nations.  Our  Adalard  now 
completed  this  scheme ;  went  himself  to  New  Corbi^ 
twice,  and  settled  its  discipline.  Tbe  success  of  this 
truly  charitable  project  was  great:  many  learned  and 
zealous  missionaries  were  furnished  from  the  new  semi^ 
nary,  and  it  became  a  light  to  the  north  of  Europe,  Ada- 
lard promoted  learning  in  his  monasteries,  for .  he  was 
himself  a  man  of  great  learning ;  and  instructed  the  people 
both  in  Latin  and  French :  and  after  his  second  return 
from  Germany  to  old  Corbie,  he  died  in  the  year  827; 
aged  73.  -  Such  is  the  account  given  us  of  Adalard; 
a  character,  there  is  reason  to  believe,  of  eminent 
piety  and  usefulness  in  a  dark  age.  To  convert  monas-^ 
teries  into  seminaries  of  pastoral  education,  was-  a 
thought  far  above  the  taste  (^  the  age  in  which  he 
lived,  and  tended  to  emancipate  those  superstitious  in-^ 
ctitutions  from  the  unprofitable  and'  illiberal  bondage 
in  which  they  had  long  subsisted.  His  principal  work 
work  was  <^  A  treatise  on  the  French  Monarchy  ;"  but 
fragments  only  of  any  of  his  works  have  come  down  to  our 
thnes.  Hincmar  has  incorporated  the  treatise  on  the 
'Frenph  monarchy  in  his  fourteenth  Opusculum,  ^^  for  th^ 
instruction  of  king  Carloman."    The  ancient  statutes  of 

MS  ADA  t  A  R  D, 

ftf  tiie  tbbey  of  Corbie,  by  oar  autbof,  aafe  in  tb^  fovffth 
Tdliime  of  D^Achcry's  Spicilegium.  * 

ADALBERON  (Abcelinus)  was  consecrated  bisbop  of 
Leon  in  the  year  977.  He  was  an  ambitious  pr^lat^  an4 
a  servile  courtier ;  be  bad  ^be  baseness  to  deliver  up  to 
Hugh  Capet^  Arnoul,  arcbbisbop  of  Rheims,  and  Cbarle^ 
duke  of  Lorrain,  competitor  of  Hugh^  to  wboin  be  had 
pveA  an  asylum  in  bis  episcopal  city.  He  died  in  10S0« 
[e  'U  dse  author  of  a  satirical  poem  in  430  bexametear 
verseS)  dedicated  to  king  Robert.  Adrian  Vaiois  g^ve  an 
edition  of  it  in  1663^  in  8yo,  at  the  end  of  the  Panegyric 
on  the  emperor  Berenger.  But  it  i^  more  correctly  giveu 
in  the  lOth  vol.  of  '<  the  Historians  of  France.''  AJthough 
the  style  is  obscure  and  in  a  bad  taste,  it'  contains  many 
eniious  faets'and  anecdotes  of  the  mannas  of  tiie  age* 
In  the  library  of  the  abbey  of  Laubes  is  a  MS  poem  >.  by 
Adalberon,  on  the  Holy  Trinity,  which  is  likewise  dedi*** 
eated  to  king  Robert.  *  ^ 

ADALB£RON,  arcbbisbop  of  Rbeims,  and  chancellor 
of  France,  under  the  reigns  of  Lotbaire  and  Louis  V.  wal; 
mte  of  the  most  learned  French  prelates  of  the  tenth  cen* 
tury.  Havifig  attained  the  archbisboprick:  in  the  year  96  9^ 
be  called  aeveral  councils  for  the  establishment 'of  0oclei» 
tiastical  discipline,  which  be  enforced  by  his  e%a.mfiemth 
much  firmness  of  mind.  He  also  induced  men  of  lje9'niing 
to  resort  to  RheimS,  and  gave  a  bi^  renown  to  the  ^choola 
of  that  city.  In  the  year  967,  be  consecrated  HtlghjCa** 
pet,  who  continued  him  in  his  office  of  grand  chancellor^ 
He  died  Jan<  5,  98  8»  Several  of  his  letters  are  iimon|^ 
those  of  Gerbert,  afterwards  pope  Sylvester  H. ;  and  tw# 
of  his  discourses  are  an  Moissac^s  Chronicle.  Th^  ca- 
thedral of  Rheims  was  indebted  to  him  for  the  greater 
part  of  its  sumptuous  furniture. ' 

ADALBERT,  a  German  divine^  of  the  tenth  cen^Hiry^ 
arcUbishop  of  Mi^deburg,  was  educated  in  the  monasierjp 
of  St.  Maximum  of  Treves,  and  promoted  to  the  above  aee  i^ 
the  year  968.  Previous  to  that,  in  the  year  961,  be  vtaa 
employed  by  the  emperor  Otho  I.,  to  preach  the  gospel  40 
&e  people  along  the  Baltic  sea,  and  the  Schivontanji :  wilii 
tiie  latter  he  had  considerable  success. «  >  ^  ^ 

ADALBERT,  archbii^op  of  Prague,  in  the  tenth  •oetkt' 
tmyf  was  one  of  the  first  founders^ol  the  Christa^Mi  n^i^0lk 

*  Biogriphie  Pniyergelie.»*Milner'g  ehardt  History,  vol.  HI.  -p.  2M« 
f  J^iographit  Univertelie.~Moren.  \  Ibid.  « Pupio. 


ib  Hungary.  He  also  preached  ^e  gospel  in  IVmim^ 
and  Lithuania,  where  he  was  murdered  by  Sego,  a  pag«ii> 
priest.  His  death  was  ts^XDf]j  revenged  by  Bole»laiM|  lung 
of  Poland.  ^ 

ADAM  (Alexander)^  LL,D.  an  eminent  schoolnMwtdc 
and  useful  writer  in  Scotland,  was  born  June  1741^  M 
Coats,  of  Burgie,  in  the  parish  of  Rafibrd,  in  the  countjf 
gf  Moray,  ^is  parents  were  poor^  but  gave  him  sucb 
education  as  a  parish  school  afforded;  and  s^ter  having  un^ 
Successfully  endeavoured  to  procure  au  exhibition  at  fCinglf 
cdiege,  Aberdeen^  he  was  encoaraged^  i^  175S,  to  gOM 
the.  univel'sity  of  Edinburgh^  where  he  surmount  pecut 
niary  diihculties  with  ^  a  virtuous  and  honourable  perse^ 
veifance,  such  as  are  rarely  to  be  found ;  and  improyed  his 
/Opportunities  of  knowledge  with  great  assiduity  and  snor 
te9$.  In  1761  he  was  elected  schooliBaster  to  Watson^jp 
hospital^  an  -establidiraent  for  the  education  of  the  ppof^ 
and  continued  to  improve  himself  in  classical  knowledge 
by  a  Careful  perusal  of  some  of  the  best  and  most  diffipuk 
authors.  In  17^7,  be  was  appointed  assistant  to  the  rector 
of  the  h^  school  of  Edinburgh^  and  in  1771  successor  t^ 
the  same  gentleman^  and  fiU§d  this  -  honourable  staUom 

,  during  the  remainder  of  his  life,  raising  the  reputation  of 
ihe  sebool  much  higher  than  it  had  been  known  for  many 
yeai^t  He  would  have  perhaps  raised  it  yet  higher,. had 
ke  not  involve^  himself,  not  only  with  his  ushers,  but  wiiti 
the  patrons  and  trustees  of  the  school,  in  a  dispute  xer 
specting  the  proper  grammar  to  be  taught  4  Dr.  Ad^bn 
fM^eferring  one  of  his  own  compiling  to  that  of  Ruddimai% 
idhidi  bad  long  -been  used  in  all  the  schools  in  Sccyihmd^ 
and  %iras  esteemed  as  near  ^perfection  as  any  work  of  the 
kiod  that  had  ^yer  been  puUishod.  .  The  ushers,. or  undari- 
knaaters,  wercunanimous  in  ]»etakiiog;ftuddimaa3k>gramm9Jb 
for  whij^'th^y  assiigned  their  reasons;  and  Dr.  Adamwae 
wm  moiute  in  teaching  from  his  own.  The  consequence 
^waa»  that  ]?n  Adam  taught  his  class  by  oq0  gr$m>mar,  an^ 
4)w  four  und^r-mastef s  theirs  hy  anothen    The  inconv^ 

aoence  of  this  mod^  v^as  soon  felt;  and  thi^  patrons  of 
th^  school,  who  were  the  Magistrates  of  Edinburgh,  after 

deferring  ite  question  sit  issrue  so  the  principal  of  th«  uni^ 
versity,  the  celebrated  t>r.  Robertson^  together  with  iht 
^fc^MOfsof  the  Greek  and  Latin  laiiguaf|(es|  issued  an 

128  ADA  m: 

erder  in  1786,  ditcctirig  the  rector  and  bthei*  itiitet^A  of 
the  High  School,  to  instruct  their  scholars  by  Ruddiman's 
Iludiments  and  Grammar,  and  prohibiting  any  other  gram** 
sxiar  of  the  Latin  language  from  being  made  use  of*  Dn 
Adam,  however,  disregarded  this  and  a  subsequent  order 
to  the  same  purpose,  and  continued  to  tise  his  own  rules^ 
in  his  daily  practice  with  the  pupils  of  his  own  class,  and 
without  being  any  furthejr  interrupted  *•  The  work  which 
gave  rise  to  this  dispute  was  published  in  1772,  under  the* 
title  of  "The  Principles  of  Latin  and  English  Grammar,"' 
and  is  undoubtedly  a  work  of  very  considerable  merit,  and 
highly  useful  to  those  who  are  of  opinion  that  Latin  and 
English  grammar  should  be  taught  at  the  same  time* 

Soon  after  this  dispute  was  apparently  terminated,  Dn 
Adam  compiled  "  A  Summary  of  Geography  and  History** 
tor  the  tise  of  his  pupils,  which  he  afterwards  enlarged  and 
published  in  1794.  In  1791,  he  published  <^  Roman  An- 
tiquities; or,  an  account  of  the  manners  and  customs  of  the 
Bomans,  8vo.  This  useful  work  has  been  translated  into 
German,  French,  and  Italian,  and  has  been  very  generally 
recomn>ended  in  preference  to  Dr.  Kennet's  work  on.  the 
shthe  subject.  In  1800  he  published  his  *^  Classical  Bio-* 
graphy,'*  which  was  originally  intended  a»  the  appendix  to 
a  Latin  dictionary  on  which  he  had  been  employed  for  some 
years ;  btit  the  high  price  of  paper,  and  the  great  expence 
of  printing  such  works,  discouraged  him  from  carrying  into 
effect  his  original  design.  He  printed,  however,  in  1805^ 
an  abridgenaent  of  his  dictionary,  under  the  title  of  *'  Lex- 
icon Linguae  Latinas  compendiarium,"  8vo.  All  these 
works  have  attained  a  high  degree  of  popularity,  and  are 
tised  in  the  principal  schools  o.t  this  kingdom.  Dr.  Adam 
died  Dec,  18,  1809,  of  an  apoplexy,  in  the  69th  year  of 
his  age,  universally  x'egretted  as  an  able  and  successful 
teacher,  a  man  of  high  rank  in. classical  literature,:  and  ia 
private  life  benevolent  and  amiable.  At  one  period  of 
his  life,  when  the  French  revolution  distracted  the  political 
opinions  of  his  country,  he  incurred  some  degree  of  cen- 
sure for  hating  inti^oduced  matters  of  a  political  kind  into 

*  Hia  biographer  itoforms  us  that  be  use.  There  are  a  few  questions  which  I 
took  (he  following  curious  method  of  wish  io  propose,  and  if  you  can  answer 
reeommeBding  bis  gnimmar.  When  them,  I  am  content  j  but  if  yon. caw- 
be  wished  bis  pupils  to  use  it,  he  used  not,  I  must  refer  ^ou  to  my  gratnmar, 
to  say,  *<  this  is  a  prohibited  book,  for  the  means  of  enabling  you  to  gite 
and  I  do  not  wish,  nor  have  I  erer  been  me  a  rep}y»"  * 
under  the  necessity,  to  force  it  into 

ADAM.  129 

•  • 

fis  school.  For  this  no  apology  can  be  valid  ;  but  it  ap- 
pears that  he  became  afterwards  more  cautious:  and  at  the 
period  of  his  death,  his  character  was  so  universally  es- 
teemed, that  his  remains  were  honoured  with  a  public  fu- 
neral. * 


ADAM  OF  Bremen,  so  called  because  he  was  a  canon 
of  that  church.  He  was  born,  according  to  some  writers, 
at  Misnia  in  the  eleventh  century ;  he  devoted  himself 
early  to  the  church,  and  in  1067,  was  made  a  canon  by 
Adelbert,  archbishop  of  Bremen,  and  at  the  same  time 
placed  at  the  head  of  the  school  of  that  city,  a  situation 
equally  important  and  honourable  at  a  time  when  schools 
were  the  only  estabfishments  for  public  instruction.  Adam 
employed  his  whole  life  in  the  functions  of  his  oflSce,  in 
propagating  religion,  and  in  compiling  his.history,  **  His- 
toria  ecclesiastica  ecclesiarum  Hamburgeiisis  et  Bremensis 
viicinorumqne  locorum  septentrionalium,  ab  anno  788  ad 
knnum  1072,*'  Copenhagen,  1579,  4to ;  Leyden,  1595^ 
4to;  Helmstadt,  1670,  4to :  the  latter,  edited  by  John 
Mader,  is  the  best  edition.  This  work  contains  the  most 
accurate  account  we  have  of  the  establishment  of  Chris- 
tianity in  the  north  of  Europe.  As  Bremen  was  the  centre 
of  the  missions  for  this  purpose,  in  which  Adam  was  him- 
self engaged,  and  had  travelled  over  the  countries  visited 
by  Anscharius  about  200  years  before,  he  had  the  farther 
advantage  of  making  valuable  collections  from  the  archives 
of  the  archbishoprick,  the  library  of  his  convent,  and  the 
conversations  he  held  with  the  missionaries.  He  lived  in 
an  age  when  the  dignified  clergy  wer^  not  inattentive  to 
temporal  affairs,  and  yet  acquitted  himself  with  much  im- 
partiality in  writing  the  history  of  his  patron  Adelbert,  a 
man  of  intrigue  and  ambition.  He  made  a  tour  in  Den- 
mark, where  he  was  favourably  received  by  the  reigning, 
sovereign  ;  and  on  his  return  wrote  a  geographical  treatise, 
which  was  published  at  Stockholm,  under  the  title  of 
*' Chronographia  Scandinaviae,"  1615,  8vo,  and  afterwards 
at  Leyden,  with  the  title  "  De  situ  Daniae  et  reliquarum 
trans  Daniam  regionum  natura,"  1629.  This  short  work 
is  added  to  Mader's  edition  of  his  history,  and  although 
not  without  a  portion  of  the  fabulous,  is  curious  as  the  first 
attempt  to  describe  the  North  of  £urope,  particularly  Jut- 

I  Account  of  the  Life  of  Dr.  Adam,  Svo,  1810.— Cbalners's  Lift  of  Ruddi- 
man,  p.  91.^— British  Cntic,  toL  36,  p.  542 ;  37,  p.  95, 

Vot.  I.  K 

130  ADAM. 

land,  and^ome  of  the  islands  in  the  Baltic.  We  also  owe 
to  Adam  ^Bremen  the  first  accounts  of  the  interior  of 
Sweden,  and  of  Russia,  the  name  of  which  only  was  then 
known  in  Christian  Europe.  He  even  speaks  of  the  island 
of  Great  Britain,  but  chiefly  from  the  accounts  of  Solinus 
and  Martian  us  Capella,  as  his  visits  did  not  extend  so  far. 
This  description  of  the  North  has  been  preserved  by  Lin- 
denbrog  in  his  "  Scriptores  rerum  Germ,  septentrional." 
Hamburgb,  1706;  and  Muray,  one  of  the  most  distinguished 
professors  of  Gottingen,  has  enriched  it  with  a  learned 
commentary.  The  time  of  our  author's  death  is  not 
known.  * 

ADAM  (James),  a  French  translator  of  some  note,  was 
born  at  Vendome  in  1663,  and  after  finishing  his  studies, 
entered  into  the  service  of  the  prince  of  Conti,  who  ap- 
pointed him  to  be  his  secretary.  He  was  elected  into 
the  French  academy  in  1723,  in  room  of  the  abb6  Fleury. 
He  translated  part  of  De  Thou'^s  history,  which  has  Lon- 
don on  the  title,  but  was  printed  at  Paris,  1734,  16  vols. 
4to.  This  he  undertook  with  Charles  Le  Beau,  the  abbes 
Mascrier,  Le  Due,  Fontaines,  Prevost,  and  father  Fabre* 
He  translated  also  the  memoirs  of  Montecuculli,  Amster- 
dam, 1734,  I2mo;  an  account  of  the  cardinal  Tournon; 
Atheneus;  and  other  works.     He  died  Nov.  12,  1735." 

ADAM  (Lambert-Sigisbeut),  an  eminent  French  sculp- 
tor, was  born  at  Nancy,  Feb.  10,  1700.  He  was  the  son 
of  Jacob-Sigisbert  Adam,  also  a  sculptor  of  considerable 
note.  At  the  age  of  eighteen,  he  came  to  Metz ;  but  a  desire^ 
to  extend  his  reputation  made  him  repair  to  Paris,  where 
he  arrived  in  1719.  After  exercising  his  profession  abou^ 
four  years,  he  obtained  the  first  prize,  and  then  went  to 
Rome,  with  a  royal  pension,  where  he  remained  ten  years. 
While  here,  he  was  employed  by  the  cardinal  de  Polignac 
in  restoring  the  twelve  marble  statues  known  as  the  "  familj^ 
of  Lycomedes,"  which  had  been  discovered  among  the 
ruins'  of  the  villa  of  Marius,  about  two  leagues  from  Rome^ 
and  acquitted  himself  with  great  success  in  a  branch  of  the 
art  which  is  seldom  rewarded  or  honoured  in  proportion  to 
its  difficulties.  He  afterwards  restored  several  antique 
sculptures,  of  which  the  king  of  Prussia  had  got  possession, 
aiid  which  he  conveyed  to  Berlin.     When  an  intention  was 

'    '  Biographie   Unirerselle.-— Moreri.-.-*Voss.   II.  de  Hist.   Lart-^Gave  Hist. 
EgcI.  vol.  II. — Fab.  Bibl.  Latt  Med*  Tol.  I.— Saj^ii  Onomasticoa. 
«  Diet  Hut.  1810. 

ADAM.  131 

formed  of  erecting  that  vast  monument  at  Rome  known  by 
the  name  of  the  "  Fountain  of  Trevi,'*  he  was  one  of  the 
sixteen  sculptors  who  gave  in  designs ;  but,  although  bis  waft 
adopted  by  pope  Clement  XII.  the  jealousy  of  the  Italia 
artists  prevented  bis  executing  it.     At  this  time,  however, 
advantageous   oifiers  were  made  by  his   own  country,  to 
which  be  returned,  after  being  chosen  a  member  of  the 
academies  of  St.  Luke,  and  of  Bologna.     His  first  work, 
afte^  his  return  to  France,  was  the  groupe  of  the  "  Seine 
et  Marne'*  for  the  cascade  at  St.  Cloud.     He  was  then  em* 
ployed  at  Choisi;  and,  in  May  1737,  was  elected  a  mem*- 
ber  of.  the  French  academy,  and  professor.     The  piece  he 
exhibited  on  his  admission  was   **  Neptune  calming  the 
waves,'*  with  a  Triton  at  his  feet ;  and  not  "  Prometheus 
chaiped  to  the  rock,"  as  some  biographers  have  asserted, 
which  was  the  production  of  his  brother  Nicholas.     He 
then  executed  the  groupe  of  "  Neptune  and  Amphitrite'* 
for  the  bason  at  Versailles,  on  which  he  was  employed  five 
years,    and  was  rewarded,   besides  the  stipulated  price, 
with  a  pension  of  500  livres.     One  of  his  best  works  was 
the-figure  of  "  St.  Jerome,"  now  at  St.  Roch.     His  other 
works  are,  a  groupe  of  five  figures  and  of  five  animals, 
at  Versailles,  in  bronze ;  the  bas-relief  of  the  chapel  of 
St.  Elizabeth,    in   bronze  ;    two   groupes  in   bronze   of 
hunting  and  fishing  at  Berlin ;  •*  Mars  caressed  by  Love,'^ 
at  Bellevue ;  and  a  statue  representing  the  enthusiasm  of 
poetry.     In  all  thei^e  there  are  undoubted  proofs  of  ge- 
nius, but  proofs  likewise  of  the  bad  taste  in  sculpture 
which  prevailed  in  his  time,  and  induced  him,  after  the 
^^example  of  Bernini  and  others,  to  attenxpt  efforts  which 
can  only  be  successfulin  painting.    In  1754,  he  published 
*'  Becueil  de  Sculptures  antiques  Grecques  et  Romaines,'' 
fol.  for  which  he  made  the  designs.     Most  of  these  he  bad 
purchased  from  the  heirs  of  cardinal  de  Polignac.  He  di«d 
of  an  apoplexy.  May  15,  1759.* 

ADAM  (Nicholas-Sebastian),  brother  of  the  pre- 
ceding, and  likewise  an  eminent  artist,  was  born  at  Nancy, 
March  22,  1705.  He  studied  under  his  father  at  Paris,  and 
in  1726  went  to  Rome.^  Two  years  after  he  gained  one  of 
the  prizes  of  the  academy  of  St.  Luke.  At  this  time  his 
brother,  the  subject  of  the  preceding  article,  and  Francis^ 
a  younger  brother,  were  at  Rome,  and  assisted  each  other 

f  Argtmraif  Vi«i  4%  fiiiii.  Scu^t— -Biographie  Vni^enelle, 

K  2 

132  ADA  M- 

in  their  labours.  After  a  residence  of  nine  years, '  he  re* 
turned  to  Paris,  and  wi^fa  some  opposition  -  was  admitted 
ixjto  the  academy,  where  he  exhibited  his  model  of  "  Pro* 
xnetheusy"  but  did  not  ei^ecute  it  until  long  after.  Nexfc 
*  year  be  executed  the  "  martyrdom  of  St.  Victoria,"  a  bas* 
relief  in  bronze,  for  the  royal  chapel  at  Versailles.  For 
l»ome  time  he  assisted  his  brother  in  *<  the  Neptune  ;'*  but, 
^  disagreement  occurring,  quitted  this,  and  employed 
himself  at  the  hotel  Soubise,  the  chamber  of  accounts,  and 
thp  abbey  of  St.  Dennis.  He  was  a  candidate  for  the 
mausoleum  of  the  cardinal  de  Fleury,  and  the  public  ad- 
judged him  the  prize ;  but  Lemoyne  was  employed.  The 
tomb  of  the  queen  of  Poland,  wife  of  Stanislaus,  is  esteemed 
one  of  bis  best  works.  His  Prometheus  was  finished  ia 
1763,  and' the  king  of  Prussia  offered  him  30,000  franks 
for  it ;  but  Adam  said  it  was  executed  for  his  master,  and 
no  longer  his  own  property.  He  died  March  27,  1778,  in 
his  75th  year.  His  merits  as  a  sculptor  b^ve  been  thought 
iequal  to  those  of  his  brother.  It  is  said  to  have  been  his 
constant  prayer  that  he  might  be -neither  the  first  nor  the 
last  in  his  a^t,  but  attain  an  honourable  middle  rank,  as 
the  surest  way  to  avoid  jealousy  on  the  one  hand,  or  con- 
tempt on  the  other;  and  his  last  biographer  thinks  his 
prayer  was  heard.  The  younger  brother,  Francis- Gaspard, 
exercised  his  profession  as  a  sculptor  for  some  years  with 
considerable  reputation,  and  obtained  a  prize  from  the 
French  academy,  but  no  important  works  of  his  are  nien<- 
tioned ;  he  died  at  Paris  in  1759. ' 

ADAM  DE  Marisco.     See  MARI8CO. 

ADAM  (Mblchior),  a  very  useful  biographer,  lived 
in  the  17th  century.  He  was.  born  in  the  territory  of  Grot»- 
kaw  in  Silesia,  and  educated  in  the  college  of  Br^eg, 
where  the  dukes  of  that  name,  to  the  utmost  of  their  power, 
encouraged  learning  and  the  reformed  religion  as  professed 
by  Cialvin.  Here  he  became  a'  firm  Protestant,  and  was 
enabled  to  pursue  his  studies  by  the  liberality  of  a  person 
of  quality,  who  had  left  several  exhibitions  for  young  stu- 
dents. He  was  appointed  rector  of  a  college  at  Heidel- 
bierg,  where  he  published  his  first  volume  of  Illustrious 
Men  in  the  year  1615.  This  yolumey  which  consists  of 
philosophers,  poets,  writers  on  polite  literature,  hi^toarians, 
(Sec.  was  followed  by  three  others;  that  which  treats'  ef 

1  Biofctiplufi  UoivenitlH  lAlL^AfSCnsOUe.  ^ 

A  I>  A  M.  13S 

divmes  was  printed  in  1 6 1 9> ;  that  of  the  lawyers  came  next ; 
aiid  finally,  that  of  the  physicians :  the  two  last  were  pubr- 
lished  in  1 620.  All  the  learned  meRy  whose  lives  are  con* 
tained  in  these  four  volumes,  lived  in  the  16th,  ot  beginning 
of  the  i7th*century,  and  are  either  Germans  or  Flemings ; 
but  he  published,  in  1618,  the  lives  of  twenty  diviiles  ot 
other  countries,  in  a  separate  volume.  All  his  divints  are 
Protestants.  He  has  given  but  a  few  lives,  yet  the  work 
cost  bim  a  great  deal  of  time,  having  been  obliged  to 
abridge  the  pieces  from  whence  he  had  materials,  whether 
they  were  lives,  funeral  sermons,  eulogies,  preface,  or  me-' 
moirs  of  families.  He  omitted  several  persons  who  dc;- 
served  a  plaee  in  his  work,  as  well  as  those  be  had  taken! 
notice  of;  which  he  accounts  for,  from  the  want  of  proper 
materials  and  authorities.  The  Lutherans  were  not  pleased 
with  him,  for  they  thought  him  {^rtial;  nor  will  they  allow 
his  work  to  be  a  proper  standard  whereby  to  judge  of  the 
learning  of  Germany.  His  biographical  collections  weref 
last  published  in  one  vol.  fol.  at  Francfort,  under  the  title, 
^*  Dignorum  laude  Virorum,  quos  Musa  vetat  mori,.immor- 
talitas.''  His  other  works  were,  1.  "  Apographum  Monu- 
mentorum  Heidelbergensium,''  Heidelberg,  1612,  4to.  2. 
*^  ParodiiB  et  Metaphrases  Horatianse,''  Francfort,  1616, 
8vo.  3.  "  Notse  in  Orationem  Julii  Csesaris  Scaligeri  pro 
M.  T.  Cicerone  contra  Ciceronianum  Erasmi,''  1618;  and 
he  reprinted  Srasmus's  dialogue  '*  De  optimo  genere  di* 
cendi,"  1617.  The  Oxford  catalogue  erroneously  ascribes 
to  him  the  history  of  the  churches  of  Hamburgh  and  Bre* 
men,  which,  we  have  just  seen,  was  the  work  of  Adam  d^ 
Bremen.  His  biographical  works  are,  however,  ^ose  which 
have  preserved  his  name,  and  have  been  of  great  import* 
ance  to  all  subsequent  collections.  He  died  in  1622.' 
-'  ADAM  (NicuLAS)^  a' French  grammarian,  born  at  Parisj 
in  1716,  was  the  pupil  of  Loiiis  Le  Beuu,  and  many  years 
professor  of  rhetoric  in  the  college  of  Lisieux.  The  duke 
de  Choiseul,  who  had  a  friendship  for  him,  sent  him  to  Ve* 
nice  as  charge  d'afiaires  to  that  republic,  where  he  resided 
twelve  years.  On  his  return  to  France,  he  published  his 
various  elementary  treatises,  which  have  been  much  ap«- 
proved  by  teachers.  1.  ^'  La  vraie  maniere  d^apprendre 
une  Langue  quelconque,  vivante  ou  morte,  par  le  moyen  de 
la  langue  Frangaise,'*  1787,  5  vols.  8vo,  and  often  reprinted. 

I  Gen.  Did.— Moreri.— Saxii  OnomasticoD. 

134  ADAM. 

This  work  iucludes  a  French,  Latin,  Italian,  Eneli&h,  and 
German  graoimar.  2.  ^\  Les  quatre  chapitres,  de  la  Rai«- 
son,  de  PAmour  de  soi,  de  1' Amour  du  prochain,  de  la  Vertu,^* 
17j80.  Besides  these,  he  published  literal  translations  of 
Horace,  1787^  2  vols.  8vo.  Phcedrus,  and  Dr.  Johnson^s 
Basselas.  He  died  in  Paris,  1792,  leaving  behind  hint  the 
character  of  a  man  of  talents,  an  able  linguist,  and  of  ami- 
able manners.' 

ADAM  (Robert),  an  eminent  architect,  wais  bofn  iu 
1728,  at  the\own  of  Kirkaldy,  in  Fifeshire,  Scodand.  He. 
was  the  second  son  of  William  Adam,  esq.  of  Marybmrghy 
an  architect  of  distinguished  merit.  He  received  his  edu<* 
cation  at  the  university  of  Edinburgh.  The  friendshipa 
which  he  formed  in  that  seat  of  learning  were  with  men  of 
high  literary  fame,  among  whom  were '  Mr.  Hume,-  Dr. 
Bobertson,  Dr.  Adam  Smith,  and  Dr.  Ferguson.  As  he 
^.dvanced  in  life,  he  had  the  happiness  to  enjoy  the  friend- 
ship and  intimacy  of  Archibald  duke  of  Argyle,  Mr.  Charlea 
Townsend,  and  the  celebrated  earl  of  Mansfield.  To  per- 
fect his  taste  in  the  science  to  which  he  had  devoted  him- 
self, he  went  to  Italy,  and  th^re  studied,  for  some  titee,  the 
inagnificent  remains  of  antiquity  which  still  adorn  that 
countr}'.  He  was  of  opinion,  that  the  buildings  of  the  an- 
cients are,  in  architecture,  what  the  works  of  nature  are 
with  respect  to  the  other  arts;  serving  as  models  for  our 
imitation,  and  standards  of  oar  judgment.  Scarce  any 
monuments,  however,  of  Grecian  or  Roman  architecture 
now  remain,  except  public  buildings.  The  private  edifices, 
however  splendid  and  elegant,  in  which  the  citizens  of 
Athens  and  Rome  resided,  have  all  perished :  few  vestiges 
remaining,  even  of  thpse  innumerable  villas  with  which 
Italy  was  qrowded,  although,  in  erecting  them,  the  Romans 
lavished  the  spoils  and  riches  of  the  world.  Mr«  Adam, 
.therefore,  considered  the  destruction  of  these  buildings  with 
particular  regret;  some  incidental  allusions  in  the  ancient 
poets,  and  occasional  descriptions  in  their  bistoiiansi  con- 
veying ideas  of  their  magnificence,  which  astonish  the  art^ 
ists  of  the  present  age.  He  conceived  his  knowledge  of 
architecture  to  hp  imperfect,  unless  he  should  be  able  to 
add  the  observation  of  a  private  edifice  of  the  ancients  to 
his  study  of  their  public  works.  He  therefore  formed  the 
fchenie  of  visiting  the  ruins  of  the  emperor  Dioclesif^i\-|| 

I  BiograpUe  UniTerselle* — Dict»  Hiit, 

ADAM.  135 

palace,  at  Spalatfo,  in  Venetian  Dalmatla.  To  that  end, 
having  prevailed  on  M.  Clerisseau,  a  French  artist,  to  ac- 
company him,  and  engaged  two  draughtsmen  to  assist  him 
in  the  execution  of  his  design,  he  sailed  from  Venice,  in 
June  1757,  on  his  intended  expedition,  and,  in  five  weeks, 
he  accomplished  his  object  with  much  satisfaction. 

In  1762,  he  was  appointed  architect  to  their  majesties. 
In  1764,  he  published  the  result  of  his  researches  at  Spa- 
latro,  in  one  volume  large  folio :  it  was  entitled,  ^*  Ruins  of 
the  Palace  of  the  Emperor  Dioclesian,  at  Spalatro,  in  Dal- 
matia."     It  is  enriched  -with  seventy-one  plates,  executed 
in  the  most  masterly  manner.     He  had  at  this  time  been 
elected  a  member  of  the  Royal  and  Antiquary  Societies. 
In  1768,  he  resigned  his  office  of  archijtect  to  th<2^r  majes- 
ties, it  being  incompatible  with  a  seat  in  parliament,  and 
he  being  this  year  elected  representative  fpr  the  county  of 
Kinross.      By  this  time,  in  cQnjunction  with  his  brother 
James  Adam,  he  had  been  much  employed  by  the  nobility 
and  gentry,  both  in  constructing  many  noble  modem  edi- 
fices, and  in  embellishing  ancient  mansions:  and,  in  J 773, 
they  first  began  to  publish  "  The  Works  in  Architecture 
of  R.  and  J.  Adam,"  in  numbers,  four  of*  whigh  appeared 
before  1776,  and  contain  descriptions  of  Sion  House, 
Wood,  Luton  Park  House,  and  some  edifices  at  Whitehall, 
Edinburgh,  &c.     That  noble  improvement  of  the  metro- 
polis, the  Adtiphiy  will  long  remain  an  honour  to  the  bro^ 
thers;  but,  as  a  speculation,  it  was  not  so  fortunate.     In 
1774,  however,  they  obtained  an  act  of  Parliament  to  dis- 
pose of  the  houses  by  way  of  lottery. 

The  many  other  elegant  buildings,  public  and  private, 
erected  in  various  parts  of  the  kingdom  by  this  ingenious 
architect,  display  a  great  variety  of  original  designs.  To 
the  last  moment  of  his  life,  he  evinced  an  increasing  vigour 
of  genius,  and  refinement  of  taste:  for  in  the  space  of  one 
year  preceding  his  death,  he  designed  eight  great  public 
works,  besides  twenty-five  private  buildings,  so  various  in 
their  style,  and  so  beautiful  in  their  composition,  that  they 
have  been  allowed  by  the  best  judges,  sufficient  of  them- 
selves to  establish  his  fame  as  an  architect.  His  talents, 
too,  extended  beyond  the  line  of  his  own  profession;  and. 
in  his  numerous  drawings  in  landscape,  we  observe  a  luxu- 
riance of  composition,  and  an  effect  of  light  and  shadow, 
«. which  have  scarce  ever  been  equalled. 

His  death,  which  hajppened  a^  his  house  w  Albemarle^ 

136  ADAM, 

street,  London,  March  3,  1792,  was  occasioned  by  the 
bursting  of  a  blood-vessel  in  his  stomach.  His  remains 
were  interred,  on  the  10th  of  the  same  month,  in  the  south 
aile  of  Westminster  Abbey. 

His  brother  James  died  Oct.  20,  1794,  also  very  eminent 
as  an  architect,  of  which  that  magnificent  range  of  build- 
ings called  Portland-place,  afford  an  undeniable  proof. — 
Mo;^t  of  his  other  works  were  executed  in  conjunction  with 
his  brother.  * 

ADAM  SCOTUS,  a  famous  Sorbonnic  doctor,  flourished 
in  the  12th  century.  This  author,  who  is  well  known  as  a^ 
monkish  writer,  and  a  voluminous  author  of  biography,  was 
born  in  Scotland,  and  educated  in  the  monastery  of  Lindis* 
feme,  now  called  Holy  Island,  a  few  miles  south  6f  Berwick 
on  Tweed,  at  that  time  one  of  the  most  famous  seminariesr 
of  learning  in  the  north  of  England.  He  went  afterwards 
to  Paris,  where  he  settled  several  years,  and  taught  school 
divinity,  in  the  Sorbonne.  In  his  latter  years  he  returned 
to  his  native  country,  and  became  a  monk  in  the  abbey  of- 
Melrose,  and  afterwards  in  that  of  Durham,  where  he  wrote 
the  life  of  St.  Columbanus,  and  the  lives  of  some  other 
monks  of  the  6th  century.  He  likewise  wrote  the  life  of 
David  I'  king  of  Scotland,  who  died  1153.  He  died  in  1 1 95. 
His  works  were  printed  at  Antwerp  in  foL  1659»* 

ADAMANTIUS,  a  Greek  physician  and  sophist  of  the: 
fifth  century,  was  originally  a  Jew,  and  lived  at  Alexandria. 
He  then  went  to  Constantinople,  and  became  a  Christian. 
He  dedicated  to  the  emperor  Constantine  a  work  in  two 
books  on  Physiognomy,  which  has  descended  to  our  days, 
and  has  often  been  reprinted,  particularly  in  Sylburgius's 
edition  of  Aristotle,  and  among  the  ^^  Physiognomoniae 
veteres,  Gr.  Lat.  cura  J.  G.  Franzii,"  Altenburgh,  1780, 
8vo,  a  work  of  great  accuracy.' 

ADAMANUS,  or  ADAMNANUS,  abbot  of  the  mo- 
nastery of  Hey,  or  Icolmkil,  was  born  in  624,  but  whether 
in  Scotland  or  Ireland  is  uncertain.  He  appears  to  have 
been  a  man  of  considerable  learning,  and,  according  to 
Bede,  of  a  peaceable  disposition;  yet  he  enforced  the  dis- 
cipline of  the  church  with  much  severity,  and  partook  of 
the  credulity  of  the  times.  He  died  Oct.  23,  704,  in  the 
eightieth  year  of  his  age.     Having  hospitably  entertained 

'  Gent.  Mag.  1792,  &c.  «  Cave.— Tanner. 

>  £iographie  Univcrselle.— Fabr.  Bibl.  Gr.         . 

A  D  A  M  A  N  U  S.  137 

t  French  binliop,  the  latter,  who  had  been  in  Palestine^ 
communicated  such  particulars  to  him,  as  enabled  him  to 
write  a  description  of  that  country,  "  De  locis  Terrae 
SanctaB,  lib.  tres,"  This  was  j&rst  published  by  Serrarius, 
at  IngoMstadt,  1619,  and  afterwards  by  Mabillon,  ^<  Ssbc« 
Benedict.'*  .  He  wrote  also  a  life  of  St.  Columba,  pubr 
Ushed  by  Canisius  and  Surius.^ 

ADAMI  (LiONAROo),  an  ingenious  classical  scholar, 
was  born  Aug.  12,  161^0,  at  Bolsema  in  Tuscany.  When 
an  infant,  he  was  sent  to  Rome,  to  his  uncle  the  abb6  An- 
drea Adami,  an  excellent  musician,  in  the  service  of  car- 
dinal Ottoboni.  At  eleven  years  of  age,  he  was  placed  by 
the  cardinal  in  a  school  at  Rome,  where  he  made  surpris- 
ing progress  in  his  studies ;  but,  having  taken  an  active 
part  in  some  disturbances  in  that  school,  he  fled  to  Leg- 
horn to  escape  punishment,  and  went  on  board  a  French 
privateer.  Having  experienced  n umerous  vicissitudes  in  this^ 
service,  he  became  tired  of  a  wandering  life,  and,  after  an 
absence  of  twenty-six  months,  was  forgiven  and  received 
by  his  uncle.  He  now  resumed  his  studies,  applied  to  the 
Hebrew,  Arabic^  and  Syriac,  but  particularly  the  Greek, 
of  which  he  acquired  a  critical  knowledge.  Such  was  his 
reputation,  that  cardinal  Imperiali  made  him  his  librarian 
in  1717;  but  he  did  not  enjoy  the  situation  long,  as  he 
died  of  a  pulmonary  complaint,  brought  on  by  incessant 
study,  Jan.  9,  1719.  His  principal  work,  "  Arcadicorum,*' 
vol.1,  was  published  at  Rome,  1716,  4<to,  dedicated  ^to 
cardinal  Ottoboni,  who  defrayed  the  whole  expence.  This 
work  contains,  in  four  books,  the  history  of  Arcadia,  from 
the  earliest  times  to  the  reign  of  Aristocrates,  the  last 
king;  and  is  replete, with  valuable  quotations  from  ancient 
authors,  and « learned  digressions;  which  occasioned  his 
friend  Facciolati  to  say,  that  it  was  like  a  city  in  which  there 
were  more  foreigners  than  natives.  His  untimely  death 
prevented  the  conti;iuation  of  it.  Among  his  manuscripts, 
which  he  bequeathed  to  cardinal  Imperiali,  were  a  history 
of  Peloponnesus :  the  works  of  Libanius,  with  many  ad^ 
ditiont^;  a  collection  of  inscriptions,  for  the  most  part  un- 
published, &c.' 

ADAMS  (FiTZHERBERT),  D.  D.  a  man  of  learning,  and 
benefactor  to  the  university  of  Oxford,  was  born  in  1651, 

'  Mackenzie's  Scotch  writers,  vol.  I.  p.  338. — Cave  Hist. — Waraeos  de  Script, 
Hibern. — Nicoison's  Scotch  Historical  Library. — But  principally  Taimer* 
'  Biograpbie  Umverseile.— -^axii  Ouoaiasticou, 

138  ADAMS. 

arid  educated  at  Lincoln  College,  where  he  took  his  mas- 
ter's degree,  June  4,  1675;  that  of  bachelor  of  divinity, 
Jan.  23;  and  doctor  of  divinity,  July  3,  1685.  He  was 
inducted  to  the  rectory  of  Waddington,  Sept.  29,  1683  j 
and  elected  rector  of  Lincoln  College,  May  2,  1685.  The 
same  year  he  was  installed  a  prebendary  of  the  sixth  stall, 
Durham,  was  removed  to  the  tenth  in  1695,  and  from- 
that  to  the  eleventh,  in  1711.  He  served  the  ofBce  of 
vice-chancellor  in  1695,  and  died  June  17,  1719.  As  rec- 
tor of  Lincoln,  he  held  the  living  of  Twiford;  and  hsiving' 
received 'of.  i  500  for  renewing  the  lease,  he  laid  out  the 
whole  in  beautifying  the  chapel  of  his  college,  and  the 
rector's  lodgings.  He  bequeathed  his  library  also  to  the 
college,  and  was  a  benefactor  to  All  Saints  cTiurch,  Ox- 
ford, where  he  lies  buried,  contributing  ^.200  to  purchase 
a  parsonage  house.  He  deserves  yet  more  praise  for  his 
activity  in  promoting  discipline  and  learning  during  the 
long  time  he  presided  over  Lincoln  College,  and  for  the 
excellence  of  his  life,  and  the  urbanity  of  his  manners.* 

ADAMS  (John),  D.  D.  Provost  of  King's  College,  Cam- 
bridge, was  born  in  London,  and  educated  at  Cambridge, 
where  he  was  admitted  of  King's  College  in  1678  ;  took 
ilie  degree  of  A.  B.  1^682,  and  A.  M.  1 686.  He  afterwards 
travelled  into  Spain,  Italy,  France,  and  Ireland;  and  in 
1687  was  presented  by  the  lord  chancellor  Jeffries  to  the 
living  of  Hickam  in  Leicestershire.  In  London,  he  was 
lecturer  of  St.  Clement's;  rector  of  St.  Alban's  Wood- 
street,  in  the  gift  of  Eton  College;  and  Rtector  of  St.  Bar- 
tholomew, presented  by  Lord  Harcourt,  the  chancellor.  He 
was  also  a  prebendary  of  Canterbury,  chaplain  in  ordinary 
to  Queen  Anne,  and  in  1708,  canon  of  Windsor.  In  1711 
he  was  presented  to  the  living  of  Hornsey,  by  Gompton^ 
bishop  of  London ;  and  in  the  following  year  elected  pro- 
vost of  King's  College,  which  he  held  until  his  death  in 
1719.  He  was  considered  as  an  eloquent  preacher,  and 
often  employed  on  public  occasions,  Fifteen  of  his  ser- 
mons were  printed  from  1695  to  1712.^ 

ADAMS  (John),  fate  president  of  the  United  States  of 
America,  and  a  politicrl  writer  of  considerable  reputation, 
was  descended  from  one  of  the  families  who  founded  the 
colony  of  Massachusets,  and  was  born  at  Braintree,  in  that 
colony^  Oct  1 9, 1 7  35.    Before  the  revolution  which  separated 

*  Wood*8  Colleg^es  and  Halls. — Athens. — Hutchinson's  Durham,  vol.  U.p.  139. 

*  Aluoini'  £toaenses,  p.  48.— Cooke's  Preacher's  Assistant* 

ADAMS*  139 

America  from  Great  Britain,  be  had  acquired  much  repu« 
tation  in  tiie  profession  of  the  law ;  and  on  the  eve  of  that 
event,  he  publisiied  ^^  An  essay  on  canon  and  feudal  Law.** 
He  afterwards  employed  his  pen  in  the  American  papers, 
and  contributed  essentially  to  widen  the  breach  between 
the  mother  country  and  her  colonies.     He  was  still,  how* 
ever,  a  friend  to  loyal  measures;  and  when  captain  Preston 
was  tried  for  his  life,,  for  ordering  the  soldiers  to  fire  upon 
a  mob,  pleaded  his  cause  with  spirit  and  eloquence,  and 
Preston  was  acquitted.     This  in  some  measure  injured  Mr. 
Adams's  character  with  the  more  violent  party,  but  had  so 
little  effect  on  the  more  judicious,  that  he  was  elected  a 
member  of  Congress  in  1774,  and  re-elected  in  1775.     He 
was  one  of  the  first  to  perceive  that  a  cordial  reconciliation 
with  Great  Britain  was  impossible ;  and  was  therefore  one 
.  of  the  chief  promoters  of  the  resolution,  passed  July  4,  1 7  76, 
declaring  the  American  States  free,  sovereign,  and  tnde-^ 
pendent.     When,  in  the  course  of  the  war,  the  States  en- 
tertained hopes  of  assistance  from  the  courts  of  Europe, 
Mr.  Adams  was  sent,  with  Dr.  Franklin,  to  that  of  Ver- 
sailles, to  negociate  a  treaty  of  alliance  and  commerce^ 
On  their  return,  he  assisted  in  forming  a  constitution  for 
the  state  of  Massachusets.      He  was  then  employed  by 
America  as  her  plenipotentiary  to  the  States  General  of 
Holland;  and  contributed  not  a  little  to  bring  on  the  war 
between  those  States  and  Great  Britain.     He  afterwards 
went  to  Paris,  and  assisted  in  concluding  the  general  peace« 
His  temperate  advice,  on  this  occasion,  respecting  the  loy- 
alists^ again  alarmed  the  republican  party,  who  began  to 
consider  him  as  a  partizan  of  England.     He  was  the  first 
ambassador  America  sent  to  this  country,  where,  with  true 
republican  simplicity,  and  in  a  manner  suitable  to  the  em- 
barrassed finances  of  his:  country,  he  resided  in  the  first 
floor  of  a  bookseller  in  Piccadilly,  and  afterwards  as  a 
lodger  in  the  same  street 

Although  America  had  obtained  independence,  she  still 
required  a  form  of  government  or  constitution  adapted  tp 
her  rank  among  other  nations,  and  calculated  to  concen- 
trate the  powers  of  sovereignty.  Mr.  Adams  was  among  the 
first  who  proposed  the  present  form,  and  was  seconded  by 
Washington,  Hamilton,  and  others,  who  were  termed  fede- 
ralists; and  the  change  took  place  in  1787.  Washington 
was  elected  president,  and  Mr.  Adams  vice-president, 
^ut  i^e  party  in  opposition  to  this  measure  were  not 

1c40  A  DA  M  a 

silenced ;  and  when  the  French  revolution  took  place,  tfaey 
in  general  were  found  to  attach  themselves  to  the  interests 
of  France,  in  opposition  to  those  of  Great  Britain.  Mr. 
Adams,  however,  pursued  his  even  course,  and  vindicated 
his  principles  and  theory  in  an  able  publication,  entitled^ 
**  A  defence  of  the  Constitution  of  Government  of  the 
United  States  of  America,"  1787 — 88,  3  vols.  8vo^  whicb 
he  afterwards  republished  under  the  title  of  "  History  of 
the  principal  Republics,"  3  vols.  8vo,  1794.  The  leading 
idea  which  runs  through  this  work  is,  that,  a  mixture  of  the 
three  powers,  the  regal,  the  aristocraticaU  and  the  demo* 
cratical,  properly  balanced,  composes  the  most  perfect 
form  of  government,  and  secures  the  greatest  degree  <^ 
kappiness  to  the  greatest  number  of  individuals. 

When  Mr.  Washington  was  a  second  time  chosen  presi-* 
dent,  Mr.  Adams  was  again  chosen  vice-president;  and 
when  the  former  intimated  his  intention  to  retire,  Mr. 
Adams  was  elected  his  successor,  in  preference  to  Mr.  Jef- 
ferson, who  was  the  idol  of  the  republican  or  anti-federalist 
party.  At  the  concluMon  of  his  term  of  president,  Mr. 
Adams,  now  advanced  in  years,  retired  from  public  affairs^ 
and  died  at  New  York  Oct.  2,  1803,  aged  68,  if  our  date 
of  his  birth  be  correct,  but  most  of  the  journals  fixed  bis 
age  at  82.  His  vigour  and  independence  of  mind,  firmnesa 
and  moderation,  have  placed  him  in  the  first  rank  of  Ame- 
rican statesmen;  and  his  death  was  justly  considered  aa  a 
public  loss.' 

ADAMS  (Richard),  M.  A.  an  English  Non-conformist^ 
of  a  Cheshire  family,  was  originally  educated  at  Cam-* 
bridge,  where  he  was  admitted  M.  A.  in  1 644.  He  after*^ 
wards  went  to  Oxford,  then  in  the  power  of  the  Parliament 
army,  and  was  admitted  a  student  at  Brasen-nose  college 
ii)  1646,  when  about  20  years  of  age ;  and  soon  after  ob- 
tained a  fellowship.  In  1655,  he  left  his  fellowship,  and 
was  presented  to  the  living  of  St.  Mildred's,  Bread-street, 
London,  where  he  continued  until  he  was  ejected  for  non^ 
conformity,  in  1662.  He  afterwards  preached,  as  he  had 
opportunity,  to  a  small  congregation  in  Southwark,  aad 
died  in  1684,  at  Hoxton.  Hi&  only  original  work^  are^ 
some  Sermou&in  the  collection  called  the  Morning  Exer**- 
cise  at  Cripplegate,  and  a  Sermon  at  the  funeral  of  Henry 
Hurst;  but  he  assisted  in  the  publication  of  some  of  hia 

*  Variotts  public  jounials^and  a  sketch  ia  Morse's  Aooberican  Geograpby*. 

'    4 

AD  AU  9.  I4i 

inroth^r'sy  Mr.  T.  Ad^uns,  works,  aad  those  of  Mr.  Char* 
nock;  and  he  compiled  the  commentary  on  Philippians 
and  Colossiaos  in  Poolers  bible.  He  appears  to  have  been 
an  able  scholar,  a  pious  and  indefatigable  preacher,  and  a 
man  of  moderate  sentiments  in  public  affairs.^  There  was 
another  of  both  his  names  ejected  from  the  living  of 
Humberstone,  in  Leicestershire,  afterwards  an  Anabaptist 
teacher  in  London.* 

ADAMS  (Thomas),  brother  to  the  above,  became  also 
a  student  of  Brasen-nose  college,  Oxford,  in  July  1649, 
and  was  made  fellow  in  June  1652.  He  performed  all 
his  college  exercises  with  approbation,  and  was  much 
esteemed  for  his  learning,  piety,  diligence,  and  good-hu- 
mour, and  very  much  employed  as  a  tutor.  He  was  ejected 
in  1662  from  the  university,  and  resided  for  a  considerable 
time  in  the  family  of  sir  Samuel  Jones,  and  afterwards  was 
chaplain  to  the  countess  dowager  of  Clare.  He  wrote  a 
few  practical  tracts  on  the  ^^  Principles  of  Religion,'*  and 
one  on  the  controversy  between  the  Church  and  the  Dis- 
senters^    He  died  Dec.  11,  J  670.* 

ADAMS  {Sir  Thomas),  citizen  and  lord  mayor  of  Lon- 
don, was  a  man  highly  esteemed  for  his  prudence  and 
piety,  his  loyalty  and  suf&rings,  and  his  acts  of  munificence : 
he  was  born  in  1586,  at  Wem,  in  Shropshire,  educated  in 
ihe  university  of  Cambridge,  and  (Fuller  says)  bred  a  dra- 
per in  London.  In  1609,  he  was  chosen  sheriff,  when  he 
gave  a.  striking  proof  of  his  public  spirit,  by  immediately 
giving  up  his  business,  and  applying  himself  wholly  to 
public  affairs.  He  made  himself  complete  master  of  the 
customs  and  usages,  rights  and  privileges  of  the  city  of 
London,  and  succeeded  to  every  honour  his  fellow-citizens 
had  in  their  power  to  bestow.  He  was  chosen  master  of  the 
ckapers'  company,  alderman,  and  president  of  St.  Thomas's 
hospital,  which  institution  he  probably  saved  from  ruin,  by 
discovering  the  frauds  bf  a  dishonest  steward.  He  was  often 
returned  member  of  parliament;  but  the  violent  politics  of 
the  times  would  not  permit  him  to  sit  there.  In  1645  he 
was  elected  lord  mayor  of  London^  in  which  office  be  gave 
a  shining  example  of  disinterestedness,  by  declining  the  adv 
vantages  usually  made  by  the  sale  of  places  which  become 
vacant.     His  loyalty  to  Charles  I.  was  so  well  knowhj  that 

'  Cmlam^.-^Wood'i  Ath.  Ox.-^Fiuteral  Sermoii  by  Howe. — Crosby's  Hist,  of 
Baptists,  vol.  III.  p.  S7. — Nichols's  Leicestershire,  Yol.  III.  p^  ^^15, 
s  Wood's  Fasti,  vol.  II.«— Calamy. 

142  ADAMS. 

his  house  was  searched  by  the  republican  party,  to  find  the 
king  there ;  and  he  was  the  next  year  committed  to  the 
Tower  by  the  same  party,  and  detained  there  some  time. 
However,  at  ^ength  he  became  the  oldest  alderman  upon 
the  bench,  and  was  consequently  dignified  with  the  honour- 
able title  of  father  of  the  city.  His  affection  for  his  prince 
was  so  great,  that  during  the  exile  of  Charles  II.  he  remitted 
him  10,000/.  ' 

When  the  restoration  of  the  king  was  agreed  on,  Mr. 
Adams,  then  74  years  of  age,  was  deputed  by  the  city  to 
accompany  General  Monk  to  Breda  in  Holland,  to  congra- 
tulate and  accompany  the  king  home.  For  his  signal  ser- 
vices the  king  knighted  him  at  the  Hague ;  and  soon  after 
the  restoration  advanced  him  to  the  dignity  of  a  baronet,  on 
the  13  th  of  June,  1661. 

His  merit,  as  a  benefactor  to  the  public,  is  highly  con- 
spicuous :  he  gave  the  house  of  his  nativity,  at  Wem,  as  a  . 
free-school  to  the  town,  and  liberally  endowed  it ;  he  founded 
an  Arabic  professorship  at  Cambridge ;  both  which  took 
place  before  his  death;  By  desire  of  his  friend,  Mr. 
Wheelock,  fellow  of  Clare-hall^  he  was  at  the  expence  of 
printing  the  gospels  in  Persian,  and  sending  them  into  the 
east.  He  was  equally  benevolent  in  private  as  in  public 
life ;  and,  although  he  suffered  great  losses  in  his  estate,  he 
gave  liberally  in  legacies  to  the  poor  of  many  parishes,  to 
hospitals,. and  ministers'  widows.  He  was  particularly  dis- 
tinguished for  his  Christian  patience  and  fortitude  in  ad- 

In  his  latter  years  he  was  much  afHicted  with  the  stone^ 
which  hastened  his  end.;  he  died  Feb.  24,  1667,  at  81  years 
of  age.  The  stone  was  taken  from  the  body,  and  was  of 
such  extraordinary  magnitude .  as  to  weigh  25  ounces,  and 
is  preserved  in  the  laboratory  at  Cambridge.  He  felt  no 
reluctance  at  ^  the  approach  of  his  dissolution,  and  seemed 
perfectly  prepared  for  death,  often  saying  '^  Solum  mihi 
mperest  sepukhrumy'* — All  my  business  is  to  fit  me  for  the 
grave.  His  funeral  sermon  was  preached  by  Dr.  Hardy,  at  , 
St«  Catharine  Cree  Church,  before  his  children  and.  many 
of  his  relations.  His  descendants  enjoyed  the  title  down  to 
the  late  sir  Thomas  Adams^  who. died  a  captain  in  the  toyal 


1  Bios.  Britamuca.-«FuUcff't  Wdrthit8.-*>Wilford's  MenotitiU.— Pe(dc*s  De* 

ADAMS.  143 

ADAMS  (William),  D.  D.  master  of  Pembroke  College, 
Oxford,  was  born  at  Shrewsbury  in  1707,  of  a  Shropshire 
family,  and  at  the  early  age  of  thirteen  was  entered  of  Pem- 
broke college,  where  he  took  his  master's  degree,  April  18^ 
1727,  and  obtained  a  fellowship.  It  has  generally  been  re- 
ported, that  he  was  afterwards  tutor  to  the  celebrated  Dr. 
Samuel  Johnson;  but  Dr*  Adams  very  handsomely  contra- 
dicted this  report)  by  saying,  that  had  Johnson  returned  to 
College  after  Jordan's  (his  tutor's)  death,  he  might  have 
been  his  tutor:  ^^  I  was  his  nominal  tutor,  but  he  was  above 
my  mark."  A  friendship,  however,  commenced  between 
them,  which  lasted  during  the  life  of  Dr.  Johnson,  to  whose 
memory  Dr.  Adams  did  ample  justice. 

In  1732,  he  was  presented  to  the  curacy,  or,  as  usually^ 
called,  the  vicarage  of  St.  Chad's  in  Shrewsbury,  and  on 
this  occasion  quitted  the  college.     In  1756  he  visiled  Ox- 
ford, and  took  his  degrees  of.B.  D.  and  D.  D.  and  then 
went  back  to  Shrewsbury,  where  he  discharged  the  duties 
of  his  ministry  with  exemplary  assiduity,  patience,  and  af- 
fection ;  and  contributed  a  very  active  part  in  the  foundation 
of  the  Salop  infirmary,  and  in  promoting  its  success.     The 
year  before  he  went  last  to  Oxford,  he  was  presented  to  the 
rectpry  of  Counde  in  Shropshire,  by  Mrs.  Elizabeth  Cressett 
of  that  place,  and. retained  it  during  his  life.     In  1775, 
about  43  years  after  he  left  college.  Dr.  Ratcliffe,  master  of 
Pembroke  college,  died;  and  although  Dr.  Adams  had  out- 
lived almost  all  his  contemporaries,  the  gentlemen  of  the 
college  xame  to  a  determination  to  elect  him,  a  mark  of  re- 
spect due  to  his  public  character,  and  highly  creditable  to 
their  discernment.    He  accordingly  became  master  of  Pem- 
broke, July  26,  1775,  and  in  consequence  obtained  a  prebend 
of  Gloucester,  which  is  attached  to  that  office.     He  now 
resigned  the  living  of  St.  Chad,  to  the  lasting  regret  of  his 
hearers,  as  well  as  pf  the  inhabitants  at  large,  to  whom  he 
had  long  been  endeared  by  his  amiable  character,  and  pious 
attention  to  the  spiritual  welfare  of  his  flock.     He  was  soon 
after  made  archdeacon  of  LlandafF.     Over  the  college  he 
presided  with  universal  approbation,  and  engaged  the  affec- 
tions of-the  students  by  his  courteous  demeanour  and  affa- 
bility, mixed  with  the  firmness  necessary  for  the  preserva- 
tion of  discipline.     In  his  apartments  here,  he  frequency 
cheered  the  latter  days  of  his  old  friend  Dr.  Johnson,  whom 
he  survived  but  a  few  years ;    dying  at  his  prebendal  house 

at  Gloucester,  Jan.  13,  1789,  aged  82.     He  wa:»  interred 
in  Glouqester  cathedral,  where  a  monument  was  erected. 

144  ADAMS. 

^ith  an  inscription^  which  celebrates  his  ingenuity^  learn- 
ing, eloquence,  piety,  and  benevolence.  Dr.  Adams  mar-* 
ried  Miss  Sarah  Hi^nt,  by  whom  be  left  a-  daughter,  mar* 
ried,  in  1 788,  to  B.  Hyatt,  esq.  of  Painswick,  in  Gloucester- 
shire,, who  died  July  1810. 

Dr.  Adams's  first  publications  were  three  occasional  ser- 
mons, printed  1741,  1742,  1749;  but  his  principal  work. 
was  an  "Essay  on  Hume's  Essay  on  Miracles,"  8vo,  1752, 
which  was  long  considered  as  one  of  the  ablest  answers  that 
appeared  to  Mr.  Hume^s  sophistry,  and  was  tlistinguished 
for  acuteness,  elegance,  and  urbanity  of  style.  Hume, 
whom  he  once  met  in  London,  acknowledged  that  he  had 
treated  him  much  better  than  he  deserved.  This  work  was 
followed  by  other  occasional  sermons,  which  the  author 
collected  into  a  volume,  and  published  in  1777.-  One  only 
of  these  sermons  involved  him  in  a  controversy.  It  .was 
entitled  "  On  true  and  false  Doctrine,'*  preached  at  St. 
Chad's  Sept.  4,  1769,  and  touched  upon  some  of  the  prin- 
ciples of  the  Methodists,  in  consequence  of  Dr.  Adams 
having  lent  his  pulpit  to  the  Rev.  William  Romaine,  who 
bad  there  preached  a  sermon,  the  tendency  of  which  our' 
author  thought  it  his  duty  to  counteract.  This  produced  a 
series  of  pamphlets  between  the  friends  of  the  respective 
parties ;  but  it  is  somewhat  singular  that  neither  our  au- 
thor nor  Mr.  Romaine  took  arty  part  in  the  controversy, 
nor  did  Mr.  Romaine  publish  the  sermon  which  had  occa- 
sioned it.  The  dispute  turned  principally  on  the  deg^e 
,  of  Calvinism  to  be  found  in  the  Articles,  &c.  of  the  Cfatirch 
of  England.* 

ADAMSON  (Patrick),  a  Scottish  prelate,  archbishop 
Tof  St.  Andrew's.  He  was  born  1543,  in  the  town  of  Perth, 
where  he  received  the  rudiments  of  his  education,  and 
afterwards  studied  philosophy,  and  took  his  degree  of 
M.  A.  at  the  university  of  St.  Andrew's.  In  the  year  1566 
he  set  out  for  Paris,  as  tutor  to  a  young  gentleman.  In  the 
month  of  June  in  the  same  year,  Mary  queen  of  Scots 
being  delivered  of  a  son,  afterwards  James  VI.  of  Scotknd, 
and  first  of  England,  Mr.  Adamson  wrote  a  Latin  poem  ou 
the  occasion,  in  which  he  styled  him  king  of  England  and 
France.  This  proof  of  his  loj-alty  involved  him  in  some 
difficulties,  causing  him  to  be  arrested  in  France,  and  con- 
fined for  six  months ;  but  he  escaped  by  the  intercession 
of  queen  Mary,  and  some  of  the  principal  nobility.     As 

}  Geat.  Mag.  17S9 ;  aod  prirate  inforai&tiQa.«»BoswelPg  Lili^  of  JolmsOii, 

A  D  A  M  S  O  ]^: 


soon  as  he  recovered  his  liberty,  be  retired  with  his  pupil 
to  Bourges.  He  was  in  this  city  during  the  massacre  at 
Paris ;  and,  the  same  bloody  persecuting  spirit  prevaiUng 
amongst  the  Catholics  at  Bourges  as  at  the  metropolis,  he. 
hved  concealed  for  seven  months  at  a  public-chouse,  the 
master  of  which,  upwards  of  70  years  of  age,  was  thrown 
from  the  top  of  the  building,  and  had  his  brains  dashed  out, 
for  his  charity  to  heretics.  Whilst  Mr.  Adamson  lay  thus 
in  his  sepulchre,  as  he  called  it,  hef  wrote  his  Latin  poeti- 
cal version  of  the  book  of  Job,  and  his  tragedy  of  Herod^ 
in  the  same  language.  In  1573,  he  returned  to  Scotland; 
and,  having  entered  into  holy  orders,  became  minister  of 
Paisley,  In  1575,  he  was  appointed  one  of  the  commis-' 
sioners,  by  the  general  assembly,  to  settle  the  jurisdiction 
and  policy  of  the  church ;  and  the  following  year  he  was 
named,  with  Mr.  David  Lindsay,  to  report  their  proceed-* 
ings  to  the  earl  of  Moreton,  then  regent.  About  this  time^ 
the  earl  made  him  one  of  bis  chaplains,  and,  on  the  death 
of  bishop  Douglas,  promoted  him  to  the  archiepiscopal 
see  of  St.  Andrew*s^  a  dignity  which  brought  upon  him 
great  trouble  and  uneasiness ;  for  he  was  extremely  obnoxi« 
ous  to  the  Presbyterian  party,  and  many  inconsistent  ab- 
surd stories  were  propagated  about  him.  Soon  after  his 
promotion,  he  published  his  Catechism  in  Latin  verse,  a 
work  highly  approved,  even  by  his  enemies ;  who,  never-, 
theless,  continued  to  persecute  him  with  great  violence. 
In  1578,  he  submitted  himself  to  the  general  assembly^ 
which  procured  him  peace  but  for  a  very  little  time ;  for,  th^ 
year  following,  they  brought  fresh  accusations  against  him. 
In  &ke  year  1582,  being  attacked  with  a  grievous  dis« 
ease,  in  which  the  physicians' could  give  him  no  relief,  he 
happened  to  take  a  simple  medicine  from  an  old  woman^ 
which  did  him  service.  The  woman,  whose  name  was 
Alison  Pearsone,  was  immediately  charged  with  witchcraft, 
and  committed  to  prison,  but  escaped  out  of  her  confine-% 
ment :  however,  about  four  years  afterwards,  she  was  again 
found,  and  burnt  for  a  witch.  In  1583,  king  James  came 
to  St.  Andrew's ;  and  the  archbishop,  being  much  reco- 
vered, preached  before  him,  and  disputed  with  Mr.  An- 
drew Melvil,  in  presence  of  his  Majesty, ,  with  great  repu-. 
tation,  which  drew  upon  him  fresh  calumny  and  persecu- 
tion. The  king,  however,  was  so  well  pleased  with  him, 
that  he  sent  him  ambassador  to  queen  Elizabeth,  at  whose 
court  be  resided  fgr  some  years.  His  conduct,  during  his 
Vol.  L  L 

146  A  D  A  M  S  O  N. 

\  '         ' 

\  * 

embassy,  lias  been  variously  reported  by  different  Mihaifu 
Two  things  he  principally  laboured,  viz.  the  recommend* 
in^  the  king,  hi^  master,  to  the  nobility  and  gentry  of" 
England^  and  the  procuring  some  support  for  the  episco- 
pal party  in  Scotland.    By  his  eloquent  preaching  he  drevgf 
after  him  such  crowds  of  people,  and  raised  in  their  minds 
Siuch  a  high  idea  of  the  young  king,  his  master,  that  queem 
Elizabeth  forbade  him  to  enter  the  pulpit  during  his  stay 
in  her  dominions.     In  1584  he  was  recalled,  and  sat  in  tha 
{parliament  held  in  August  at  Edinburgh.     The  Presbyte* 
rian  party  were  still  very  violent  against  the  archbishop. 
A  provincial  synod  was  held  at  St.  Andrew^sin  April  1586  ; 
where  the  aiK^hbishop  was  accused  and  excommunicated :  he 
appealed  to  the  king  and  the  states,  but  this  availed  hink 
but  little ;  foi^  the  mob  being  excited  against  him,  it  be-» 
eaune  dsuagevous  to  appear  in  public  in  the  city  of  St.  An-« 
brew's.    At  the  next  general  assembly,  a  paper  being  pro« 
duced,  containing  the  archbishop's  submission,  he  was 
absolved  from  the  excommunication.    In  1588,  fresh  accu-*^ 
sations  were  brought  against  him.     The  year  following,  he 
published  the  Lamentations  of  the  prophet  Jeremiah,  iQ 
Latin  vevse,  which  he  dedicated  to  the  king,  complainings 
ef  his  hard  usage.     In  the  latter  end  of  the  same  year,  he 
published  a  translation  of  the  Apocalypse  in  Latin  verse^i 
and  a  copy  of  Latin  verses,  addressed  also  to  his  Maj^ty^ 
when  he  was  in  great  distress*     The  king,  however,  was 
so  far  from  giving  him  assistance,  that  he  granted  the  re- 
venue of  his  see  to  the  duke  of  Lenox :  so  that  the  remain* 
ing  part  of  this  prelate's  life  was  very  wretched  ;  he  having. 
hardly  subsistence  for  his  family,  notwithstanding  his  ne-« 
cessities  compelled  him  to  deliver  to  the  assembly  a  formal 
i^eeantation  of  all  his  opinions  concerning  church  goveta^i^ 
Boent.    He  died  in  1591.    His  works  were'printed  in  a  4to 
volume  in  London  in  1619,  with  his  Life  by  Thomas  Vehim, 
senus,  or  Wilson.    Besides  the  contents  of  this  volume,  oar 
atither  wrote  many  things  which  were  never  published ; 
such  as,  six  books  on  the  Hebrew  republick,  various  trans^ 
lations  of  the  prophets  into  Latin  verse,  Praelections  on  St. 
I^aul's  Epistles  to  Timothy,  various  apologetical  and  fune-^' 
ral  orations ;  and,  what  deserves  most  to  bq  regretted,  » 
Tery  candid  history  of  his  own  times.     His  character  has* 
been  variously  represented,  as  may  be  seen  in  Calderwoc^ 
and  Spoliswood's  Histories,  Mackenzie's  Lives  of  Scottisll 
Ai«thors,  and  the  last  edition  of  the  Biographia  Britaoiuea. 

A  D  A  lit  S  O  N.  Ui 

tte  'tppettrs  ie  haVe  been  brie  of  those  men  of  wbom  no 
jtist  (Estimate  ean  be  fortned,  without  taking  into  the  ^c- 
fotint  the  disthiction  of  the  tinies  in  which  he  Hired. 

ADArJSON  (Michel),  an  feminent  French  nattirallst, 
#8ii  bbrri  at  Aik  in  Prorehce,  April  7^  1727.  His  father, 
•f  Scdteh  origin,  appears  to  hav^  bis^n  in  the  iS^rvicb  df 
VintimiHe^  then  archbishbp  of  that  city.  Whfeti  the  latter 
irtts  tirahslated  to  the  see  of  Paris,  Adansoh  was  bf ought 
thith^t  at  three  years  o£  age,  educated  with  great  care^ 
fthd  soon  gave  proofs  of  uncommon  application.  As  he  Wa^ 
sifiall  of  stature,  he  appeared  much  younger  than  he  ^as ; 
atid,  when  he  carried  off  the  university  prizes,  maiiy  jokes  were 
passed  upon  him.  Needham,  however,  the  celebrated  hatd- 
mlist,  known  by  his  microscopical  discoveries,  happening 
to  be  ii  witness  of  his  success,  presented  him  with  a  iiiicrd- 
ieopd;  adding,  that  one  who  knew  ^he  works  of  ineii  sd 
well  ought  to  study  those  of  nature.  This  circumstancd 
fitst  induced  hinbi  to  study  natural  history,  but  without 
lieglectlng  the  usual  course  pur$ued  in  the  university  of 
Paris.  In  natural  history,  Reaumur  arid  Bernard  de  Jus- 
itieu,  were  his  guides,  and  he  divided  his  time  between  the 
i^al  gafderis  and  the  museiims  of  these  learned  men ;  and, 
when  the  system  of  Linriseus  began  to  be  published,  it  af- 
feirded  him  new  matter  for  speculation.  Ris  parents  had 
intended  him  for  the  church,  and  had  procured  hirii  a  pre- 
tend ;  but  such  was  his  thirst  for  general  science,  thsit  he 
r^gned  it,  and  determined  to  travel  into  Soriie  eoumtry 
not  trsually  visited  or  described.  Senegal  was  the  first  ob- 
ject of  his  choice,  thinking  that  its  rinhealthy  climate  had 
prevented  its  being  visited  by  any  other  na;turalist.  Ac- 
cordingly, he  set  out  ill  174S,  in  the  2 1st  year  of  his  age ; 
and,  after  visiting  the  Azores  and  the  Cai^arieS,  landed  on 
tlte  isfanrd  of  G6ree,  6n  the  coast  of  Senegal;  wh6r6  h6 
made  a  vast  collection  of  specimens,  ahimaT,  vegetable, 
Md  mineral,  which  be  classified  and  described  in  a  man- 
ned #faich  he  thought  an  improvement  ori  the  systems  of 
To^rnefort  arid  Linnseus.  He  extended  bis  researches 
aSso  to  tbfe  climate,  geography,  and  manners  of  th6  people. 
Be  wiils  engaged  in  this  empfoyn^ent  for  five  y^ars,  en- 
tlwSy  af  ^lis  own  experice;  and,  in  1757,  published  the 
vtsnit  m  His  ^  Histoire  naturelle  de  Senegal,"  4to ;  an 
abridged  translation  of  which,  very  ill  executed',  was  pub- 
lished in  Loridon,  1759,  8v6.  His  classification  of  the 
7eSt8M^«r,  itt  this  work,  is  universally  allowed  to  be  ncsr 


148  A  D  A  N  S  O  Ni. 

I   - 

and  ingenious.     In   1756,   soon  after  his  return,   haviiig 
been  elected  a  corresponding  member  of  the  Academy  of 
Sciences,  he  read  a  paper  on   the  Baobab,  or  calabasl^ 
tree,  an  enormous  vegetable,   that  had  almost  been  ac- 
counted fabulous;  and  afterwards,  a  history  of  the  tree 
which  produces  Gum  Arabic.     He  would  not,  however, 
perhaps,  have  proceeded  in  these  studies,  had  it  notbeeiji 
for  the  generous  encouragement  afforded  him  by  M.  de 
Bombarde,  a  zealous  patron  of  science.     This  induced  hinir 
to  publish  his  "Families  des  Plantes,"  2  vols.  8vo,  1763^ 
a  work  of  vast  information,  and  which  would  have  created 
a  new  revolution  in  the  botanical  world,  had  not  the  genius 
of  Linnseus  been  predominant     But,  although  this  work 
was  neglected  at  the  time,  discoveries  have  since  been  ad- 
tranced  as  new,  which  are  to  be  found  in  it.     About  five 
years  after,  he  determined  to  give  a  new  edition,  and  had, 
made  the  necessary  corrections,  and  many  additions ;  but, 
while  employed  on  this,  he  conceived  the  more  extensive 
plan  of  a  complete  Encyclopaedia,  and  he  was  persuaded 
that  Lewis  XV.  would  encourage  such  an  undertaking. 
Flattered  by  this  hope,  he  devoted  his  whole  time  to  the ; 
collection  of  materials.     In  1775,  having  got  together  an 
immense  quantity,  he  submitted  them  to  the  Academy,., 
under  the  title  of  an  account  of  his  manuscripts  and  plates, 
from  1771  to  1775,  arranged  according  to  the  method  he 
discovered  when  at  Senegal,  in  1749.      These  consisted 
of,  1.  The  universal  order  of  Nature,  in  27  vols.  8vo.  2.  The 
natural  history  of  Senegal,  8  vols.  8vo.     3.  A  course  of 
natural  history.     4.  An  universal  vocabulary  of  natural 
history,  one  vol.  fol.  of  1000  pages.     5.  A  dictionary  of 
natural  history.     6.  Forty  thousand  figures,  and  as  many 
specimens  of  objects  already  known.     7.  A  collection  of 
thirty-fouj  thousand  specimens  of  his  own  collection.     It 
may  easily  be  conceived  that  the  academicians  were  asto-. 
nished  at  this  proposal ;  but  the  committee,  appointed  to 
examine  his  labours,  did  not  find  the  collection  equally 
valuable  in  all  its  branches,  and,  therefore,  he  did  not 
meet  with  the  encouragement  he  expected^     His  intentioa 
was  to  have  published  the  entire  work  at  once  ;  but  it  was 
thought  that,  if  he  had  published  it  in  parts,  he  might 
probably  have  been  successful.     He  published,  however,  a. 
second  edition  of  his  "  Families  of  the  Plants,'*  'which  is, 
in  fact,  an  encyclopaedia  of  botapy.     After  this,  he  pub- 
lished no  considerable  work,  but  furnished  some-papers  for 

A  D  A  N  S  O  N.  149 

the  Academy,  which  have  not  been  printed,  and  wrote 
the  articles  on  exotics  in  the  Supplement  to  the  Encyclo- 
psedia.  In  17>53,  he  laid  before  the  French  East  India 
Company  the  plan  of  forming  on  the  coast  of  Africa  a  co- 
lony, where  all  sorts  of  colonial  produce  might  be  culti- 
vated, without  enslaving  the  Negroes.  This  first  effort, 
however,  to  procure  the  abolition  of  the  slave-trade  was 
not  then  attended  to.  In  1760,  indeed,  when  the  English 
were  in  possession  of  Senegal,  they  made  him  very  liberal 
offers  to  communicate  his  plan,  which  he  refused,  from  a 
love  for  his  own  country.  He  was  equally  disinterested  in 
refusing  the  princely  offers  made,  in  1760,  by  the  emperor 
of  Germany,  and,  in  1766,  by  Catherine  of  Russia,  and, 
lastly,  by  the  king  of  Spain,  if  he  would  reside  in  their 
dominions.  In  France,  however,  he  frequently  travelled 
into  various  parts,  in  pursuit  of  his  favourite  science. 

In  1759,  he  was  appointed  royal  censor;  and  the  emo- 
luments of  thi3  place,  that  of  academician,  and  the  pen- 
sions successively  conferred  upon  him,  might  have  ren- 
dered him  easy  in  his  circumstances,  had  he  not  expended 
the  whole  in  collecting  materials  for  the  vast  plan  above- 
mentioned.  At  length,  the  Revolution  stripped  him  of 
all;  and,  what  hurt  him  more,  his  garden,  on  which  he 
bad  bestowed  so  much  pains,  was  pillaged.  When  the 
Institute  was  formed,  he  was  invited  to  become  a  member ; 
but  he  answered  that  he  could  not  accept  the  invitation, 
"as  he  had  no  shoes.^'  The  minister  of  the  interior,  how- 
ever, procured  him  a  pension,  on  which  he  s\ibsisted  until 
his  death,  August  3,  1806,  after  an  illness  of  six  months, 
which  confined  him  to  his  bed.  He  left  behind  him  an 
immense  number  of  manuscripts,  and  a  new  edition  of  his 
Fanrilies  of  the  Plants  is  now  preparing  for  the  press  by 
M.  Du-Petit  Thouars,  whose  account  of  his  life  is  here 
abridged.  According  to  M.  Thouars,  Adanson  was  a  man 
of  many  excellent  qualities,  an  indefatigable  student  and 
collector,  but  careless  of  dress  and  manners,  and  not  a 
little  conceited.  Although  in  his  seventy-ninth  year,  when 
on  his  death  bed,  he  amused  himself  with  the  hopes  of  re- 
covery, and  of  publishing  his  grand  encyclopedia.  In  his 
opinions,  and  particularly  where  he  differed  with  Linnaeus, 
he  was  most  obstinately  tenacious;  and  gave  a  curious  proof 
in  his  own  case.  Bernard  de  Jussieu,  pleased  with  his  ac- 
count of  the  Baobab,  would  have  named  that  genus  the 
Adansona;  but  Adanson  jivould  not  allow  it,  because  Linnseua 

IM  A  n  A  N  S  O  N.    , 

l|pspo.ur^  Vot;^iii4t4  with  ^nch  naii^ ;  vb^f^ea^  bis.  plail  Mfw 
to  give  to  n^w  pUats  the  oaoie  pf  the  country  which  pro** 
4uce(l  them  ifk  pieference  to  every  other-  StpevA  in- 
forms W  that  LiiiP9iis  ^id  of  Adanson,  ^^  be  U  either  mad 
or  intoii;icated ;''  hu(  QaUer  thought  him  a  ^^  riyal  wojrthf 
of  Linn»ui^*'  * 

ADDINGTON  (St«p«eh)»  D.  D.  a  disputing  <:lergym^(a 
of  considerable  leai^nin^,  was  born;  at  Northampton,  June 
9^  1729^  and  was  educated  under  Dr.  Doddridge,  whose 
manner  \n  the  pulpit  he  closely  followed  for  many  years* 
After  being  admitted  to  preach,  he  removed  in  1750,  ta 
Spaldwicl(  in  Hi^tipgdonshire ;  where,  in  175^  he  mar<* 
ified  am^  Beym^e^  of  Norwich,  a  lady  who  died  in  liSi  i,  at 
a  yery  advajp^ced  age.  A  few  weeks  after  his  marriage,  he 
was  called  to  be  mipister  of  a  congregation  of  dissenters  at 
Market  Harborough,  Leicestershire.  His  receiving  this  a^Kr 
pointment  was.  owing  to  a  singular  occurrence  in  the  his- 
tory of  popular  elections.  Two  candidates  had  appeared 
who  divided  the  congregation  sp  equally  that  a  compromise 
wai)  impossible,  unless^  by  each  party  giving  up  their 
faypmdte,  and  elec^ng  a  third  candidate,  if  one  could  be^ 
foun^  agreeable  to  all.  At  this  crisis  Mr*  Addijagton  waa 
repommended,  and  unanimously  chosen.  In  this  place  he 
remained  abont  thirty  years,  and  became  highly  popular 
to  bia  increasiAg  congregation  by  the  pious  discbarge  of 
his  paitf^aral  duties,  and  by  his  conci&ktory  manners^  In 
I7'5a[  he  opened  his  house  6>k  the  reception  of  pupils  to 
fill  up  a  vacancy  in.  the  neighbourhood;  of  Harborough,  oc«r. 
c^ipned  by  the  rev.  Mr.  Aikin's  removsd  to  Waxrington* 
This,  scheme  sncceeded  ;  and  for  many  years  he  devoted, 
nine  hours  each  day  to  the  instruction  of  his  pupils,  and. 
compiled  several  books  fpt  their  improvement ;  as,  l .  ^*  A 
system,  of  Arithmetic,^^  3  vols.  8vo,  2.  ^'  The  Rudimenta 
of  the  Greek  tongue,'*  176 1, 12mo.  3.  "  Ensebes  to  Phi-, 
letus ;  or  Letters  from  a  Father  to  his  Son,  on  a  devout 
%§mpi^  and  life^"  1761,  12nu).  4.  ^^  Maxims  religious 
Bi^  prudential,  with  a  Sermon  to  young  People,^'  12mo. 
S.  "The  Youth's  Geographical  Grammar,"  1770,  8vo. 
^  ^^'Qlissertation  on  the  religious  knowledge  of  the  ancient 
J^ews  and. Patriarchs;  to  which  is  annexed  a  specimen' of  n 
Greek  and  English  Concordance,"  1757,  4to;.  wJiich  he 
had;  a  design  of  completing,  if  his  health  and:  tinle  had  per** 

1  Biogcaphie  UaiTerseUe— Stoever's  Life  of  Unnaeas. 

A  D  D  I  N  G  T  O  N.  isi 

nittcd.  He  published  also,  ptrtly  in  the  country,  and 
partly  in  London,  some  occasional  funeral  and  other  ser-« 
mons ;  two  tracts  on  infant  baptism  ;  a  collection  of  psalm 
tunes,  and  another  of  anthems ;  and  his  most  popular  work> 
**The  Life  of  St.  Paul  the  Apostle,"  1784,  8vo.-^At 
length,  in  1781,  be  received  an  invitation  to  become  pastot 
of  the  congregation  in  Miles's-lane,  Cannon-street ;  and 
^oou  after  his  removal  thither  was  chosen  tutor  of  a  new 
dissenting  academy  at  Mile-end,  where  he  resided  until  his 
growing  infirmities,  occasioned  by  several  paralytic  strokes, 
obliged  him  to  relinquish  the  charge*  He  continued,  how* 
ever,  in  the  care  of  his  congregation  till  within  a  few 
months  of  his  decease,  when,  from  the  same  cause,  he  wa» 
compelled  to  discontinue  his  public  services^  He  died 
Feb.  6,  1796,  at  his  house  in  the  Minories.  In  London 
he  waa  neither  so  successful  or  popular  as  in  the  country  ; 
and  his  quitting  Harborough  after  so  long  a  residence  ap« 
pears  to  have  displeased  his  friends,  without  adding  to  bisP 
usefulhess  among  his  new  connections.  ^ 

ADDISON  (LANCELOT),  son  of  Lancelot  Ad<tison  a 
clergyman,  born  at  Mauidtsmeabume  in  the  parish  of 
Crosby  Ravensworth  in  Westmoreland,  in  1632,  wasedu* 
cated  at  the  grammar  school  of  Appleby,  and  afterwards' 
sent  to  QodM's  college,  Oitford,  upon  the  foun^tiOn.  H^ 
was  admitted  B.  A.  Jan.  25,  1654*,  and  M^  A«  Jiriy  4, 1657. 
As  he  now.had  greatly  distinguished  himself  in  the  univer- 
^ty,  he  was  chosen  one  of  the  terras  filii  for  die  act  ceie« 
brated  in  1658;  but,  bis  oration  aJ>ounding  in  personal 
satire  against  the  ignorance,  hypocrisy,  and  avarice  of  those 
dieiT  in  power,  he  was  compelled  to  make  a  recantation^, 
and  to  ask  pardon  on  his  knees*  Soon  after  he  left  Ox* 
ford,  and  retired  to  Petwonit  iu  Snssex,  where  he  resi<led 
till  the  restoration.  The  gentlemen  of  Sussex  baling  re-^ 
commended  him  to  Dr.  King,  bishop  of  Chester,  as  a  maii> 
who  had  suffered  for  bis  loyalty  and  attachment  to  the  con-^ 
stitution  of  church  and  state ;  the  bishop  received  him> 
kindly,  and  in  all  probability  would  have  preferred  hindl^' 
h»d  he  not^  contrary  to  his  lordship's  approbation,^  aGce|>t- 
ed  of  the  chaptainsbip  at  Dunkirk ;  where  he  continued- titt 
1-662,  when,  the  place  being  delivered  xxp  to  the  JPrenchy 
)ie  returned  to  England.  The  year  following  he  went 
chaplain  to  the  garrison  at  Tangier,  where  he  resided  some 

\  '(heologioal  aad  Protestaat  Dinenters  Magaeine,  vol.  IU.-«i43teBt,  Mag.  IISK 

152  ADDISON. 


years;  and  came  back  to^  England  in  1670^  with  a  r^solu^ 
tion  to  return  to  Tangier.  He  was  appointed  chaplain  in 
ordinary  to  his  majesty  soon  after  bis  coming  over;  but  had 
no  thoughts,  however,  of  quitting  his  chapiainship  at  Tan- 
gier, until  it  was  conferred  upon  another,  by  which  Mr.* 
Addison  became  poor  in  his  circumstances.  In  this  situa- 
tion of  his  aifairs„  a  gentleman  in  Wikchire  bestowed  on 
him  the  rectory  of  Milston,  in  Wilts,  worth  about  \20Lper 
annum.  Soon  after  he  was  also  made  prebendary  of  Minor* 
pars  altaris,  in  the  cathedral  of  Sarum ;  and  took  the  de« 
grees  of^B.  and  D.  D.  at  Oxford,  July  6,  1675.  His  pre- 
^rments,  though  not  very  considerable,  enabled  hirn  to 
live  in  the  country  with  great  decency  and  hospitality  ;  and 
he  discharged  his  duty  with  a  most  conscientipus  diligence. 
In  1683  the  commissioners  for  ecclesiastical  affairs,  in  con- 
sideration of  his  former  service  at  Tangier,  conferred  upon 
him  the  deanry  of  Lichfield,  in  which  he  was  installed,  July 
3';  was  collated  to  the  archdeaconry  of  Coventry  Dec.  8, 
1684,  and  held  it  with  his  deanry  in  commendam.  In  the 
convocation,  which  met  Dec.  4,  1689,  dean  Addison  was 
one  of  the  committee  appointed  by  the  lower  house  to  ac- 
quaint the  lords,  that  they  had  consented  to  a  conference- 
on  the  subject  of  an  address  to  the  king.  He  died  April 
20, 1703,  and  was  buried  in  the  church-yard  of  Lichfield^ 
at  the  entrance  of  the  west  door,  with  the  following  epitaph : 
'^  Hie  jacet  Lancelotus  Addison,  S.  T,  P.  hujus  ecdesiae 
decanus,  necnon  archidiaconas  Coventrise,  qui  obiit  t^D 
die  Aprilis,  ann.  Dom.  1703,  setatis  suae  71.''  He  was 
twice  married ;  first  to  Jane,  daughter  of  Nalbaniel  Guls-^' 
ton,  esq.,  and  sister  to  Dr.  William  Gulston,  bishop  of; . 
Bristol,  by  whom  he  had,  Jane,  who  died  ixt  her  infancy ;  • 
Joseph,  of  whom  in  the  next  article;  Gulston,  who  died  go-* 
vernor  of  Fort  St.  George  in  the  East  Indies ;  Dorothy, 
married  first  to  Dr.  Sartre,  prebendary  of  Westminster^  se<^  < 
condly  to  Daniel  Combes,  esq.;  Anne,  who  died  young; 
and  Lancelot,  fellow  of  Magdalen  college,  Oxford,  unr 
able  classical  scholar. 

Dean  Addison  published,  1.  "  West  Barbary,  or  a  short 
narrative  of  the  revolutions  of  Fez  and  .Morocco,".' 1671, 
8vo.  2.  "  The  present  State  of  the  Jews  .(more  particu- 
larly relating  to  those  in  Barbary),  wherein  is  contained  an  a 
exact  account  of  their  customs  secular  and  religious,  &€.**. 
1675,  8vo.  3.  "  The  primitive  Institution,  or  a  season* 
able  discourse  of  Catechizing."     4,  "A  modest  plea  fof 

ADDIS  ON.  153 


tbe  Clergy,*'  1677,  8vo.  5.  **  The  first  state  of  Mahomet- 
ism,  or  an  account  of  the  Author  and  doctrine  of  that  im- 
posture,^' 167S,  8vo;  reprinted  afterwards  under  the  titleof 
<^  The  Life  and  Death  of  Mahomet."  6.  ^^  An  introduction 
to.  the  Sacrament,  1681;  reprinted  in  1686  with  the  addi- 
tion of  "  The  Communicant's  Assistant/'  7.  **  A  dis- 
course of  Tangier,  under  the  government  of  the  earl  of 
Tiviot,"  4to,  1685,  second  edition.  8.  "  XPKTOIATTO- 
OEOD,  or  an  historical  account  of  the  heresy  denying  the 
Godhead  of  Christ ;"  one  of  the  best  books  that  had  then 
appeared  on  the  subject.  9.  '^  The  Christian's  daily  Sa- 
crifice, on  Prayer,"  1698,  12mo.  10.  *'An  account  of 
the  Millenium,  the  genuine  use  of  the  two  Sacraments, 
'&c."  And  some  have  attributed  to  him  ^^  The  Catechumen; 
or  an  account  given  by  a  young  Person  to  a  Minister 
of  his  knowledge  in  Religion,  &c."  1690,  12mo;  but  this 
appears  to  have  been  only  recommended  by  him  and  Dr. 
Scot. » 

ADDISON  (Joseph),  son  of  Dr.  Addison  mentioned  in 
the  last  article,  and  one  of  the  most  illustrious  ornaments 
of  his  time,  was  born  May  1,  1672,  at  Milston  near  Ambros- 
bury,  Wiltshire,  where  his  father  was  rector.  Appearing 
weak  and  unlikely  to  live,  he  was  christened  the  same  (|ay« 
Mr.  Tyers  says,  that  he  was  laid  out  for  dead  as  soon  as  he 
was  bqm.  He  received  the  first  rudiments  of  his  education 
at  the  place  of  his  nativity,  under  the  rev.  Mr.  Naish  ;  but 
was  soon  removed  to  Salisbury,  under  the  care  of  Mr.  Tay- 
lor ;  and  thence  to  Lichfield,  where  his  father  placed  him 
for  soitie  time,  probably  not  long,  under  Mr.  Shaw,  then 
master  of  the  school  there.  From  Lichfield  he  was  sent  to 
the  Charter-house,  where  he  pursued  his  juvenile  studies 
under  the  care  of  Dr.  Ellis,  and  contracted  that  intimacy 
with  sir  Rich.  Steele,  which  their  joint  labours  have  so  ef- 
fectually recorded^  In  1687  he  was  entered  of  Queen^s 
college  in  Oxford  ;  where,  in  1689,  the  accidental  perusal 
of  some  Latin  verses  gained  him  the  patronage  of  Dr.  Lan- 
caster, by  whose  recommendation  he  was  elected  into 
Magdalen  college  as  depiy.  Here  he  took  the  degree  of 
M.  A.  Feb.  14,  1693;  continued  to  culiivate  poetry  and 
criticism,  and  grew  first  eminent  by  his  Latin  compositions, 
which  are  entitled  to  particular  praise,  and  seem  to  have  had 
much  of  his  fondness ;  for  he  collected  a  second  volume  of 

I  Bio|;.  B|>itanmca<-Atb.  Ox.  yol  II.  p.  970. 

154  ADDISON. 

the  Mnsae  Angiicanaey  perhaps  £ir  a.ccmvenietit  t^eceptacle^ 
in  which  all  his  LaJUn  pieces  are  inserted,  and  where  hift 
poem  on  the  Peace  has  the  first  place.  He  afterward* 
presented  the  coUection  to  Boileau,  who  from  that  time 
conceiyed  ao  opinion  of  t^  English  genius  for  poetry«  In^ 
his  22dyear.he  first  shewed  his  power  of  English  poetry,  hf 
some  verses  addressed  to  Dryden;  and  soon  afterwards 
published  a  translation  of  the  greater  part  of  the  fourth 
Georgic  upon  B^s.  About  the  same  time  he  composed 
the  arguments  prefixed  to  the  serersd  books  of  DrydenV 
Virgil ;  and  produced  an  essay  on  the  Georgics,  juveoileit 
superfiicial^  and  nninstructire,  without  much  either  of  the 
scholar^s  learning  or  the  critic's  penetration.  His  next  paper 
Qfrerses  contained  a  character  of  the  principal  English 
poets^  inscribed  to  Henry  SadievercU^  who  was  tfaen^  if 
not  a  poet,  a  writer  of  versesi  as  is  shewn  by  bia  versiott  of 
a  small  part  of  Virgil's  Georgics,  publiedted  in  the  Miscet^ 
lanies,  and  a  Latin  encomium  on  queen  Mary^  in  the  Musae 
Anglicanae;  At  this  time  he  was  paying  his  addresses  to 
Sacheverell's  sister.  These  verses  exhibit  all  the  fondness^ 
of  friendship  ^  but,  on  one  side  or  the  other,  friendship  was^ 
t#o  weak  for  the  mahgnity  of  facticm.  in  this  poem  is;  a 
T.ery  confident  and  discrimmative  db»racter  of  Spenser, 
whose  work  he  bad  then  never  read.  It  is  necessary  to  in^ 
form  the  reader,  that  about  this  time  be  was  introduced  bjr' 
Congneve  to  Montague^  then  diancdh^r  of  the  excfaecpier : 
Addison  was  now  learning  the  trade  of  a  courtier,  anid  suds* 
joined  Montague  as  a  poetical  name  to  those  of  Cowley  and 
of  Dryden.  By  the  iniSuence  of  Mr.  B&mtague,  concurring 
with  his  natural  modesty,  be  was  direited  from  hi&  original 
dediga  of  entering  into  hdy  orders.  Moutague  alleged  the 
corruption  of  men  who  engaged  in  civil  employments  witlfr-' 
out  liberal  education ;  and  declared,  that,  though  he  wass^' 
represented  as  an  ei^my  to  the  church,  be  would:  nerer  do' 
it  any  injury  but  by  withholding  Addison  from  it.  Soon 
after^  in  1695,  be  wrote  a  poem  tx»  kin^  William,  usith  a 
kind  of  rhyming  introduction  addressed  to  lord  Sonsers* 
King  WiUdant  bad  no  regard  to.  elegance  or  lite^tuna  y  hn 
study  was  only  war ;  yet  by  a  choice  of  ministers  whose  dis"> 
position  was  v«ry  different  from  his  own,  he  pnieured; 
without  intention,  a  very  liberal  patronage  to  poetry.  Ad*' 
dison  was  caressed  both  by  Somersvand  Moutaigue.  Iw  Ld97 
he  wrote  his  poem  on  the  peace  of  Ryswick,  which  he  de«i 
dicated  to  Montague,  and  which  was*  afterwardscalled  by 

A  D  P  I  $  O  K  ISA 

Saiilb  ^^  t^e  bast  Lutitt  poem  mca  the  JEneid.^'  Hwring 
;q(  u^  public  employment,  he  obtaincKl  in  1 699  a  penaaon 
of  ^QO^.  a  year,  that  be  wight  be  enabled  to  travel.  He 
^id  a  year  at  Bloia,  probably  to  learn  the  French  language ; 
si^d  then  proceeded  in  his  journey  to  Italy,  which  he  8ur«» 
vpyed  with  the  eyes  of  a  poet.  While  he  wa3  travelling  at 
leisrure^  he  was  far  from  being  idle  ;  for  he  not  only  col- 
lected bis  observations  on  the  country,  but  found  time  ta 
wifite  his  Dialogues  on  Medals,  and  four  acts  of  Cato.  Such 
is  the  relation  of  Ticl^ell.  Perhaps  he  only  collected  his 
iBj^jtevials,  and  formed  his  plan.  Whatever  were  his  other 
^PQ^ployments  in  Italy,,  be  there  wrote  the  letter  to  lord 
^ahfs^x,  which  is  justly  considered  as  the  most  elegant,  if 
not  the  mpst  sublime,  of  his  poetical  productions.  But  in 
i^hout  two  years  he  found  it  necessary  to  hasten  home ; 
being,  as  Swift  informs  us,  ^*  distressed  by  indigence,  and 
compelled  to  become  the  tutor  of  a  travelling  squire.^'  At 
h^  retuim  he  published  his  travels,  with  a  dedication  to 
lord  Sonpers.  This  book,  thotigh  a  while  neglected,  is  said 
in  time  to  have  become  so  much  the  favonrite  of  the  pub* 
lick,  tiiat  before  it  was  repr],nted  it  rose  to  five  times  its  price. 
Ayhen  be  returned  to  England  in  1702,  with  a  meanness  of 
appearance  which  gave  testimony  to  the  difficulties  to.  which 
1^  had  been  reduced,  he  found  bis  old  patrons  out  of 
Pf^n^er ;,.  but.  he  remained  not  long  neglected  or  useless. 
The  victory  at  Blenbeim  1704  spread  triumph  and  confi-« 
dcMp^e  over  th^  nat^ioi^ ;  and  lord  Godolpbin,  lamenting  to 
l^ied  Hali&x  that  it  had'  not  been  celebrated  in  a  manner 
tE)(|4alit^  the  subject,  desired  him  to  propose  it  toscMoebet* 
t§r  poet.  Halifax  nassed  Addison;  who^  having  undeir- 
tak^ei^  tjbe  v^ork,  communicated  it  tfy  the  treasurer,  while  it 
W^  yet  a4v.9Med  no  fmsther  than  the  simiie  of  the  angel^' 
a^^waa  ia^i^ediat^ely  rewarded  by  succ^ding  Mr.  Locke 
191  the  place^of  commissioner  of  appeals.  la  the*  following' 
yie^ir  he  was  at  H^noxer  winib.  lord  Halifex ;  and  the  year 
a^car  ^^s  made  undei^s^cretary  of  state,  first  to  sir  Charles 
lledges,  and  in  a  few  months  more  to  the  eatl  of  Sitnder^ 
I^^d..  AbQut  this  time,  the  prevalent  taste  fbo  Italiah  operaa 
inclining  him  to  try  what  would  be  the  effect  of  a  musical 
dw9>a  m.  oiir  own-  lapgua^e ;  he  wrote  the  opera  of  Rosa- 
mond, whicb,«  w^n  exhibited  on  the  stage,  waa  either 
hissed:  Qp  n^leqt^ ;  but,  trust;ing  that  the  Maulers  would 
dp  biil^'i^^^  justice,  he  published  it,  with  an  inscription  t<» 
tiiQ  4Hfib6ss  q{.  Marlborough*    His.  reputation  had.  bee* 

156  Addison. 

gmnewhat  advanced  by  The  Tender  Husband,  a  comedy^ 
ivfaich  Steele  dedicated  to  bim,  with  a  confession  that  he 
owed  to  hjm  several  ot  the  most  successful  scenes.  To  this 
phiy  Addison  supplied  a  prologue.  When  the  marquis  of 
Wbaiton  was  appointed  lord  lieutenant  of  Ireland, '  Addison 
attended  him  as  his  secretary  ;  and  was  made  keeper  of  the 
records  in  Bemiingham's  tower,  with  a  salary  of  SCO/,  a 
year.  The  office  was  little  more  tlian  nominal,  and  the 
salary  was  augmented  for  his  accommodation.  When  he 
•was  in  office,  he  made  a  law  to  himself,  as  Swift  has  record- 
ed, never  to  remit  his  regular  fees  in  civility  to  his  friends  : 
— r-"  I  may  have  a  hundred  friends  ;  and  if  my  fee  be  two 
guineas,  I  shall  by  relinquishing  my  right  lose  200  guineas, 
and  no  friend  gain  more  than  two."  He  was  in  Ireland 
when  Steele,  without  any  communication  of  his  design, 
began  the  publicatrion  of  the  Tatler ;  but  he  was  not  long 
concealed  :  by  inserting  a  remark  on  Virgil,  which  Addisont 
had  given  him,  he  discovered  himself.  Steele's  first  Tatler 
was  published  April  22,  1709,  and  Addison's  contribution 
appeared  May  26.  1'ickell  observes,  that  the  Tatler  be- 
gan and  was  concluded  without  his  concurrence.  This  is 
doubtless  literally  true  ;  but  the  work  did  not  suffer  much 
by  his  unconsciousness  of  its  commencement,  or  his  ab- 
sence at  its  cessation  ;  for  he  continued  his  assistance  to 
Dec.  23,  and  the  paper  stopped  on-  Jan.  2.  He  did  not 
distinguish  his  pieces  by  any  signature. 
'  To  the  Tatler,  in  about  two  months,  succeeded  the 
Spectator;  a  series  of  essays  of  the  same  kind,  but  written 
with  less  levity,  upon  a  more  regular  plan,  and  published 
daily.  Dr.  Johnson's  account  of  these  essays,  and  of  the 
rise  of  periodical  papers  is  too  vahiable  to  be  omitted  here. 
'^  To  teach  the  m^inuter  decencies  and  inferior  duties,  to 
regulate  the  practice  of  daily  conversation,  to  correct  those 
depravities  which  are  rather  ridiculous  than  criminal,  and 
remove  those  grievances  which,  if  they  produce  no  lasting 
calamities,  impress  hourly  vexation,  was  first  attempted  in 
Italy  by  Casa  in  his  Book  of  Manners,  and  Castiglione  in 
his  Courtier,  two  books  yet  celebrated  in  Italy  for  purity 
and  elegance. 

"  This  species  of  instruction  was  continued,  and  perhaps 
advanced,  by  the   French;    among  whom   La  Bruyere's 
Mannersof  the  A^e,  though  written  without  connection, 
deserves  great  praise.     Before  the  Tatler  and  Spectator,  \i' 
the  writers  for  the  theatre  are  excepted,  England  bad  bq- 

A  I>  D  I  St  O  N-  t5t 

masters  of  common  life.  No  writers  had  yet  undertakea 
to  reform  either  the  savageuess  of  neglect,  or  the  imperti* 
nence  of  civility  ;  to  teach  when  to  speak,  or  to  b^  sUent ; 
how  to  refuse,  or  how  to  comply.  We  wanted  not  books 
to  teach  us  more  important  duties,  and  to  settle  opinipn^  in 
philosophy  or  politics;  but  an  arbiter  elegant  iarum^  a  Judge 
of  propriety,  was  yet  wanting,  who  should  survey  the  track 
of  daily  conversation,  and  free,  it  from  thorns  and  prickles, 
which  tease  the  passer,  though  they  do  not  wound  him. 
For  this  purpose  nothing  is  so  proper  as  the  frequent  pub- 
Ucation  of  short  papers,  which  we  read  not  as  study  but 
amusement.  If  the  subject  be  slight,  the  treatise  likewise 
is  short.  The  busy  may  find  time,  and  the  idle  may  find 

"  The  Tatler  and  Spectator  reduced,  like  Casa,  the  un- 
settled practice  of  daily  intercourse  to  propriety  and  polite- 
ness y  and,  like  La  Bruyere,  exhibited  the  characters  and 
manners  of  the  age. 

^^  But  to  say  that  they  united  the  plans  of  two  or  three 
eminent  writers,  is  to  give  them  but  a  small  part  of  their 
due  praise;  they  superadded  literature  and  criticism,  and 
sometimes  towered  far  above  their  predecessors,  and  taught, 
with  great  justness  of  argument  and  dignity  of  language, 
the  most  important  duties  and  sublime  truths." 

The  year  1713,  in  which  Cato  came  upon  the  stagre, 
was  the  grand  climacteric  of  Addison's  reputation.  Upon 
the  death  of  Cato,  he  had,  as  is  said,  planned  a  tragedy  in  « 
the  time  of  his  travels,  and  had  for  several  years  the  four 
first  acts  finished,  which  were  shewn  to  such  as  were  likely 
to  spread  their  admiration.  By  a  request,  which  perliaps 
he  wished  to  be  denied,  he  desired  Mr.  Hughes  to  add  a 
fifth  act.  Hughes  supposed  him  serious ;  and,  undertaking 
the  supplement,  brought  in  a  few  days  some  scenes  for  his 
examination  ;  but  he  had  in  the  mean  time  gone  to  work 
himself,  and  produced  half  an  act,  which  he  afterwards 
completed,  but  with  brevity  irregularly  disproportionate  to 
the  foregoing  parts.  The  great,  the  important  day  came 
on,  when  Addison  was  to  stand  the  hazard  of  the  tbeati:e. 
That  there  might,  however,  be  left  as  little  to  hazard  as 
was  possible,  on  the  first. night  Steele,  as  himself  relates, 
undertook  to  pack:  an  audience.  The  danger  was  soon 
over.  The  whole  nation  was  at  that  time  on  fire  with  fac-^ 
tion.  The  whigs  applauded  every  line  in  which  liberty 
was  mentioned,  as  a  satire  on  the  tories ;  and  the  tories 

U«  A  d  D  t  6  O  I^. 

echoed  evtty  elap,  to  shew  that  the  satire  iMcls  uAfelt.  Wh^fl 
it  was  printed,  notice  was  given  that  the  queen  would  he 
pleased  if  it  was  dedicated  to  her ;  **  but  as  he  had  desigti- 
ed  that  compliment  elsewhere,  he  found  himself  obliged,'^ 
says  Tickell,  '*  by  his  doty  on  the  one  hand,  and  his  ho-»' 
Ikoor  on  the  other,  to  send  it  into  the  worid  without  any 

At  the  publication  the  wits  seemed  proud  to  pay  theif 
attendance  with  encomiastic  verses.     The  best  ar^  from  atl. 
unknown  hand,  which  will  perhaps  lose  somewhat  of  theit* 
praise  when  the  author  is  known  to  bfe  Jeffreys.     Cato  had 
yet  other  honours.     It  was  censured  sis  a  party  plsly  by  a 
scholar  of  Oxford,  and  defended  in  a  favourable  exatnina- 
tion  by  Dr.  Sewel.     It  was  translated  by  Salvini  into  Ita-* 
lian,  and  acted  at  Florei\ce ;  and  by  the  Jesuits  of  St.  Otner's 
into  Latin,  and  played  by  their  pupils.     While  Cato  wafc^ 
upon  the  stage,  another  daily  paper,  called  the  Guardian, 
was  published  by  Steele;  to  which  Addison  gave  greslt- 
assistaiice.    Of  thi^  paper  nothing  is  necessary  to  be  said, 
but  that  it  found  many  contributors,  and  that  it  was  acon-^ 
tinuation  of  the  Spectator,  with  the  same  elegance,  and  the 
same  variety^^  till  some  unlucky  spark  from  a  tory  papef 
set  Steele^s  {>d)itics  on  fire,  and  wit  at  once  blazed  inta 
faction.     He  was  soon  too  hot  for  neutral  topics,   and 
quitted  the  Guardian  to  write  the  Englishman.  The  papers 
of  Addison  are  marked  in  the  Spectator  by  orre  of  ,th<i  let- 
ters in  the  name  of  Clio,  and  in  the  Guardian  by  a  hand. 
Many  of  these  papers  were  written  with  powers  truly  6omic, 
with  nice  discrimination  of  characters,  an  accurate  obser- 
vation of  natural  or  accidental  deviations  firom  propriety ; 
but  it  was  not  supposed  that  he  tried  a  confiredy  on  the' 
stage,  till  Steele,  after  his  death,  declared  him  die  atithof 
of  "  The  Drummer  ;*'  this  however  he  did  not  know  to  be 
true  by  any  cogent  testimony ;  for  when  Addis(Mr  put  ther 
play  into  his  hail^,  he  only  told  him  it  was  the  wor(^  of  a 
gentleman  in  the  compai^y  ;  and  wheit  it  was  feceivefd,  as  isK 
confessed,  with  cold  disapprobatioh,  he  was  probaMy  less" 
willing  to  claim  it.     Tickell  bmittedf  it  in  his  coUeCtiiori ; 
but  the  testimony  of  Steele,  and  the  tdtal  silence  of  auy 
other  claimant,  have  determined  the  public  to  assigii  it  to' 
Addison,  and  it  is  now  printed  with  his  other  poetry.  Steele 
carried    "The  Dnimmer**  to  the  playhouse,  and  after- 
wards to  the  press,  and  soM  the  copy*  for  iO  gtiineas.    To* 
the  opinion  of  Steele  may  be^  added  tib^e  ptoof  supplied  hf 


tk^  play  itself,  of  which  the  characters  are  such  as  Addiflon 
would  have  delineated,  and  the  tendency  such  as  Addison 
would  have  promoted.  He  was  not  all  this  time,  an  indif« 
ferent  spectator  of  public  affairs.  He  wrote,  as  different 
exigencies  required,  in  1707,  ^^  The  present  state  of  the 
War,  and  the  necessity  of  an  augmentation  ;*'  which,  how-* 
ever  judicious,  being  writterf  on  temporary  topics^  and  ex« 
bibiting  no  peculiar  powers,  has  naturally  sunk  by  its  own 
v^ight  into  neglect.  This  cannot  be  said  of  the  few 
papers  intituled  ^^The  Whig  Examiner,^'  in  which  is  exhibit* 
td  all  the  force  of  gay  malevolence  and  humorous  satire. 
Of  this  paper,  which  ju)st  appeared  and  expired,  Swift  re- 
marks, with  exultation,  that  **  it  is  now  down  among  the 
dead  men.'*  His  "Trial  of  count  Tariff,"  written  to  ex- 
pose the  treaty  of  commerce  with  France,  lived  no  longet 
than  the  question  that  produced  it. 

Not  long  afterwards  an  attempt  was  made  to  revive  th« 
Spectator,  at  a  time  indeed  by  no  means  favourable  to 
literature,  when  the  succession  of  a  new  family  to  the  throne 
ilied  the  nation  with  anxiety,  discord,  and  confusion ;  and 
either  the  turbulence  of  the  times  or  the  satiety  of  the 
leaders  put  a  stop  to  the  publication,  after  an  experimenli 
of  SO  numbers,  which  were  afterwards  collected  into  an 
eighth  volume,  perhaps  mote  valuable  than  any  one  of 
tbos6  that  went  before  it :  Addison  produced  more  than  a 
fourth  part,  and  the  other  contributors  are  by  no  means 
unworthy  of  appearing  as  his  associates.  The  time  that 
had  passed  during  the  suspensio\i  of  the  Spectator,  though 
it  had  not  lessened  his  power  of  humour,  seems  to  have  in- 
creased his  disposition  to  seriousness :  the  proportion  of 
kis  religious  to  his  comic  papers  is  greater  than  in  the  for* 
mer  series.  The  Spectator,  from  its  recommencement, 
was  published  only  three  times  a  week,  and  no  discrimina- 
tive marks  were  added  to  the  papers.  To  Addison  Tickell 
has  ascribed  23.  The  Spectator  had  many  contributors ; 
and  Steele,  whose  negligence  kept  him  always  in  a  tmrry, 
when  it  was  his  turn  to  furnish  a  paper,  called  loudly  for 
the  letters,  of  which  Addison,  whose  materiak  were  more, 
made  little  use;  having  recourse  to  .sketches  and  hiiity, 
tile  product  of  his  former  studies,  which  he  now  reviewed 
and.^  completed :  among  these  are  named  by  Tickell  the 
•*  Essays  on  Wit,*' those  on  the  "  Pleasures- of  the  Imagina- 
tion," and  the  "  Criticism  on  Milton." 

When  the  bouse  of  Hltnover  took  possessigii  ^f  tim 




AD  D  1  S  O  N, 

tbfone,  it  wis  reasoDable  to  expect  that  the  zeal  of  Addisoft 
would  be  suitably  rewarded.  Before  the  arrival  of  king 
George  be  was  made  secretary  to  the  regency,  and  was 
required  by  his  office  to  send  notice  to  Hanover  that  th^ 
queen  was  dead,  and  that  tbe  throne  was  vacant.  To  do 
this  would  not  have  been  difficult  to  any  man  but  Addison^ 
vrho  was  so  overwhelmed  with  :the  greatness  of  the  event, 
and  so  distracted  by  choice  of  expression,  that  the  lords, 
who  could  not  wait  for  the  niceties  of  criticism,  called  Mr.  ^ 
Southwell,  a  clerk  in  tbe  house,  and  ordered  him  to  dispatch 
the  message.  Southwell  readily  told  what  was  necessary, 
in  the  common  style  of  business,  and  valued  himself  upon 
having  done  what  was  too  hard  for  Addison.  He  was  hetter 
qualified  for  the  Freeholder,  a  paper  which  'he  published 
twice  a  week,  from  Dec.  23,  1715,  to  the  niiddle  of  the 
next  year.  This  was  undertaken  in  defence  of  the  esta*- 
blished  government,  sometimes  with  argument,  sometimes 
with  mirth.  In  argument  he  had  many  equals ;  but  his 
humour  was  singular  and  matchless. 

On  the  2d  of  August  1716,  he  married  the  countess 
dowager  of  Warwick,  whom  he  had  solicited  by  a  very  long, 
^nd  anxious  courtship.  He  is  said  to  have  first  known  h^r 
by  becoming  tutor  to  hdr  son.  The  marriage,  if  uncontra- 
dicted report  can  be  credited,  made  no  addition  to  his, 
happiness ;  it  neither  found  them  nor  made  them  equaL 
She  always  remembered  her  own  rank,  and  j^ught  herself 
intitled  to  treat  with  very  little  ceremony  ihe  tutor  of  her 
son.  It  is  certain  that  Addison  has  left  behind  him  no  en« 
couragement  for  ambitious  love.  The  year  after,  1717, 
he  rose  to  his  highest  elevation  :  being  made  secretary  of 
state  :  but  it  is  universally  confessed  that  he  was  unequal 
to  the  duties  of  his  place.  In  the  House  of  Commons  he 
could  not  speak,  and  therefore  was  useless  to  the  defence 
of  the  government.  In  the  office  he  could  not  issue  an 
ord^r  without  losing  his  time  in  quest  of  fine  expressions. 
What  he  gained  in  rank  he  lost  in  credit ;  and  finding,  by 
experience,  his  own  inability,  was  forced  to  solicit  his  dis- 
mission, with  a  pension  of  1500/.  a  year.  His  friends  pal-  . 
liated  this  relinquishment,  of  which  both  friends  and  enemies 
knew  the  true  reason,  with  an  account  of  declining  health, 
and  the  necessity  of  recess  and  quiet.  He  now  returned  to 
his  vocation,  and  began  to  plan  literary  occupations  for  his 
future  life.  He  proposed  a  tragedy  on  the  death  of  So* 
crates ;  a  story  of  which,  as  Tickell  remarks,  the  basi9  ii| 

ADDISON.  161 

tmrrow,  and  to  which  love  perhaps  could  not  easily  have 
been  appended.  He  engaged  in  a  noble  work,  a  defence 
of  the  Christian  religion,  of  which  part  was-pubtished  aftei: 
his  death  ;  and  he  designed  to  have  made  a  new  poetical 
version  of  the  Psalms.  It  is  related  that  he  had  once  a 
design  to  make  an  English  dictionary,  and  that  he  consi« 
dered  Dr.  Tillotson  as  the  writer  of  highest  authority. 
Addison,  however,  did  not  conclude  his  life  in  peaceful 
studies ;  but  relapsed,  when  he  was  near  his  end,  to  st 
political  question.  It  happened  diat,  in  1719,  a  con- 
troversy was  agitated,  with  great  vehemence,  between 
those  friends  of  long  continuance,  Addison  and  Steele* 
The  subject  of  their  dispute  was  the  earl  of  Sunderland's 
memorable  act,  called  "  The  Peerage  bill,"  by  which  th^ 
number  of  peers  should  be  fixed,  and  the  king  restrained 
from  any  new  creation  of  nobility,  unless  when  an  pld 
family  should  be  extinct.  Steele  endeavoured  to  alarm  the 
nation  by  a  pamphlet  called  "  The  Plebeian  :'*  to  this  an 
answer  was  published  by  Addison  under  the  title  of  *'  The 
Old  Whig.'!  Steele  was  respectful  to  his  old  friend^ 
though  he  was  now  his  political  adversary ;  but  Addison 
could  not  avoid  discovering  a  contempt  of  his  opponent,  to 
whom  he  gave  the  appellation  of  '^  Little  Dicky."  The 
bill  was  laid  aside  during  that  session,  and  .Addison  died 
before  the  next,  in  which  its  commitment  was  rejected. 
Every  reader  surely  must  regret  that  these  two  illustrious 
friends,  after  so  many  years  passed  in  confidence  and  endea^-* 
ment,  in  unity  of  interest,  conformity  of  opinion,  and  fel- 
lowship of  study,  should  finally  part  in  acrimonious  oppo- 
sition.—The  e^d  of  this  useful  life  was  now  approaching. 
Addison  had  for  some  time  been  oppressed  by  shortness  of 
breath,  which  was  now  aggravated  by  a  dropsy;  and  find- 
ingj  his  danger  pressing,  he  prepared  to  die  conformably 
to  his  own  precepts  and  professions.  During  this  linger- 
ing decay,  he  sent,  as  Pope  relates,  a  message  by  the  earl 
of  Warwick  to  Mr.  Gay,  desiring  to  see  him.  Gay,  who 
had  not  visited  him  for  some  time  before,  obeyed  the 
aummons,  and  found  himself  received  with  great  kindne$9. 
The  purpose  for  which  the  interview  had  been  solicited  was 
then  discovered :  Addison  told  hini,  that  he  had  injured 
him ;  but  that,  if  he  recovered,  he  would  recompense  him. 
What  the  injury  was  he  did  not  explain,  nor  did  Gay  ever 
know;  but  supposed  that  some  preferment  designed  for 
him  had  by  Addison^s  intervention  be^n  withheld. 
Vol.  I.    *  M 

162  AD  D  I  S  O  N. 

Lord  Warwick  was  a  young  man  of  very  irregular  life, 
and  perhaps  of  loose  opinions.  Addison,  for  whom  he  did 
not  want  respect,  had  very  diligently  endeavoured  to  re-^ 
claim  him ;  but  his  arguments  and  expostuls^tions  had  no 
^ffect;  one  experiment,  however,  remained  to  be  tried. 
When  he  found  his  life  near  its  end,  he  directed  the  young 
lord'  to  be  called ;  and,  when  he  desired,  with  great  ten-^ 
derness,  to  hear  his  last  injunctions,  told  him,  ^*  I  have 
ftent  for  you  that  you  may  see  how  a  Christian  can  die.'* 
What  effect  this  awful  scene  had  on  the  earl's  behaviour 
is  not  known  :  he  died  himself  in  a  short  time.  Having 
given  directions  to  Mr.  Tickell  for  the  publication  of  his 
works,  and  dedicated  them  on  his  death-bed^  to  his  friend 
Mr.  Craggs,  he  died  June  17,  1719,  at  Holland- house, 
leaving  no  child  but  a  daughter,  who  died  in  1797,  a^  BiU 
ton,  near  Rugby,  in  Warwickshire. 

Of  the  course  of  Addison's  familiar  day,^  before  his  mar- 
riage, Pope  has  given  a  detail.     He  had  in  the  house  with 
him  Budgell,  and  perhaps  Philips.     His  chief  companions 
were  Steele,  Budgell,  Philips,  Carey,  Davenant,  and  col. 
Brett.     With  one  or  other  of  these  he  always  breakfasted. 
He  studied  alt  morning;  then  dined  at  a  tavern,  and  went 
afterwards  to  Button's.     From  the  coffee-house  he  went 
again  to  the  tavern,  where  he  often  sat  late,  and  drank  too 
much  wine.     Dr.  Johnson^s  delineation  of  the  character  of 
Addison  concludes  by  observing  with  Tickell,  that  he  em- 
ployed wit  on  the  side  of  virtue  and  religion.     He  not  only 
made  the  proper  use  of  wit  himself,  but  taught  it  to  others ; 
and  from^  his  time  it  has  been  generally  subservient  to  the 
cause  of  reason  and  trutb.    He  has  dissipated  the  prejudice 
that  had  long  connected  gaiety  with  vice,  and  easiness  oi 
manners  with  laxity  of  principles.  He  has  restored  virtue  to 
its  dignity,  and  taught  innocence  not  to  be  ashamed.  Thb  is 
an  elevation  of  literary  character,  "  above  all  Greek,  above 
all  Roman  fame."     No  greater  felicity  can  genius  attain 
than  that  of  having  purified  intellectual  pleasure,  sepairated 
mirth  from  indecency,    and  wit  from-  licentiousness ;  of 
having  taught  a  succession  of  writers  to. bring  elegance  and 
gaiety  to  the  aid  of  goodness ;  and,  to  use  expressions  yet 
more  awful,  of  having  "turned  many  to  righteousness.*' 
As  a  descrlber  of  life  and  manners,  he  must  be  allowed  ta 
stand  perhaps  the  first  of  the  foremost  rank.     His  humour, 
which,  as  Steele   observes,  is  peculiar  to  himself,  is  so 
happily  diffused  as  to  give  die  grace  of  novelty  ta  domestic 

ADDISON.  163 


scenes  and  daily  occurrences.  He  never  "outsteps  the 
modesty  of  nature,V  nor  raises  merriment  or  wonder  by 
the  violation  of  truth.  His  figures  neither  divert  by  dis* 
tortion,  nor.  amaze  by  aggravation.  He  copies  life  with 
so  much, fidelity,  that  he  can  be  hardly  said  to  invent :  yet. 
his  exhibitionii  have  an  air  so  much  original,  that  it  is  dif- 
ficult to  suppose  them  not  merely  the  product  of  imagTna- 
tion.  As  a  teacher  of  wisdom  he  may  be  confidently  fpU 
lowed.  His  religion  has  nothing  in  it  enthusiastic  or  su- 
perstitious ;  he  appears  neither  weakly  credulous  nor  wan- 
tonly sceptical ;  his  morality  is  neither  dangerously  lax, 
nor  impracticably  rigid.  All  the  enchantment  of  fancy  and 
all  the  cogency  of  argument  are  employed  to  recommend 
to  the  reader  his  real  interest, .  the  care  of  pleasing  the 
Author  of  his  being.  Truth  is  shewn  sometimes  as  (he 
phantom  of  a  vision,  sometimes  appears  half*veiled  in  to 
allegory ;  sometimes  attracts  regard  in  the  robes  of  fancy, 
and  sometimes  steps  forth  in  the  oonfidence  of  reason.  She 
wears  a  thousand  dresses,  and  in  all  is  pleasing—"  MilU 
habet  ornatiiSy  mille  decenter  habeV^ 

His  prose  is  the  n^odel  of  the  middle  style ;  on  gravQ 
subjects  not  formcal,  on  light  occasions  not  grovelling; 
pure  without  scrupulosity,  and  exact  without  apparent 
elaboration ;  always  equable,  and  always  easy,-  without 
glowing  words  or  pointed  sentences.  Addison  n€ver  de« 
viates  from  his  tracl^.to  snatch  a  grace;  he  seeks  no  am- 
bitious ornaments,  and  tries  no  hazardous  innovations.  His 
page  is  always  luminous,  but  never  blazes  in  unexpected 
splendour.  It  seems  to  have  been  his  principal  endeavour 
to  avoid  all  harshness  and  severity  of  diction  ;  he  is  there- 
fore sometimes  verbose  in  hi^  transitions  and  connections^; 
and  sometimes  descends  too  much  to  the  language  of  con- 
versation y  yet  if  his  language  had  been  less  idiomatical,  it 
might  have  lost  somewhat  of  its  genuine  Anglicisni.  What 
he  attempted,  he  performed  ;  he  is  never  feeble,  he 
did  not  wish  to  be  energetic ;  he  is  never  rapid,  and  be 
never  stagnates.  His  sentences  have  neither  studied  am- 
plitude, nor  affected  brevity :  his  periods,  though  not  di- 
ligently rounded,  are  voluble  and  easy.  Whoever  wished 
to  attain  an  English  style,  familiar  but  not  coarse,  and 
elegant  but  not  ostentatious,  must  give  his  days  and  nights 
to  the  volumes  of  Addison.  ^ 

1  This  life,  which  appeared  in  the  preceding  edition  of  this  Dictioirary,  b  sr 
abridgement  of  that  written  by  Dr.  Johnson  for  the  Engl'uib  P90t»«    lo  th«  tiCMift 

M  2  ' 

1«4  A  D  E  L  B  O  L  D. 


ADELBOLD,  bishop  of  Utrecht,  was  boi*n  aboat  the 
end  of  the  tenth  century,  of  a  noble  family  in  the  bishop- 
tick  of  Liege,  wherfe,  and  at  Rheims,  he  was  educated, 
and  acquired  so  much  reputation,  that  Henry  II.  of  Ger- 
many invited  him  to  his  court,  admitted  him  in  his  council^ 
made  him  chancellor,  and  at  last  bishop  of  Utrecht.  These 
promotions  appear  to  have  inspired  him  with  an  ambi- 
tion unbecoming  his  office,  and  some  of  his  years  were 
spent  in  a  kind  of  plundering  war  oni  account  of  certain 
possessions  which  he  claimed  as  his  right.  His  latter  days 
were  more  honourably  employed  in  promoting  learning, 
and  in  founding  churches  in  his  diocese.  He  erected  the 
cathedral  of  Utrecht,  of  which  a  part  still  remains,  and  de- 
dicated it  in  the  presence  of  the  Emperor.  His  acti^ty  in 
advancing  the  prosperity  of  the  bishoprick  ended  only  with 
his  life,  Nov.  27,  1027.  His  chief  literary  work  was  a  life 
of  his  benefactor  Henry  II.  with  a  judicious  preface  on  the 
qualifications  of  an  historian ;  and  from  his  fidelity  and  ex- 
actness, it  has  been  regretted  that  a  part  only  of  this  work 
was  completed.  It  was .  published  first  in  the  ^*  Lives  of 
the  Saints  of  Bamberg,'*  by  Gretser,  1611,  and  afterwards 
by  Leibnitz  in  *'  Script,  rer.  Brunswic."  He  wrote  also  a 
treatise  **  de  ratione  inveniendi  crassitudinem  Spherse,'* 
printed  by  B.  Pez,  in  the  third  volume  of  his  "  Thesaurus 
Anecdotorum.**  His  life  of  St.  Walburgh,  and  some  other 
worksy  are  still  in  manuscript.  His  style  is  clear,  easy, 
and  even  elegant,  and  entitles  him  to  rank  among  the  best 
Writers  of  his  age. ' 

edition  of  the  Biographia  Britannicft  are  many  additional  particulars,  and  am 
able  defence  of  Addison  from  the  charges  of  Pope,  by  Mr.  Justice  Blackstone. 
Beferences  may  also  be  made  for  future  collections  respecting  the  life  and 
writings  of  ^Addison,  to  the  British  Essayists,  Prefttces  to  vol.  I.  VI.  and  JCVI. 
-^Swift's  and  Pope's  works,  /^M^ifft.— BoswelPs  Life  of  Johnson  and  Tour.— - 
Victor's  VITorks,  Vol.  I.  p.  87,  88,  328-9.— Lord  Orford's  Works,  vol.  IV.  p.  453. 
—Nichols's  Poems.—- Dr.  Johnson's  Works^  pafn'm-^Many  letters  and  anecdotes^ 
in  theOent  |kfag.'i<-Beattie*s  Dissertations,  p.  198, 632. — Forbes's  Lifeof  Beattie. 
•— Whiston's  Life.— -Malone's  Dryden,  vol.  1.  495,  540.-— Seward's  Anecdotes, 
▼ol.  II.  281.— Hutchinson's  Hist,  of  Cumberland,  vol.  H.  358.— Blair's  Lectures 
€>n  RheU>ric.«^ibber*s  Lives.— Richardson's  Correspondencc-r-Ruffhead's  Life 
of  Pope,  p.  109,  142—150,  312,  4to  edit.— Warburton's  Letters.  His  works 
)iave  been  so  often  reprinted,  that  it  is  now  impossible  to  reckon  the  editions. 
The  best,  probably,  is  the  last,  published  in  six  vols.  Svo,  with  the  notes  of  the 
jate  venerable  Dr.  Hurd,  bishop  of  Worcester.  Many  particulars  respecting 
Addison  will  likewise  be  found  in  the  octavo  editions  of  the  Tatler,  Spectator, 
and  Guardian,  and  in  the  authorities  referred  to  in  the  preceding  works. 

>  MorcTJ.-^Biographie  Universelle,  IB ih— Cave,   vol.  IL— Saxii  Onoaas* 

A  D  £  L  B  U  R  N  £  R.  l$f 

ADELBURNER  (Michael),  a  mathematician  and  phy- 
aicjan,  was  born  at  Nuremberg,  in  1702.  He  was  at  first 
intended  for  his  father's  business,  that  of  a  bookseller,  but 
appears  to  have  gone  through  a  regular  course  of  study  at 
Altdorf.  In  1735,  he  published  his  ^^  Commercium  liter 
rarium  ad  Astronomia^  incrementum  inter  hujus  scientise 
amatores  communi  consilio  institutum,''  Nuremberg,  8vo; 
ivhich  procured  him  the  honour  of  being  admitted  a  mem- 
ber of  the  royal  academy  of  Prussia.  In  1743  he  was 
invited  to  Altdorf  to  teach  mathematics,  and  three  years 
after  was  made  professor  of  logic.  He  died  in  1779.  He 
published  also  a  monthly  work  on  Celestial  Phqpomen^  in 


APELMAN,  bishop  of  Brescia,  whose  name  has  been 
handed  down  with  much  honour  by  Roman  catholic  writers, 
flourished  in  the  1 1th  century.     He  was  at  first  clerk  of  the 
church  of  Liege  ;  and  then  president  of  the  schools.     He 
had  studied  at  Chartres  under  the  celebrated  Fulbert,  and 
had  for  his  schoolfellow  the  no  less  celebrated  Bereuger, 
to  whom  he  wrote  a  letter  endeavouring  to  reconcile  him 
to  the  doctrine    of    transubstautiation.     This  appears  to 
have  been  about  1047.     In  1048  he  was  appointed  bishop 
of  Brescia,  where  he  died,  according  to  some,  in  1057, 
or  according  to  others,  in  1061.     His  letter  to  Berenger 
was  printed  for  the  first  time  at  Louvain,  with  other  piece$ 
on  the  same  subject,  in  1551 ;  and  reprinted  ia  1561,  8vo. 
It  has  also  appeared  in  the  different  editions  of  the  Biblioth. 
Patrum.    The  canon  Gagliardi  printed  a  corrected  editipUf 
with  notes,  at  the  end  of  the  sermons  of  St.  Gaudentiu^ 
•Padua,  1720,  4to.     The  last  edition  ivas  by  C.  A.  Schmid, 
Brunswic,  1770,  *8vo,  with  Berenger^s  answer,  and  other 
pieces  respecting  Adelman.  Adelman  likewise  wrote  a  poem 
*^  De  Viris  illustribus  sui  temporis,''  which  Mabillon  printed 
•in  the  first  volume  of  his  Analecta. ' 

ADELUNG  (John  Christopher),  a  learned  German 
grammarian,  and  miscellaneous  writer,  was  born  Aug.  3Q, 
1734,  at  Spantekow,  in  Pomerania  ;  and  after  studying 
,  some  time  at  Anclam  and  Closterbergen,  finished  bis  edu- 
cation at  the  university  of  Halle.  In  1759  he  was  appointed 
professor  of  the  academy  of  Erfurt,  which  be  relinquished 
about  two  years  after,  and  settled  at  Leipsic,  w^ere,  icL  . 

'  }  Morcri.^-Biographie  UDiTfrselle,<«»Saxii  Onomatticon««»CaT(| 

166  A  D  E  L  U  N  G. 

I787|  he  11^  made  Kbrsrian  to  the  elector  of  Dresden  ; 
Itndherehe  ^ed  of  a  hemorrhoidal- complaint,  Sept.  iO^ 
1806^)  aged  72,  aocording  to  our  authority ;  but  the  Diet. 
Hist,  fixes  his  birth  in  1732,  which  makes  him  two  years 
t>lder«  •  Adehing    performed   for  the   German   language 
what  i^e  French  academy,  and  that  of  De  la  Criisca,  have 
done  lor  the  French  and  Italian.     His  ^^  Grammatical  and 
<L)ritical  Dictionary,''  Leipsic,   1774 — 1786,  5  vols.  4to,  a 
^ork  of  acknowledged  merit  and  vast  labour,  has  been  al- 
ternately praised  and  censured  by  men  of  learning  in  Ger- 
inakny ;  some  say  that  it  excels  Dr.  Johnson's  dictionary  of 
the  English- language  in  its  definitions  and  etymologies, 
.  but  falls  short  of  it  in   the  value  of  his  authorities.     This 
latter  defect  has  been  attributed  either  to  the  want  of  good 
authors  in  the  language  at  the  time  he  was  preparing  his 
work,  or  to  his  predilection  for  the  writers  of  Upper  Sax- 
ony.     He  considered  the  dialect  of  the  margraviate  of 
Misnia  as  the  standard  of  good  German,  and  rejected  every 
4thing  that  was  contrary  to  the  language  of  the  better 
classes  of  society,  and  the  authors  of  that  district.     It  was 
diso  his  opinion  that  languages  are  the  work  of  nations, 
and  not  of  individuals,  however  distinguished ;  forgetting 
that  the  language  of  books  must  be  that  of  men  of  learning. 
'Voss  and  Campe  in  particular  reproached  him  for  the 
omissioite  in  bis  work,  and  his  partiality  in  the  choice  of 
Authorities.     In  1793*-^1301,   a  new  edition   appeared  in 
4  vols.  4 to,  Leipsic,  with  additions,  but  which  bore  no 
•proportion  to  the  improvements  that  had  been  made  in 
the  language  during  the  interval  that  elapsed  from  the 
publicisition  of  the  first. 

Adelung's  other  works  are:  1.  ^' Glossarium  manuale 
ad  scriptoresmediietinfimeB  Latinitatis,"  Halle,  1772 — 84, 
6  vols}.  8vo,  an  abridgement  of  Du  Cange  and  Charpentier. 
2.  Three  "  German  Grammars :"  the  first  is  a  treatise  on 
the  origin,  changes,  structure,  &c.  of  the  language,  Leip^ 
•^ic,  1782,  2  irols.  8vo;  the  two  others  are  school-books, 
and  have  been  often  reprinted.  3.  "  A  treatise  on  the 
German  Style,'*  Berlin,  1785,  1788,  1790,  2  vols.;  es- 
' teemed  one  of  the  best  books,  in  any  language,  on  the 
philosophy  of  rhetoric,  4.  *^*  Jceciier's  Dic- 
tionary of  Literary  Men,"  1784  ^nd  1787,  2  vols.  4to;  this 
goes  no  farther  than  letter  I.  5. "  History  of  Human  Folly,  or 
the  Lives  of  the  most  celebrated  Necromancers,  Alchymists, 
Exorcists,  Diviners,  &c."  in  seven  parts,  Leipsic,   1785 

AD  E  LU[  N  G.  167 

to  1789.  6.  ^^  A  species  of  Cyclopedia  of  all  the  Sciences^ 
Arts,  and  Manufactures,  which  contribute  to  the  comforts 
of  hunaan  life,"  four  parts,  Leijteic,  1778,  1781,  1788;  a 
work  of  great  accuracy,  and  very  comprehejisive.  7.  **  Es-f 
say  on  the  history  of  the  Civilization  of  Mankind,"  Leipsic^ 
1782,  178S.  8.  "The  history  of  Philosophy,"  3  vols, 
ibid.  1786,  1787,  8vo.  9.  "  Treatise  on  German  Ortho-, 
graphy,"  8vo>  1787.  Many  of  the  best  German  writers^ 
and  AVieland  among  the  rest,  have  adopted  his  principles 
in  this  work;  and  their  example,  in  the  opinion  of  hist 
biographer,  may  supply  the  want  of  the  decisions  of  an 
academy,  or  national  centre  for  improvements  in  language* 
10.  "  The  history  of  the  Teu tones,  their  language  and 
literature  before  the  general  migration,"  Leipsic,  1806, 
8vo.  1 1.  "  Mithridate,  or  a  universal  table  of  Languages, 
with  the  Lord's  Prayer  in  one  hundred  languages,"  Ber- 
lin, 1806,  Svo.  The  first  volume  of  this  work,  i^hich 
contains  the  Asiatic  languages,  was  printed  immediateiy 
before  his  death ;  the  second,  comprizing  the  languages 
of  Europe,  was  completed  and  published  in  1809,  by  an 
eminent  philologist,  M.  John  Severin  Vater,  then  prQ-» 
fessor  at  Halle^  now  at  Konigsberg,  who  has  aU.o.  promi^e^ 
a  third  volume.  These  two  last  works  are  inferior  to  those 
published  by  Adelung  in  his  younger  days;  but  hi§  Mithri* 
date  is  thought  superior  to  the  work  which  Conrad  Gessnex 
published  under  the  same  title  about  two  centuries  before* 
It  must  be  observed,  however,  that  this  does  not  ^i^tract 
from  that  Author^s  merit,  as  Adelung  had  not  only  Gess-? 
ner's  work  before  him,  but  the  improvements  of  two  cen- 
turies on  the  subject. 

Until  near  his  death,  he  devoted  14  hours  every  day 
to  study  aiid  composition,  so  that  his  life  affords  little  va- 
riety of  event.  He  was  never  married ;  and  it  was  said  of 
him  that  his  writing-desk  was  his  wife  ;  and  his  children, 
70  volumes,  great  and  small ;  all  the  produce  of  his  pen. 
He  loyed  the  pleasures  of  the  table,  and  wines  were  the 
only  article  in  which  he  was  expensive.  His  cellar,  which 
he  used  to  call  his  Bibliotheca  selectissima,  contained  40 
kinds  of  winej  yet,  amidst  this  plenty,  his  strength  of 
constitution,  and  gaiety  of  spirit,  enabled  him  to  sustain 
his  literary  labours  without  injury  to  his  health.  He  ap- 
pears, upon  the  whole,  to  have  been  one  of  the  most  la- 
borious and  useful   of  the  modern  German  writers,   an4 

1.68  A  D  E  L  U  N  G. 

justly  deserves  the  character  be  ha,s  received  from  his  coh<# 
temporaries.  *  ^ 

ADEMAR)  or  AYMAR,  a  monk  of  St.  Martial,  bom  in 
the  year  9S8,  rendered  himself  famous,  by  the  active  part 
be  took  in  the  dispute  respecting  the  pretended  apostleship 
of  St.  Martial,  but  is  now  known  chiefly  by  his  ^^  Chronicle 
of  France"  from  the  origin  of  the  monarchy  to  1029.  This, 
although  neither  exact  in  chronology,  or  in  proper  ar-r 
rangement  of  the  events,  is  said  to  be  very  useful  to  French 
historians  in  what  follows  the  time  of  Charles  Martel.  I^ 
was  published  by  Labbe  in  his  "  Nouvelle  Bibliotheque 
des  Manuscripts,^*  and  in  other  collections  of  French  history, 
Mabillon,  in  his  "  Analecta,"  has  given  the  famous  letter  of 
Ademar^s  on  the  apostleship  of  St.  Martial,  and  some 
verses  or  acrostics. ' 

ADENEZ  (Le  Roi),  a  writer  of  romance  in  the  13tl^ 
century,  and  probably  so  called  from  often  wearing  the 
laurel  crown,  was  minstrel  to  Henry  III.  duke  of  Brabani; 
and  Flanders.  In  La  Valiiere's  collection  of  MSS.  are  se- 
veral nietrical  romances  by  this  author :  1.  "  The  romance 
of  William  of  Orange,"  surnamed  Short-nose,  constable 
of  France.  •  There  are  some  extracts  from  tliis  in  CatePs 
history  of  Languedoc.  2.  ^f  The  romance  of  the  Infancy 
of  Ogier  the  Dane,"  written  in  rhyme  by  order  of  Guy 
earl  of  Flanders.  Of  this  are  several  translations  pub« 
lished  in  the  16th  century.  3.  "The  romance  of  Cleo- 
mades,"  'written  by  order  of  Maria  of  Brabant,  daughter 
of  his  patron.  This,  translated  into  prose  by  Philip  Ca- 
mus, has  been  several  times  printed ;  at  first,  without 
date,  at  Paris  and  Troyes;  and  at  Lyons,  1488,  4tO; 
4.  ^*  The  romance  of  Aymeri  of  Narbonne."  5.  "  The 
romance  of  Pepin  and  Bertha  his  wife ;"  the  facts  taken 
from  the  chronicles  in  the  abbey  of  St.  Denis.  A  sequel 
to  this  was  written  by  Girardin  of  Amiens,  as  the  "  Romance 
of  Charlemagne,  son  of  Bertha."  6.  "  The  romance  of 
Buenon  of  Commarchis,"  the  least  esteemed  of  all  his 
productions,  perhaps  from  the  insignificance  of  his  herQ« 
The  time  of  the  death  of  Adenez  is  not  known. ' 

ADER  (William),  a  physician  of  Toulouse,  author  of  a 
treatise  printed  under  the  title :  "  De  aBgrotis  &  morbis 
in  Evangelio,"  Tolosae,    1620,   and   1623,    4to.     In  this 

*       .  • 

1  Biographic  Universelle.— Diet.  Historique. 

^  Biog.  Universelle. — Cave,  vol.  IL— ^Saxii  OaomastlceiVk 

?  Moreri.— Biog.  Universelie.—- Diet.  Hist. 

A  D  E  R.  I«9 

piece  lie  examines,  whether  the  maladies  which  our  Savioac 
removed  could  have  been  healed  by  medicine^  and  decides 
in  the  negative  ;  maintaining  that  the  infirmities  healed  by 
the  Messiah  were  incurable  by  the  physician's  art.  W^ 
are  told  by  Vigneul  Marrille  that  Ader  was  said  to  have 
composed  this  book  merely  to  efface  the  remembrance'  of 
another  in  which  he  had  maintained  the  contrary.  He 
published  also  '^  De  Pestis  cognilione,  prwvisione,  et  re« 
mediis,''  ibid.  1628,  8vo ;  and  a  macaronic  poem  in  four 
books  in  honour  of  Henry  IV.  under  the  title  '^  Lou  Geii'* 
tilhomme  Gascoun,  1610/'  Svo ;  and  another  **  Lou  Ca- 
tounet  Gascoun/'  1612,  Svo.  He  lived  at  the  beginning 
of  the  17th  century.  He  wa^  a  man  of  profound  eru<* 
dition.  ^ 


ADIMANTUS,  a  heretical  writer,  who  probably  flou- 
rished about  the  latter  end  of  the  third  century,  was  a 
zealous  promoter  of  the  Manichsean  doctrine.  He  wrote 
a  book  against  the  authority  of  the  Old  Testament,  which 
was  much  valued  by  the  Manichees,  and  was  answered  by 
Augustine.  The  work  is  lost,  but  the  atl^wer  remains. 
He  appears  to  have  been  sometimes  called  Adpas,  although 
most  writers  suppose  Addas  to  have  been  a  different  per- 
son. Additional  information  respecting  him  may  be  found 
in  Lardner's  Works,  vol.  Ill,  pp.  393,  395,  430. 

ADIMARI  (Alexander),  an  Italian,  poet,  a  descendant 
from  the  ancient  family  of  Adimari,  at  Florence ;  was 
born  in  1579.  Between  1637  and  1640  he  published  six 
collections  of  fifty  sonnets  each^  under  the  names  of  six 
of  tlie  muses :  Terpsichore,  Clio,  Melpomene,  Calliope, 
Urania,  and  Polyhymnia,  which  partake  of  the  bad  taste  of 
his  age,  in  forced  sentiments  and  imagery  ;  but  he  was  an 
accomplished  scholar  in  the  Greek  and  Latin  languages*. 
His  translation  of  Pindar,  <^  Ode  di  Pindaro,  tradotte  da 
Alessandro  Adimari,"  Pisa,  1631,  4to,  is  principally  va** 
lued  for  the  notes,  as  the  author  has  been  very  unfortunate 
in  transfusing  the  spirit  of  the  original.  In  the  i^opsis, 
he  appears  indebted  to  the  Latin  translation  of  Erasmus 
$chmidt.  Of  his  private  history  we  only  know  that  he 
lived  poor  and  unhappy,  and  died  in  1649.^ 

ADIMARI  (Lewis),  a  satiriclal  poet  of  the  same  family 
with  the  preceding,  was  born  at  Naples,  Sept.  3,  1644^ 

.    1  B'log.  UoiTertelle.— Did.  Hist. 

*  Gen.  D&t.  Bayle.^Bio^raphi*  Um7er^jg]le;^Dict.  Uist  18 10, 

170  A  D  I  M  A  R  I. 

and  edveated  at  the  university  of  Pisai  where  the  cele^ 
brated  Luca  Terenzi  was  his  tutor.  He  visiteJ,  when 
young,  the  difierent  courts  of  Italy,  and  wos  beloved  fof 
bis  talents  and  accomplishments.  He  received  from  the 
duke  Ferdinand  Charles  of  Mantua,  the  title  of  marquis^ 
and  gentleman  of  his  chamber.  He  was  also  member  of 
t))e  academy  of  Florence,  of  De  la  Crusca,  and  many  othev 
learned  societies.  He  succeeded  the  famous  Redi  'as  pro* 
£essor  of  the  Tuscan  language  in  the  academy  of  Florence, 
afid  was  likewise  professor  of  chivalry  in  that  of  the  nobles^ 
HI  which  science  his  lectures,  which  he  illustrated  with 
apposite  passages  from  ancient  and  modern  history,  were 
highly  esteemed^  These  were  never  printed,  but  manu*- 
script  copies  are  preserved  in  several  of  the  libraries  o# 
Florence.  His  only  prose  work,  a  collection  of  rel^ions 
pieces,  was  published  at  Florence,  1706,  small  4to,  under 
the  title  **  Prose  sacre.**  •  His  poetry  consists  of :  1.  *<  Son- 
nets and  other  lyric  pieces,''  and  among  them,  a  collec- 
tion of  Odes  or  Can^oni,  dedicated  to  Louis  XIV,  and 
magnificently  printed  at  Florence,  1693.  2.  Some  ^'  Dra« 
mas,"  one  of  which  **^Le  Gare  dell'  Amore  et  dell'  Amicitia,** 
Florence,  1679,  12mo,  is  so  rare  as  to  be  unnoticed  by 
any  historian  of  Italian  literature.  3.  ^*  Five  Satires,"  on 
which  his  fame  chiefly  rests ;  very  prolix,  but  written  iis 
an  elegant  style ;  and  as  to  satire,  just  and  temperate^ 
except  where  he  treats  of  the  fair  sex.  He  died  at  Flo- 
rence, after  a  tedious  illness,  June  22,  1708.  * 

ADIMARI  (Raphael),  born  at  Rimini  about  the  close 
of  the  16th  century,  devoted  his  pen  to  the  history  of  his 
native  country,  which  appeared  at  Brescia  in  2  vols.  4to,' 
1616,  under  the  title  of  **  Sito  Riminense."  This  history 
is  in  tolerable  repute,  though  the  Italians  prefer  to  it  that 
of  Clementini.  • 

Ai)LER  (Philip),  an  engraver  of  the  16th  century,  was 
a  German,  Ijut  we  have  no  account  of  his  life,  nor  is  it 
known  from  whom  he  learned  the  art  of  engraving,  or  ra-» 
ther  etching,  for  he  made  but  little  use  of  the  graver  in 
bis  works.  At  a  time  when  etching  was  hardly  di&covered^ 
and  carried  to  no  perfection  by  the  greatest^  artists,  he 
produced  such  plates  as  not  only  far  excelled  all  that  went 
before  him,  but  laid  the  foundation  of  a  style,  which  his 
imitators  have,  even  to  the  present  time,  scarcelyjmproved» 

I  Biogrnphie  Univenelle.  ^  Diet.  Hist  ISIO,  ^ 


A  D  L  £  R.  17t 

His  point  is  firm  and  determined,,  and  the  sbadows  broad 
and  perfect  Although  his  drawing  is  incorrect,  and  his 
draperies  stiff,  yet  he  appears  to  haye  founded  a  school 
to  which  we  owe  the  Hopfers,  and  even  Hollar  himself^* 
Mr.  Strott  notices  only  Mo  plates  now  known  by  him, 
both  dated  1518.  In  one  of  them  he  is  styled  Pbilipas 
Adier  Patricius.  * 

^ADLERFELDT  (GasTAVUs),  born  n^ar  Stockholm  in 
1671,  studied  with  great  applause  in  -the  university  of  ^ 
Upsal,  and  then  made  the  tour  of  Holland,  England,  and 
Fiance,  On  his  return  Charles  XH.  gave  him  the  placft 
of  a  gentleman  of  his  chamber.  Adlerfeldt  accompanied 
this  ptiuce  both  in  his  victories  and  his  defeats,  and  pro- 
fited by  the  access  be  had  to  this  monarch,  in  the  compila«> 
tion  of  his  history.  It  is  written  with  all  the  exactitude 
that  might  be  expected  from  an  eye-witness.  This  Swedish 
officer  was  killed  by  a  cannon  ball  at  the  battle  of  Pultow% 
in  1709;  It  is  on  this  famous  day  that  his  memoirs  con-> 
elude.  A  French  translation  of  them  was  made  by  hisson^ 
9nd  printed  in  4  vols«  12mo,  at  Amsterdam  in  1740.  The. 
continuation,  giving  an  account  of  the  fatal  battle,  was 
written  by  a  Swedish  officer.' 

ADLZREITER  (John),  of  Tottenweiss,  chancellor  to 
the  elector  of  Bavaria,  was  born  at  Rosenheim,  1596,  stu^ 
died  at  Munich  and  Ingolstadt,  and  served  the  house  of 
Bavaria  on  many  important  occasions.  He  is  now  chiefly 
known  by  his  ^*  Annaies  Boicas  gentis.^*  This  work,  drawn 
from  authentic  sources,  contains  the  history  of  Bavaria 
from  the  earliest  period  to  the  year  1662,  when  it  was  pub- 
lished at  Munich.  Laibnitz  republished  it  in  1710.  The 
author  died  about  the  time  his  work  hrst  appeared,  in 

ADO,  St.  archbishop  of  Vienhe,  in  Dauphiny,  was 
bom  in  Gastinois,  about  the  year  800,  of  an  ancient  fa* 
mily.  He  was  educated  in  the  abbey  of  Kerrieres,  wheoe 
he  embraced  a  monastic  life,  and  afterwards  passed  some 
time  in  the  monastery  of  Prum,  but  meeting  with  some 
unpleasa^it  circumstances  there,  be  went  to  Rome,  where 
be  spent  five  years  in  amassing  materials  for  the  works 
which  he  afterwards  wrote.  On  his  return  he  was  em«- 
ployed  by  Remi,  archbishop  of  Lyons,  in  his  diocese,  and 
was  elected  archbishop  of  Vienne  in  the  year  860.     His 

^  Strutt*8  DictioDaiy.   s  Moreri.— Diet.  HisU-— Biographie  Uoiverselle.    '  Ibid. 


1713  A  DO. 

vigilance  over  bis  clergy,  his  care  in  the  instrnctiou  of  hi# 
fiocky  bi$  frequent  visitations  throughout  hi$  province,  and 
the  humility  and  purity  of  his  private  life,  distinguished 
hiin  in  an  age  not  remarkable  for  these  virtues.     He  ap* 
pears  to  have  been  consulted  alsQ  in  affairs  of  state,  when 
be  gave  his  opinion,  and  urged  his  remonstrances  with 
firmness  and  independence.     He  died  Dec.  16,  875.     He 
is  the  author  ofj  1.  "An  Universal  Chronicle,"  from  J^e 
creation  of  the  world,  Avhich  has  been  often  cited  as  au«- 
thority  for  the  early  history  of  France.     It  was  printed  at 
Paris^   i4fl2,  1522,  fol.   1561,  dvo;  and  at   Rome,    1745> 
fol.     2.  "  A  Martyrology,".  better  arranged  than  any  pre^ 
ceding,  and  enriched  by  the  lives  of  the  saints.     It  waft 
printed  by  Rosweide,   Antwerp,    1613;  and  Paris,  164^^^ 
fol. ;  and  ^  is  inserted  in  the  Bibliotheque  des  Peres.     He 
also  wrote  the  life  pf  St.  Didier^  which  is  in  Canisius ;  and 
that  of  St.  Theudier,  which  is  in  the  ^^  Acta  Sanctorum.*' ' 
-   ADRETS  (FRANgois  de  Beaumont,  Baron  des),  of 
an  ancient  family  in  Daupbiny,  and  a  bold  and  enterplris- 
ing  spirit,  *was  born  in  1513.     After  having  served  in  the 
army  with  great  distinction,  he  espoused  the  cause  of  the 
Huguenots  from  resentment  to  the  duke  of  Guise  in  1562. 
He  took  Valence,  Vienne,  Grenoble,  and  Lyons,  but  signal- 
ized himself  less  by  bis  prowess  and  his  activity  than  by  his 
i^trocious  acts  of  vengeance.     The  Catholic  writers  say,  that 
in  regard  to  persons  of  their  communion  he  was  what 
Nero  had  been  of  old  to  the  primitive  Christians.     He  put 
his  invention  to  the  rack  to  find  out  the  most  fantastic  pu* 
nishments,  and  enjoyed  the  barbarous  satisfaction  of  in- 
flicting them  on  all  that  fell  into  his  hands.     At  Montbri- 
son  and  at  Mornas,  the  soldiers  that  were  made  prisoners 
^ere  obliged  to  throw  themselves  from  the  battlements 
upon  the  pikes  of  his  people.     Having  reproached  one  of 
these  wretches  with  having  retreated  twice  from  the  leap 
>  without  daring  to  take  it :  ^^  Mons.  le  baron,''  said  the  sol- 
dier, **  with  all  your  bravery,  I  defy  you  to  take  it  in  three.** 
The  composed  humour  of  the  man  saved  his  life.    His 
conduct  was  far  from  being  approved  even  by  the  most 
violent  of  his  party ;  admiral  Coligny  and  the  prinqe  of 
Conde  were  so  shocked  at  his  cruelties,  that  the  goyem* 
ment  of  Lyons  was  taken  from  him ;  and  piqued  at  this, 
Des  Adrets  was  upon  the  point  of  turning  Catholic ;  but 
be  was  seized  at  Romans,  and  would  have  been  brought  to 

1  Biog.  UiuTerselle  &  Saxii  OnoiDa8t<«-Oave^— Fabric.  Bibl.  Lat.  Med.  iEtati» 

A  D  tt  E  T  a.  iti 

l^e  scaffold^  if  the  peace,  just  then  concluded,  had  not 
saved  him.  He  afterwards  put  his  design  in  execution^ 
and  died  despised  and  detested  by  both  parties,  Feb.  2,' 
1587.  He  left  two  sons  and  a  daughter,  who  bad  no  issue* 
Some  time  before  his  death,  Des  Adrets,  being  at  Greno*^ 
bte,  where  the  duke  de  Mayenne  then  was,  he  wanted  (a 
revenge  the  affronts  and  threats  that  Pardaillan  had  given 
him  on  account  of  the  murder  of  bis  father.  He  repeated 
several  times,  tliat  he  had  quitted  his  solitude  to  convince 
&U  such  as  might  complain  of  him,  that  his  sword  was  not 
grown  so  rusty  but  that  it  could  always  right  him*  PardaiU 
Ian  <lid  not  think  himself  obliged  to  take  any  notice  of  this 
bravado  of  a  swordsman  then  in  his  74th  year :  and  De» 
Adrets  went  back  again  content  with  bb  rhodoraon* 
tade.  The  ambassador  of  Savoy  once  meeting  him  on  the 
high  road  alone,  with  only  a  stick  in  his  hand,  was  sur- 
prised at  seeing  an  old  man,  notorious  for  his  barbarous 
executions,  walking  without  a  companion  and  quite  de- 
fenceless, and  asked  bim  of  his  welfare.  '*  I  have  nothings 
to  say  to  you,"  answered  Des  Adrets  coldly,  "  unless  it  be 
to  desire  you  to  acquaint  your  master,  that  you  met  the 
baron  des  Adrets,  his  very  humble  servant,  on  the  high 
road,  with  a  white  stick  in  his  hand  and  without  a  sword, 
and  that  nobody  said  any  thing  to  him."  One  of  the  sons 
of  the  baron  des  Adrets  was  engaged  in  the  massacre  of  St. 
Bartholomew.  He  had  been  page  to  the  king,  whd  ordered 
him  one  day  to  go  and  call  his  chancellor.  The  magistrate, 
who  was  then  at  table,  having  answered  him,  that  as  soon 
as  he  had  dined  he  would  go  and  receive  the  commands  of 
his  majesty  :  "  What !"  said  the  page,  **  dare  you  delay  a 
moment  when  the  king  commands  ?  Rise,  and  instantly 
begone  !"  Whereupon  he  took  hold  of  the  tabl<e-cloth  by 
one  corner,  and  drew  the  whole  of  the  dinner  down  upon 
the  floor.  M.  de  la  Place  relates  this  anecdote  (rather  im- 
probable it  must  be  confessed)  in  his  ^^  Pieces  interes* 
santes,"  tom.  IV ;  and  adds,  that  the  story  being  told  to 
Charles  IX.  by  the  chancellor,  the  monarch  only  laughed^ 
and  said  '^  that  the  son  would  be  as  violent  as  the  father/* 

To  this  day  the  name  of  Adrets  is  never  pronounced  in 

Dauphiny  without  horror.  —  Such  the  story  usually  reported 
of  this  extraordinary  character ;  but  it  is  said  that  Maim** 
bourg,  Brantome,  Moreri,  and  Daniel  have  given  some 
exaggerated  accounts  of  hi$  cruelties.     Thuanus  has  justir 

ir4i  A  D  R  E  T  S. 

jfied  htm  {torn  some  of  the  accusations,  and  particularly  in 
affair  of  Momas,  where  he  was  not  present.  * 

ADRIA  (John  James),  the  historian  of  Mazara  in  Sicily,- 
and  a  very  eminent  physician,  who  studied  Latin  at  Mazara, 
rhetoric  at  Panorma,  and  philosophy  and  medicine  at  Na-> 
pies,  under  the  celebrated  Augustine  Niphus.  He  took 
Itis  doctor's  degree  at  Saiemum  in  1510.  He  afterwards 
practised  physic  with  great  success  at  Palermo,  and  was 
made  a  burgess  of  that  city.  Charles  V.  a.fterwards  ap- 
pointed him  to  be  his  physician,  and  physician -general  of 
Sicily.  He  died  in  1560.  His  history  is  entitled  "  Topo^ 
graphia  inclytsB  civitatis  Mazaris?,^'  Panorm.  1515,  4to« 
He  wrote  also  some  medrcal  treatises  on  the  plague^  ok^ 
bleeding,  on  the  baths  of  Sicily ;  and  ^^  Epistola  ad  Con* 
jugem,**  a  Latin  poem,  Panorm.  1 5 1 6.  * 

ADRIAN,  an  author  of  the  5th  century,  composed  in 
Greek  an  Inti*oduction  to  the  Scriptures,  printed  at  Augs- 
burg in  1602,  4to,  by  Hoeschelius.  A -Latin  translation 
of  it  may  be  seen  in  the  Opuscula  of  Louis  Lollioo,  1650, 

ADRIAN,  an  ingenious  and  learned  Carthusian  monk,  is 
Ae  author  of  a  treatise  entitled  **  De  remediis  utriusque 
fortunae,'*  the  first  edition  of  which,  published  jCt  Cologn, 
1467,  4to,  is  the  most  scarce  and  valuable;  the  second 
bears  date  1471,  4to;  the  third  was  printed  at  Cremona, 
1492,  foL  In  order  to  avoid  confounding  this  treatise 
with  that  of  Petrarch  on  the  same  subject,  it  is  necessary 
to  know  that  the  title  says :  ^^  per  quendam  Adrianum  poe- 
tam  preestantem,  necnon  S.  Th.  professorem  eikimium.'* 
•Jo  particulars  are  known  of  his  birth  or  death.:* 

ADRIAN,  or  HADRIAN  (Publius  iELius),  the  Roman 
emperor,  was  bom  at  Rome  Jan.  24,  in  the  year  of  Christ 
76.  His  father  left  him  an  orphan,  at  ten  years  of  age, 
under  the  guardianship  of  Trajan,  and  Cselius  Tatianus,  a 
Roman  knight  He  began  to  serve  very  early  in  the 
armies,  having  been  tribune  of  a  legion  before  the  death 
of  Domitian.  He  was  the  person  chosen  by  the  army  of 
Lower  Mcesia,  to  carry  the  news  of  Nervals  death  to  Tra- 
jan, successor  to  the  empire.  The  extravagances  of  his 
youth  deprived  him  of  this  emperor^s  favour ;  bat  having 
lecovered  it  by  reforming  his  behaviour,  he  was  married 

I  Gen.  Diet,  in  art.  Beaumont. — ^Biographie  Uniyersdle.-— Uis  lifis  hf  Alks^ 
1675,  12mo^  and  by  J.  C.  Martin,  1803,  8vo. 
t  Mangati  BiU.  >  Diet.  Hist^^-CaTe.  «  Ibid. 

A  D  R  I  AN.  175 

to  Sabina,  a  grand  niece  of  Trajan^  and  the  empress  PIo-' 
tina  became  his  great  friend  and  patroness.     When  he  was 
qasestor,  he  delivered  an  oration  in  tlie  senate ;  but  bia 
language  was  then  so  rough  and  unpolished,  that  h^  wua 
hissed  :  this  obliged  him  to  apply  to  the  study  of  the  Latia 
tongue,  in  which  he  afterwards  became  a  great  proficient^ 
and  made  a  considerable  figure  for  his  eloquence.     He  ac* 
companied  Trajan  in  most  of  bis  expeditions,  and  particu- 
larly distangitished  himself  in  the  second  war  against  the 
Daci ;  and  having  before  been  quaestor,  as  well  as  tribuna 
of  the  people,  he  was  now  successively  praetor,  governor 
of  Panuonia,  and  consul.     After  the  siege  of  Atrain  Arabia 
was  raised,  Trajan,  who  had  already  given  him  the  govern- 
.  ment  of  Syria,  left  him  the  command  of  the  army ;  and  at 
length,  when  he  found  death  approaching,  it  is  said  he 
adopted  him.     The  realit}'  of  this  adoption  is  by  some  dis- 
puted, and  is  thought  to  have  been  a  contrivance  of  Pio- 
tina;    however,  Adrian,  who  was   then  in   Antiochia,  ai 
floon  ^  he  received  the  news  of  that,  and  of  Trajan^s 
deati),  declared  himself  emperor  on  the  nth  of  August^ 
117.     fie  then  immediately  made  peace  with  the  Persians, 
to  whom  he  yielded  up  great  part  of  the  conquests  of  his 
predecessors  ;  and  from  generosity,  or  policy,  he  remitted 
the  debts  of  the  Roman  people,  which,  according  to  the' 
calculation  of  those  who  have  reduced  them  to  modem 
money,  amounted  to  122,^00,000  golden  crowns;  and  he 
caused  to  be  burnt  all  the  bonds  and  obligations  relating^  td 
those  debts,  that  the  people  might  be  under  no   appre- 
hension of  being  called  to  an  account  £or  them  afterwards. 
He  went  to  visit  all  the  provinces,  and  did  not  return  to 
Home  till  the  year  118,  when  the  senate  decreed  hiiaa 
triumph^  and  honoured  him  with  the  title  of  Father  of  his 
country  ;  but'  he  refused  both,  and  desired  that  Trajan^s 
image  might,  triumph.     The  following  year  he  went  t6 
Mcesia  to  oppose  the  Sarmatce.    In  liis  absence  Several  per^ 
sons  of  great  worth  were  put  to  death ;  and  though  he  pro- 
tested he  bad  given  no  orders  for  that  purpose,  yet  the 
odium  fell  chiefiyupon  hira.     No  prince  travelled  mor^ 
than  Adrian  ;  there  being  hardly  one  province  in  the  em- 
pire which  he  did  not  visit.     In  120  he  went  into  Gaul, 
and  thence  to  Britsun,  where  he  caused  a  wall  or  rampart 
to   be  built,  as  a  defence  against  the  Caledonians  who 
would  not  submit  to  the  Roman  government.     In  121  ^e 
^xeturned  into  France,  and  theuce  to  Spaii^  to  Mauritoimt 

17«  ADRIAN. 

and  9t  length  intp  the  East,  where  he  'quieted  the  commo^ 
tions  raided  by  the  Parthians.     After  having  visited  all  the 
provinces  of  Asia,  he  returned  to  Athens  in  125,  where  he 
passed  the  winter,  and  was  initiated  in  the  mysteries  of 
{^leusinian  Cfres.     He  went  from  thence,  to  Sicily,  and 
saw  mount  Mtm,     He  returned  to  Rome  the  be^nning  of 
the  year  129  ;  and,  -according  to  some,  he  went  again  the 
$ame  year  to  Africa;  and  after  his  return  from  thence,  tor 
the  east.     He  was  in  Egypt  in  the  year  132,  revisited  Syria 
the  year  following,  returned  to  Athens  in   134,  and  to 
Rome  in  135.    The  persecution  against  the  Christians  was 
iprery  violent  under  his  reign ;  but  it  was  at  length  suspend- 
ed, in   consequence  of  the  remonstrances  <^  Quadratus 
bishop  of  Athens,  and   Aristides,  two  Christian   philoso* 
phers,  who  presented  the  emperor  with  some  booksin  fa-« 
your  of  their  religion*     He  was  more  severe  against  the 
Jews  ;  and,  by  way  of  insult,  erected  a  temple  to  Jupiter 
on  mount  Calvary,  and  placed  a  statue  of  Adonis  in  the 
manger  of  Bethlehem  :  he  caused  also  the  images  of  swine 
to  be  engraved  on  the  gates  of  Jerusalem* 

Adrian  reigned  21  years,  and  died  at  Baias  in  139,  in 
the  63d  year  of  his  age.  The  Latin  verses  he  addressed  to 
bis  soul  on  his  death-bed,  shew  his  uncertainty  and  doubts 
in  regard  to  the  other  world.  He  was  a  prince  adorned 
with  great  virtues,  but  they  were  mingled  with  great  vices. 
He  was  generous,  industi*ious,  polite,  and'  exact ;  he 
maintained  order  and  discipline ;  he  administered  justice 
with  indefatigable  application,  and  punished  rigorously  all 
those  who  did  not  faithfully  execute  the  offices  with  which 
they  were  entrusted:  he  had  a  great  share  of  wit,  and  a 
surprising  memory ;  he  was  well  versed  in  most  of  the  po- 
bte  arts  and  sciences,  and  is  said  to  have  written  several 
works.  On  the^ other  hand,  he  was  cruel,  envious,  lasci- 
vious, superstitious,  and  so  weak  as  to  give  himself  up  to 
the  study  of  magic. 

Adrian  having  no  children  by  Sabina,  adopted  Lucius 
Aurelius  Annius  Ceionius  Commodus  Verus ;  but  Lucius 
dying  the  1st  of  January  138,  he  then  adopted  Titus  An- 
toninus, on  condition  that  he  should  adopt  Marcus  Annius 
Verus,  and  the  son  of  Lucius  Verus.  * 

ADRIAN  IV.  (Pope),  the  only  Englishman  who  ever 
)xad  the  honour  of  sitting  in  the  papal  chair.     His  name 

1  Crevier's  Roman  Emperors^-^en.    Dtct,-i«iSaxu   Onamastic(ni.^Miliieet 
IShtfrch  biitory,  vol.  X.  p.  199,  et  scQq. 



was  Nicholas  Brekespere ;  and  he  was  born  aboat  the  end 
of  the  1  ith  century,  at  Langley,  near  St.  Alban's^  in  Hert* 
fordshire.  His  father  having  left  his  family,  and  taken  the 
habit  of  the  monastery  of  St  Alban's,  Nicholas  was  obliged 
to  submit  to  the  lowest  offices  in  that  house  for  daily  sup^ 
port.  After  some  time  he  desired  to  take  the  habit  in  that 
monastery,  but  was  rejected  by  the  abbot  Richard  :  '^  He 
was  examined,"  says  Matthew  Paris, '''  and  being  found 
insufficient,  the  abbot  said  to  him,  Wait,  my  son,  and  go 
to  school  a  little  longer,  till  you  are  better  qualified.' '  But 
if  the  character  given  of  young  Brekespere  by  Pitts  be  a 
just  one,  the  abbot  was  certainly  to  be  blamed  for  reject- 
ing a  person  who  would  have  done-  great  honour  to  his 
house.  He  was,  according  to  that  author,  a  handsome  and 
comely  youth,  of  a  sharp  wit  and  ready  utterance ;  circum« 
9pectin  all  his  words  and  actions,  polite  in  his  behaviour, 
neat  and  elegant ;  full  of  zeal  for  the  glory  of  God,  and 
that  according  to  some  degree  of  knowledge ;  so  possessed 
of  all  the  most  valuable  endowments  of  mind  and  body, 
that  in  him  the  gifts  of  heaven  exceeded  nature:  his  piety 
exceeded  his  education ;  and  the  ripeness  of  his  judgment 
and  his  other  qualifications  exceeded  his  age.  Having  met 
however  with  the  above  repulse,  he  resolved  to  try  his  for* 
tune  in  another  country,  sknd  went  to  Paris ;  where,  though 
in  very  poor  circumstances,  he  apphed  himself  to  his 
studies  with  great  assiduity,  and  made  a  wonderful  profi- 
ciency. But  having  still  a  strong  inclination  to  a  religious 
life,  he  left  Paris,  and  removed  to  Provence,  where  he 
became  a  regular  clerk  in  the  monastery  of  St.  Rufus.  He 
was  not  immediately  allowed  to  take  the  habit,  but  passed 
some  time  by  way  of  tris^,  in. recommending  himself  to  the 
monks  by  a  strict  attention  to  all  their  commands.  This 
behaviour,  together  with  the  beauty  of  his  person,  and 
prudent  conversation,  rendered  him  so  acceptable  to  those 
religious,  that  after  some  time  they  entreated  him  to  take 
the  habit  of  the  canonical  order.  Here  he  distinguished 
Wimself  so  much  by  his  learning  and  strict  observance  of 
the  monastic  discipline,  that,  upon  the  deatli  of  the  abbot, 
he  was  chosen  superior  of  that  house  ;  and  we  are  told  that 
he  rebuilt  that  convent.  He  did  not  long  enjoy  this  ab* 
bacy :  for  the  monks,,  being  tired  of  the  governinent  of  a 
foreigner,,  brought  a,ccusations  against  him  before  pope 
Eugcnius  III.  who,  after  having  examined  their  complaint, 
and  heard  the  defence  of  Nicholas,  declared  him  innocent : 
Vol.  L  N 


his  bolioess,  however^  gave  the  monks  leave  to  choose 
another  superiDr^  and,  being  sensible  of  the  great  merit  of 
Nicholas,'  and  thinking  he  might  be.  serviceable  to  the 
church  in  a  higher  station,  created  hmi  cardinal-bishop  of 
Alba,  in  1146. 

In  1 148  Eugenius  sent  him  legate  to  Denmark  and  Nor- 
way ;  where,  by  his  fervent  preaching  and  diligent  instruc- 
tions, he  converted  those  barbarous  nations  to  the  Christian 
£aith;  and  we  are  told,  that  he  erected  the  church  of  Upsal 
into  an  archiepiscopal  see.  On  his  return  to  Rome,  he  was. 
received  by  the  pope  and  cardinals  with  great  marks  of 
honour:  and  pope  Anastatius,  who  succeeded  Eugenius, 
happening  to  die  at  this  time,  Nicholas  was  unanimously 
chosen  to  the  holy  see,  in  November,  1 1 54,  and  took  the. 
name  of  Adrian.  When  the  news  of  his  promotion  reached 
England,  Henry  11.  sent  Robert,  abbot  of  St  Alban's,  and 
three  bishops,  to  Rome,  to  congratulate  him  on  his  election  ^ 
upon  which  occasion  Adrian  granted  to  the  monastery  of 
St.  Alban's,  the  privilege  of  being  exempt  from  all  episco- 
pal jurisdiction  except  that  of  Rome.  Next  year,  kin^ 
Henry  having  solicited  the  pope's  consent  that  he  might 
undertake  the  conquest  of  Ireland,  Adrian  ve^y  readily  com- 
plied, and  sent  him  a  bull  for  that  purpose,  of  which  the 
following'  is  a  translation :  ^^  Adrian,  bishop,  servant  of  the 
servants  of  God,  to  his  most  dear  son  in  Christ,  the  ilius« 
trious  king  of  England,  sendeth  greeting  and  apostolical 
benediction.  Your  magnificence  is  very  careful  to  spread 
your  glorious  name  in  the  world,  and  to  merit  an  immortal 
crown  in  heaven,  whilst,  as(  a  good  catholic  prince,  you  fornv 
a  design  of  extending  the  bounds  of  the  church,  of  in<~ 
structing  ignorant  and  barbarous  people  in  the  Christian 
faith,'  and  of  reforming  the  licentious  and  immoral  ^  and  th^ 
more  effectually  to  put  this  design  in  execution,  you  desir#. 
the  advice  and  assistance  of  the  holy  see.  We  are  confi- 
dent, that,  by  the  blessing  of  God,  the  success  will  answer 
the  wisdom  and  discretion  of  the  undertaking.  You  hav^ 
advertised  us,  dear  son,  of  your  intended  expedition  inta 
Ireland,  to  reduce  that  people  to  the  obedience  of  tho 
Christian  faith ;  and  that  you  are  willing  to  pay  for  every 
house  a  yearly  acknowledgment  of  one  penny  to  St.  Peter, 
promising  to  maintain  the  rights  of  those  churches  in  th^ 
fullest  manner.  We  therefore,  being  willing  to  assist  you 
in  this  pious  and  laudable  design,  and  consenting  to  your 
petition,  do  grant  you  full  liberty  to  make,  a  descent  upoi> 
that  island,  in  order  to  enlarge  the  borders  of  the  church. 

ADR  lA  K  IIB 

to  check  the  progress  of  immorality,  arid  to  promote  the 
spiritual  happiness  of  the  natives :  and  we  command  the 
people  of  that  country  to  receive  and  acknowledge  you  as 
their  sovereign  lord ;  provided  the  rights  of  the  churches  be 
inviolably  preserved,  and  the  Peter  pence  duly  paid:  fof 
indeed  it  is  certain  (and  your  highness  acknowledges  it) 
that  all  the  islands,  which  are  enlightened  by  Christ,  the 
sQn  of  righteousness,  aiid  have  embraced  the  doctrines  of 
Christianity,  are  unquestionably  St.  Peter's  right,  and  be- 
long to  the  holy  Roman  church.  If,  therefore,  you  resolve 
to  pur  your  designs  in  execution,  be  careful  to  reform  the 
manners  of  that  people ;  arid  commit  the  government  of  the 
churches  to  able  and  virtuous  persons,  that  the  Christian 
religion  may  grow  and  flourish,  and  the  honour  of  God  and 
the  preservation  of  souls  be  effectually  promoted ;  so  shall 
you  deserve  an  everlasting  reward  in  heaven,  and  leave  a 
glorious  name  to  all  posterity."  His  indulgence  to  this 
prince  was  so  great,  that  he  even  consented  to  absolve  him 
from  the  oath  he  had  taken  not  to  set  aside  any  part  of  hin 
father's  will.  The  reason  of  this  was,  that  GeofFry  Plan- 
tagenet,  earl  of  Anjou,  had  by  the  empress  Maud,  three 
sons,  Henry,  Geoflry,  and  William.  This  prince,  being 
sensible  that  his  own  dominions  would  of  course  descend  to 
his  eldest  son  Henry,  and  that  the  kingdom  of  England  and 
duchy  of -Normandy  would  likewise  fall  to  him  in  right  of 
his  mother,  thought  fit  to  devise  the  earldom  of  Anjou  to  his 
second  son  Geoffry  ;  and  to  render  this  the  more  valid,  he 
exacted  an  oath  of  the  bishops  and  nobility,  not  to  suffer 
his  corpse  to  be  buried  till  his  son  Henry  had  sworn  to  fulfil 
every  part  of  his  will.  When  Henry  came  to  attend  his 
father's  funeral,  the  oath  was  tendered  to  him ;  but  for  some 
time  he  refused  to  swear  to  a  writing,  with  the  contents  of 
which  he  was  unacquainted.  However,  being  reproached 
with  the  scandgtl  of  letting  his  father  lie  unburied,  he  at  last 
took  the  oath  with  great  reluctance.  But  after  his  accession 
to  the  throne,  upon  a  complaint  to  pope  Adrian  that  the 
oath  was  forced  upon  him,  he  procured  a  dispensation  from 
his  holiness,  absolving  him  from  the  obligation  he  had  laid 
himself  under :  and  in  consequence  thereof,  he  dispossessed 
his  brother  Geoffry  of  the  dominions  of  Anjou,  allowing 
him  only  a  yearly  pension  for  his  maintenance.  < 

Adrian,  in  the  beginning  of  his  pontificate,  boldly  with- 
stood the  attempts  of  the  Roman  people  to  recover  their 
»ncieut  liberty  under  the  consuls,  and  obliged  those  magis- 

N  2 

180  A  D  R  I  A  N. 

trates  to  abdicate  their  authority,  and  leave  the  government' 
of  the  city  to  the  pope.    In  1 1 55,  he  drbve  Arnold  of  Bresse 
and  his  followers  out, of  Rome.     The  same  year  he  excom- 
municated William  king  of  Sicily,  who  ravaged  the  territo- 
ries Qf  the  church,  and  absolved  that  princess  subjects  from 
their  allegiance.     About  the  same  tim6,  Frederic,  king  of 
the  Romans,  having  entered  Italy  with  a  powerful  army, 
Adrian  met  him  near  Sutrium,  and  concluded  a  peace  with 
bim.     At  this  interview,  Frederic  consented  to  hold  the 
pope's   stirrup   whilst  he  mounted   on  horseback.     After 
which  his  holipess  conducted  that  prince  to  Rome,  and  in 
St.  Peter^s  church  placed  the  imperial  crown  on  his  head, 
to  tlie  great  mortification  of  the  Roman  people,  who  assem- 
bled in  a  tumultuous  manner,  and  killed  several  of  the  im- 
perialists.   The  next  year  a  reconciliation  was  brought  about 
between  the  pope  and  the  Sicilian  king,  that  prince  taking 
an  oath  to  do  nothing  farther  to  the  prejudice  of  the  church, 
and  Adrian  granting  him  the  title  of  king  of  the  two  Sicilies. 
tie  built  and  fortified  several  castles,  and  left  the  papal  do- 
minions in  a  more  flourishing  condition  than  he  found  them. 
But  notwithstanding  all  his  success,  he  was  extremely  sen- 
sible of  the  disquietudes  attending  so  high  a  station,  and 
complained  of  them  to  his  countryman  John  of  Salisbury. 
He  died  Sept.  1,  1 159,  in  the  fourth  year  and  tenth  month 
of  his  pontificate,  and  was  buried  in  St.  Peter's  church, 
near  the  tomb  of  his  predecessor  Eugenius.     Besides  some 
writings  attributed  tp  this  ambitious  pope,  not  yet  printed, 
there  are,  in  Lahbe's  Concilia,  forty-two  letters ;  and  Mar- 
tene,  Balusius,  Usher,  Marca,  &c.  have  brought  others  to 
light,  as  may  be  seen  in  Fabric.  Biblioth.  Lat.  med.  setat. 
and  Cave.     The  most  remarkable  of  those  letters  are  what 
contain  the  word  benefit  ium.    In  Aventini  Annal.  Bajor.  are 
letters  between  the  empercnr  and  the  pope,  the  authenticity 
of  which  is  still  disputed;  and  those  betwixt  the  bishops  of 
Germany  and  the  pope,  and  the  letter  of  licence  to  Henry 
II.  to  conquer  Ireland,  are  in  Wilkins's  Concil,  Britan.    The 
famous  peace  with  king  William,  which  so  nearly  concerns 
the  Sicilian  monarchy,  is  in  Baronius's  Annals. » 
.    ADRIAN  VI.  pope,  who  deserve*  some  notice  on  ac- 
count of  his  personal  merit,  was  born  in  Utrecht,  1459,  of 
parents  reputed  mean,  who  procured  him  a  place  among 
the  poor  scholars  in  the  college  of  Louvain,  where  his  ap- 
plication was  such  as  to  induce  Margaret  of  England,  the 

I  Biofrraphia  Britannica.^-Leland.^-Pitt8.-«-Bow<ir'8  Hist,  of  Uie  Popes,  vol*. 
Vl4.<— VValch's  Compendious  History. 


sister  of  Edward  IV.  and  widow  of  Charles  duke  of  Bur* 
^undy,  to  bear  the  expences  of  his  advancement  to  the  de- 
gree of  doctor.     He  became  successively  a  canon  of  St. 
Peter,  professor  of  divinity,  dean  of  the  church  of  Louvain, 
and  lastly,  vice-chancellor  of  the  university.     Recollecting^ 
his  own  condition,,  he  generously  founded  a  college  at  Lou** 
vain,  which  bears  his  name,  for  the  education  of  poor  stu- 
dents.    Afterwards  Maximilian  I.  appointed  him  preceptor 
to  his  grandson  Charles  V.  and  sent  nim  as  ambassador  to 
Ferdinand  king  of  Spain,  who  gave  him  the  bishoprick  of 
Tortosa.     In  1517  he  was  made  cardinal,  and  during  the 
infancy  of  Charles  V.  became  regent ;  but  the  duties  of  the 
office  were  engrossed  by  cardinal  Ximenes.     On  the  death 
of  Leo  X.  Charles  V.  had  so  much  influence  with  the  car* 
dinals  as  to  procure  him  to  be  chosen  to  the  papal  chair,  in 
1522.     He  was  not,  however,  very  acceptable  to  the  col- 
lege, as  he  had  an  aversion  to  pomp,  expence,  and  pleasure. 
He  refused  to  resent,  by  fire  and  sword,  the  complaints  , 
urged  by  Luther;  but  endeavoured  to  reform  such  abuses 
in  the  church  as  could  neither  be  concealed  or-deuied.     To 
this  conduct  he  owed  the  many  satires  written  against  him 
during  his  life,  and  the  unfavourable  representations  made 
by  the  most  learned  of  the  Roman  Catholic  historians.  Per- 
haps his  partiality  to  the  emperor  Charles  might  increase 
their  dislike,  and  occasion  the  suspicion  that  his  death, 
which  took  place  Sept.  24,  1523,,  was  a  violent  one.     For 
this,  however,  we  know  no  other  foundation,  than  a  pasqui- 
nade stuck  upon  the  house  of  his  physician — "  To  the  de-« 
Hverer  of  his  country."  He  is  said  to  have  composed  an  epi- 
taph for  himself,  expressing,  that  the  greatest  misfortune  of 
his  life  was  his  being  called  to  govern.     He  has  left  some 
writings,  as,  1.  "  Questiones  et  Expositiones  in  IV.  Sen- 
tentiarum,"  Paris,  1512  and  1516,  fol.;   1527,  8vo.    I"  this 
he  advanced  some  bold  sentiments  against  papal  iufallibuity* 
Although  he  wrote  the  work  before  he  was  pope,  he  re-^ 
printed  it  without  any  alteration.     2.  "  auestiones  duod- 
libetic©,"  Louvain,  1515,  8vo;  Paris,   1516,  fol.   Foppen 
gives  a  large  list  of  his  other  writings.     His  life  was  written 
by  Paulus  Jovius,  Onuphrius  Panvinius,   Gerard  Moringus, 
a  divine  of  Louvain,  and  lastly  by  Gaspar  Barman,  under 
the  title  "  Analecta  Historica  de  Adriano  VI.    Irsyecwno, 
Papa  Romano,''  Utrecht,  1727,  4to.» 

»  Bower,-PIatma.-W«lch.-Foppen  B^^l-Belgica-^Jorti^^^^ 
bertwn's  Charies  V.— Biographic  Univtmellcw— 5>^»  unowa 

Xto  A  D  R  I  A  N* 

ADRIAN  (de  Castello),  bishop  of  Bath  and  Wells  ia 
the  reigns  of  Henry  VII.  and  VIIL  was  descended  of  ant 
obscure  fanaily  at  Cornetto,  a  small  towii  in  Tuscany ;  bijt 
soon  distinguished  himself  by  his  learning  and  abilities, 
and  procured  several  employments  at  the  court  of  Rome. 
In  1448  be  was  appointed  nuncio  extraordinary  to  Scot- 
land, by  pope  Innocent  VIIL  to  quiet  the  troubles  in  that 
kingdom  ;  but,  upon  his  arrival  in  England,  being  informed 
that  his  presence  was  not  necessary  in  Scotland,  the  con- 
tests tliere  having  been  ended  by  a  battle,  he  applied  him- 
self to  execute  some  other  commissions  with  which  be  was 
charged,    particularly  to   collect  the   pope's  tribute,    or 
Peter- pence,  his  holiness  having  appointed  him  his  trea- 
surer for  that  purpose.     He  continued  some  months  in 
England,  during  which  time  he  got  so  far  into  the  good 
graces  of  Morton,  archbishop  of  Canterbury,  that  he  re- 
commended him  to  the  king  ;  who  appointed  him  his  agent 
for  English  affairs  at  Rome ;  and,  as  a  recompense  for  his 
faithful  services,  promoted  him  first  to  the  bishoprick  of 
Hereford,  and  afterwards  to- that  of  Bath  and  Wells.     He 
was  enthroned  at  Wells  by  his  proxy  Polydore  Vergil,  at 
that  time  the  pope's  sub-collector  in  England,  and  after* 
wards  appointed  by  Adrian  archdeacon  of  Wells.     Adrian 
let  out  his  bishoprick  to  farmers,  and  afterwards  to  cardinal 
Wolsey,  himself  residing  at  Rome,  where  he  built  a  mag- 
nificent palace>  on  the  front  of  which  he  had  the  name  of 
bis  benefactor  Henry  VII.  inscribed :  he  left  it  after  his 
decease  to  that  prince  and  bis  successors.     Alexander  VI, 
who  succeeded  Innocent  VIII,  appointed  Adrian  his  prin- 
cipal secretary,  and  vicar-general  in  spirituals  and  tem- 
porals ;  and  the  same  pope  created  him  a  cardinal-priest, 
with  the  titl^  of  St.  Chrysogonus,  the  3 1st  of  May,  1503. 
Soon  after  his  creation,  he  narrowly  escaped  being  poisoned 
at  a  feast,  to  which  he  was  invited  with  some  other  car* 
dinals,  by  the  pope  and  his  son  Caesar  Borgia. 

In  the  pontificate  of  Julius  II.  who  succeeded  Alexander, 
Adrian  retired  from  Rome,  having  taken  some  disgu&t,  or 
perhaps  distrusting  this  pope,  who  was  a  declared  enemy 
of  his  predecessor ;  nor  did  he  return  till  there  was  a  con-r 
clave  held  for  the  election  of  a  new  pope,  where  be 
probably  gave  his  voice  for  Leo  X.  Soon  after  he  was. 
unfortunately  privy  to  a  conspiracy  against  Leo.  His  em-m 
barking  in  the  plot  is  said  to  have  been  chiefly  owing  to  his 
t?ireciiting  ai^d  ?^pplying  to  hin»self  the  predictiou  qf  ^  fgr* 

ADRIAN.  18* 

tune-teller,  who  had  assured  him,  "  that  Leo  would  be 
cut   off  by   an  unnatural   death,   and  be   succeeded  by 
an  elderly  man  named  Adrian,  of  obscure  birth,  but  fa- 
mous for  his  learning,  and  whose  virtue  and  merit  alon^ 
had  raised  him  to  the  highest  honours  of  the  church.".  The 
conspiracy  being  discovered,  Adrian  was  condemned  to 
pay  12,500  ducats,  and  to  give  a  solemn  promise  that  he 
would  not'  stir  out  of  Rome.     But  being  either  unable  to 
pay  this  fine,  or  apprehending  still  farther  severities,  he 
privately  withdrew  from  Rome ;  and  in  a  consistory  held 
the  6th  of  July  1518,  he  was  dedared  excommunicated, 
and  deprived  of  all  his  benefices,  as  well  as  his  ecclesiastical 
orders.     About  four  years  before,  he  had  been  removed 
from  his  office  of  tlie  pope's  collector  in  England,  at  the 
request  of  king  Henry  VIII,  and  through  the  instigation  of 
cardinal  Wolsey.     The  heads  of'  his  accusation,  drawn  up 
at  Rome,  were,  **  That  he  had  absent^  himself  from  that 
city  in  the  time  of  Julius  II.  without  the  pope's  leave  ;  that 
he  had  never  resided,  as  he  ought  to  have  done,  at  the 
church  of  St.  Chrysogonus,  from  which  he  had  his  title ; 
that  he  had  again  withdrawn  himself  from  Rome,  and  had 
not  appeared  to  a  legal  citation  ;  and  that  he  had  engaged 
in  the  conspiracy  of  cardinal  Petrucci,  and  had  signed  the 
league  of  Francis  Maria,  duke  of  Urbino,  against  the  pope.'* 
He  was  at  Venice  when  he  received  the  news  of  his  con- 
demnation :  what  became  of  hini  afterwards  is  uncertain. 
Aubery  says,  he  took  refuge  among  the  Turks  in  Asia;  but 
the  most  common  opinion  is,  that  he  was  murdered  by  one 
of  his  servants  for  the  sake  of  his  wealth.     Polydore  Vergil 
tells  us,  there  is  to  be  seen  at  Riva,  a  village  in  the  diocese 
of  Trent,  a  Latin  inscription  on  one  Polydorus  Casamicus, 
the  pope's  janitor,  written  by  cardinal  Adrian ;  in  which 
he  laments  his    own    wretched    condition,    extolling  the 
happiness  of  his  friend,  whose  death  had  put  an  end  to 
his  miseries.     Polydore  Vergil  gives  Adrian  a  high  cha- 
racter for  his  uncommon  learning,  his  exquisite  judgment 
in  *the  choice  of  the  properest  words,  and  the  truly  classical 
style  of  his  writings ;  in  which  he  was  the  first,  says  that 
author,  since  the  age  of  Cicero,  who  reidved  the  purity  of 
the  Laitin  language,,  and  taught  men  to  draw  their  know- 
lege    from   tlie  sources    of  the  best  and  most  learned 
The  only  works  of  bis  that  are  published  are,  I , "  De  Vera 

U4  AD  R  I  A  N. 

Philosophic  ;"  2.  **  De  Serrtione  Latiiio  et  de  MoBis  Latine 
loquendi,"  1515,  Rome,  fol.  * 

ADRIANI  (Adriands  ab  Adriano),  a  Flemish  Jesuit, 
|ind  a  native  of  Antwerp,  entered  into  the  society  of  the 
Jesuits  at  Lou  vain,  in  1544,  and  was  principal  for  many 
years Ijefore  they  had  a  college.  In  1551,  he  made  solemn 
profession  of  the  four  vows.  After  the  death  of  St.  Ignatius, 
|ie  was  called  to  Rome  to  assist  in  a  general  congregation 
for  the  ^election  of  a  second  general  of  the  society.  But, 
jfinding  himself  here  involved  in  disputes  and  intrigues  not 
suited  to  his  disposition,  he  retired  to  Flanders,  where  he 
appears  to  have  led  a  studious  and  useful  life.  He  died  at 
Louvain,  October  18,  1580,  after  having  published,  in 
German,  several  works  of  the  ascetic  kind,  one  of  which, 
*'  De  Divinis  Inspirationibus  et  de  Confessione,"  was  trans- 
lated into  Latin  by  Gerard  Brunelius,  and  printed  at 
Cologn,  1601,  12mo.» 

ADRIANI  (Marcel  Virgil),  professor  of  the  belles 
lettres,  and  chancellor  of  the  republic  of  Florence,  was 
born  in  1464.  He  was  a  very  accomplished  scholar  in  the 
Greek  and  Latin  languages.  Varchi,  in  one  of  his  lectures, 
pronounces  him  the  most  eloquent  man  of  his  time.  He  died 
3n  1 52 1 ,  in  consequence  of  a,  fall  from  his  horse.  In  1518, 
he  published  a  Latin  translation  of  Dioscorides  "  De  Ma- 
teria Medica,"  with  a  commentary.  About  the  end  of  it 
he  mentions  a  treatise,  "  De  mensuris,  ponderibus,  et  co- 
loribus,'*  which  he  had  prepared  for  publication,  but  which 
has  not  yet  appeared.  Mazzuchelli  speaks  largely  of  him 
in  his  "  Italian  Writers  ;'*  and  more  copious  notice  is  taken 
of  him  by  the  canon  Baudini,  in  his  "  Collectio  Veterum 
Monumentorum."  The  translation  of  Dioscorides,  which 
he  dedicated  to  pope  Leo  X.  procured  him  so  much  repu- 
tation, that  he  was  called  the  Dioscorides  of  Florence. » 

ADRIANI  (John  Baptist),  the  son  of  the  preceding, 
was  born  in  1513,  or,  as  some  say,  1511,  and  died  at 
Florence  in  1579.  In  his  youth,  he  carried  arms  in  de- 
fence of  the  liberties  of  his  country,  and  afterwards  de- 
voted his  time  to  study.  For  thirty  years  he  taught  rhetoric 
in  the  university  of  Florence,  and  enjoyed  the  friendship 
of   the  most  celebrated  of  bis   contemporaries,   Annibal 

t  Biog.  Brit.—^Saxii  OnomastlcoD,  art.  Hadrtao— >Biographie  Univenelle. 

•  Moreri.— -Foppen  Bibl.  Belgic. ;  where  is  a  list  of  his  works, 

•  Biographre  Uuiverselle, 

A  D  R  I  A  N  I.  lis 

Caro,  Varchi,  FlaQiiniOi  and  the  cardinals  Bembo  and 
Contarini.  His  chief  work,  which  forms  a  continuation 
of  Gaiociardini,  is  the  history  of  his  own  time,  entitled 
"  Deir  Istoria  de'  suoi  tempi/'  from  1536  to  1574.  Flo- 
rence, 1583,  fol.  This  is  a  most  scarce  edition,  and  more 
vahied  than  that  of  Venice,  1587,  3  vols.  4to.  The  abb6 
Lengiet  du  Fresnoy,  Bayle,  and  parcicularly  Thuanus, 
who  has  derived  much  assistance  from  this  work,  speak, 
highly  of  his  correctness  as  a  historian.  He  had  the  best 
materials,  and  among  others,  some  memoirs  furni^ed  by 
the  grand  duke  of  Tuscany,  Cosmo  I.  who  advised  him  to 
the  undertaking.  He  is  said  to  have  written  funeral  orations 
on  the  grand  duke,  on  Charles  V.  and  the  emperor  Fer- 
dinand ;  but  we  know  only  of  his  oration  on  the  ^rand 
duchess,  Jane  of  Austria,  which  was  translated  from  Latin 
into  Itajian,  and  published  at  Florence  in  1579,  4to,  In 
1567  lie  published  "  Lettera  a  Giorgio  Vasari  sopra  gli 
antichi  Pittori  nominati  da  Plinio,"  4to.  This  letter,  on 
the  ancient  painters  mentioned  by  Pliny,  which  is  rather 
a  treatise  on  painting,  is  inserted  by  Vasari  in  the  second 
yolume  of  his  lives  of  the  painters.  Vasari  speaks  of  him 
as  an  enlightened  amateur  of  the  fine  arts,  and  one  whose 
advice  was  of  much  importance  tQ  him  when  he  was  em- 
ployed at  Florence  in  the  palace  of  the  grand  duke. ' 

ADRIANI  (Maucel),  son  of  the  preceding,  born  in  1533, 
was  so  distinguished  for  his  studies,  as  to  obtain,  when 
very  young,  the  professorship  of  rhetoric  which  his  father 
held  in  the  university  of  Florence.  So  our  authority  ;  but 
there  seems  to  be  some  mistake  in  this  date,  as  he  could 
not  be  vei'y  young  when  he  succeeded  his  father  as  pro- 
fessor of  rhetoric,  if  his  father  filled  that  chair  for  the  space 
of  thirty  years. — He  was,  however,  a  member  of  the  aca- 
demy of  Florence,  and  published  his  father's  history.  Hia 
own  works  are,  1.  An  Italian  translation  of  ^^  Demetrius 
Phalereus"  on  eloquence,  which  be  left  in  manuscript, 
and  which  was  not  published  until  1738,  by  Antony  Francis 
•  Gori,  who  prefixed  a  long  account  of  the  life  and  writings 
of  the  translator  ;  2.  Two  Lectures  6n  the  "  Education  of 
the  Florentine  Nobility,"  printed  in  the  "  Prose  Fioren- 
tine,**  vol.  IV,  He  also  translated  Plutarch's  Morals,  not 
yet  published,  but  much  commended  by  Ammirato  and 

1  Moreri.— Biographie  Uoivetsellc— Gen.  tiicL 

i»6  A  D  R  I  A  N  f . 


Others.     Thiere  are, two  copied  in  the  Laurentian  library. 
Adrian  died  in  1604.* 

ADRIANO,  a  Spanish  painter,  born  at  Cordova,  was  a 
lay  friar  of  the  order  of  the  bare-footed  Carmelites.  Of 
bis  works,  which  are  not  numerous,  and  are  to  be  seen  only 
at  the  place  of  his  birth,  the  most  remarkable  is  a  Cruci- 
fixion, in  the  manner  of  Sadel'er,  whose  style  was  much 
admired  by  him.  He  was  so  diffident  of  his  own  talent* 
that  he  frequently  destroyed  his  pictures  as  soon  as  he  had 
executed  them,  and  some  were  preserved  by  his  friends, 
who  begged  them  from  him  in  the  name  of  the  souls  in 
purgatory,  for  whom  he  constantly  put  up  his  prayers.  He 
died  at  Cordova  in  1650.* 

ADRICHOMIUS  (Christian),  a  geographer  of  consi- 
derable note,  was  born  at  Delft  in  Holland,  February  14, 
1533.     After  applying  to  his  studies  with  much  assiduity, 
he  was  ordained  priest  in  1561,  and  was  director  of  the 
nuns  of  St.  Barbara  until  the  civil  wars  obliged  him  to  take 
refuge  first  at  Mecklin,  then  at  Maestricht,  and  lastly  at 
Cologne,  where  he  died,  June  20,  1585.     He  published 
•^  Vita  Jesu  Christi,  ex  quatuor  evangelistis  breviter  con-* 
texta,"  Antwerp,  1578,   12mo;   but    the  work  for  which 
he  is  best  known  is  his  "  Theatrum  Terrse  Sanctae,*'  or, 
history  of  the  Holy  Land,  illustrated  with  maps,  and  printed 
in  1590,  1595,  1600,  1628,  and  1682,  fol. ;  a  proof  of  the 
esteem  in  which  it  was  long  held,  although  his  authorities 
are  tnought  to  be  sometimes  exceptionable.     The  second 
part,  which  contains  a  description  of  Jerusalem,  was  printed 
by  the  author  in  1584,  and  was  reprinted  after  his  death 
in  1588,    and  1592,  8vo.     He  sometimes  took  the  name 
of  Christianus  Crucius,  in  allusion  to  his  banishment  and 
sufferings.  * 

ADSO  (Hermerius  or  Henry)  was  born  in  the  begin- 
ning of  the  tenth  century,  in  the  environs  of  Condat,  now 
St.  Claude.  He  studied  at  the  abbey  of  Luxeuil,  which  had 
then  ^  very  famous  school,  under  the  direction  of  the  Be- 
nedictines. Being  charmed  with  their  mode  of  life  and 
doctrines,  he  entered  into  the  order,  and  became  abbot. 
His  principal  writings  are  the  lives  of  some  saints,  which 
are  not  free  from  the  superstitions  of  the  times.  Calmet 
has  printed  his  life  of  St.  Mansuetus ;  and  Mabillon,  bi^ 

*  Cen.  Diet. — Biographic  Universelle.  *  Biograpbie  Universelle^ 

^  Fu|)per  Bibl.  B4|ig.T— Gen.  Oiet^^Moreri.^-Saxii  Ouomastjcoim 

A  D  S  O.  I«T 

iife  6f  St.  Valbert,  or  Wandalbett.  Cave  mentions  other 
works  of  his,  but  he  deserves  more  credit  as  one  of  tbos«i 
vrho  laboured  in  diffusing  learning.  Such  was  his  repu- 
tation, that  many  bishops  applied  to  him  to  establish 
schools  in  their  dioceses,  and  he  was  even  consulted  by 
crowned  heads,  on  these  and  other  subjects  of  importance. 
He  died  in  Champagne  in  the  year  992. ' 

iEDESIUS,  6f  Cappadocia,  an  ecJectic  philosopher  of 
the  fourth  century,  was  of  a  family  originally  noble,  but 
reduced  to  poverty.  His  parents  sent  him  into  Greece  to 
learn  some  means  of  subsistence,  but  he  returned  with  only 
a  love  of  philosophy.  On  this  his  father  turned  him  out 
of  doors ;  but  at  length  was  prevailed  upon  to  forgive  him, 
and  even  to  let  him  pursue  his  studies,  in  which  he  soon 
surpassed  the  ablest  masters  of  .his  country.  In  order  to 
increase  his  knowledge,  he  went  to  Syria,  and  became  the 
disciple  of  Jamblicus,  and  after  the  dispersion  of  that  school 
by  Constantine  the  Great,  he  settled  at  Pergamos,  where  * 
he  had  a  very  flourishing  school.  What  he  taught,  how* 
ever,  was  a  composition  of  mysticism  and  imposture,  and 
he  even  pretended  to  immediate  communication  with  the 
deities,  and  to  obtain  the  revelation  of  future  events.  The 
time  of  his  birth  or  death  is  not  ascertained.  * 

iEGEATES  (John),  a  Nestorian  priest,  lived,  accord^- 
ing  to  Vossius,  under  the  emperor  Zeno,  about  the  year 
483  ;  but  Cave  is  of  opinion  that  he  lived  some  years  later> 
as  he  coHtinjied  his  history  five  books  after  the  deposing  of 
Peter  the  Fuller.  This  was  an  Ecclesiastical  History,  be- 
ginning with  the  reign  of  Theodosius  the  younger,  when 
Nestorius  published  his  opinions,  and  ending  with  the 
reign  of  Zeno,  and  the  deposition  of  Peter  the  Fuller,  who 
had  usurped  the  see  of  Antioclx.  He  wrote  likewise  a 
treatise  against  the  council  of  Chalcedon.  Photius  praises 
his  style,  but  censures  his  principles.  There  is  only  a 
{iragment  extant  of  his  history  in  the  Concilia,  vol.  VH. 
^nd  in  the  collections  of  Theodoras  Lector. ' 

JEGIDIUIS  (surnamed  Atheniensis),  a  Grecian  phy- 
sician and  philosopher,  who  flourished  in  the  eighth  cen* 
tury,  under  the  emperor  Tiberius  IL  He  turned  Bene-? 
dictine  at  last,  and. left  a  great  many  tracts  behind,  some 
of  which  have  been  in  so  much  credit  as  to  be  read  in  the 
schools.     The  principal  are  "  De  Pulsibus,"  and  ^^  Da 

I  MorerL — Cave,  vol.  II. — ^Bioprraphie  UnivcweUe. 

188  iE  G  I  D  I  U  S. 

Venenis/'  Some  think  there  is  another  of  tnis  name  and 
profession,  a  Benedictine  also,  and  physician  to  Philip 
Augustus  king  of  France,  to  whom  they  attribute  a  work 
in  Latin  hexameters,  on  the  same  subject,  Paris,  1528,  irt 
4to ;  but  this  is  perhaps  only  another  version.  Being  ac- 
cidentally wounded  with  an  arrow,  he  would  not  suffer  the 
wound  to  be  dressed,  that  he  might  have  an  opportunity  of 
exercising  his  fortitude  in  pain.  * 

iEGlDIUS  (de  Columna),  one  of  the  most  learned  di- 
Tines  of  the  thirteenth  century,  entered  into  the  Augustine 
order,  and  studied  at  Paris  imder  Thomas  Aquinas,  where 
be  became  so  eminent  as  to  acquire  the  title  of  the  Pro- 
found Doctor.  He  was  preceptor  to  the  son  of  Philip  111. 
of  France,  and  composed  for  the  use  of  his  pupil  his  trea- 
tise "  De  regimine  Principum,"  Rome,  1492,  fol.  The 
Venetian  edition  of  1498  is  still  in  some  esteem.  He  akd' 
taught  philosophy  and  theology  with  high  reputation  at 
Paris.  He  was  preferred  by  Boniface  V  HI.  to  the  epis- 
copal see  of  Berri,  and,  according  to  some  writers  was,  by 
the  same  pope,  created  a  cardinal.  He  was,  however, 
elected  general  of  his  order  in  1292,  and  assisted  at  the 
general  council  of  Vienna  in  1311.  He  died  Dec.  22,  1316, 
at  Avignon,  leaving  various  works,  enumerated  by  Cave  ; 
which  afford,  in  our  times,  no  very  favourable  opinion  of 
bis  talents,  although  they  were  in  high  reputation  during 
his  life,  and  long  after.  One  only  it  may  be  necessary  to 
notice  as  a  very  great  rarity.  The  title  is  "  Tractatus  bre- 
vis  et  xitilis  de  Originali  Peccato,"  4to,  printed  at  Oxford, 
1479^  and  is  supposed  to  be  the  third,  or  second,  or,  as 
some  think,  the  first  book  printed  there.  Dr.  Clarke  has 
described  it.  * 

-SIGIDIUS  (John  of  St.  Giles),  a  learned  Englishman 
of  the  thirteenth  dfeutury,  wai  bom  at  St.  Alban's,  and  as 
Fuller  conjectures,  in  the  parish  of  St.  Giles's  in  that  town, 
jiow  destroyed.  He  was  educated  at  Paris,  where  he  be- 
came eminent  in  logic  and  philosophy.  He  then  turned  bis 
studies  to  medicine,  and  became  not  only  professor  of  that 
faculty  in  the  university,  but  a  celebrated  practitioner  in 
the  city,  and  was  employed  about  the  person  of  Philip  the 
French  king.  From  Paris  he  removed  to  Montpellier, 
where  he  studied  the  diseases  of  the  mind  ;  and  on  his  re-^ 
turn  to  Paris,  confined  himself  entirely  to  the  study  of  di-f^ 

'  Diet.  Hist. — Bibliographical  DictioDary. 
^  ^axii  Onoinasticon.-«-Brucker« 

iE  G  I  D  I  U  S.  \B9 

vinity,  and  soon  became  a  doctor  in  that  faculty,  and  a  pro- 
fessor in  the  schools.  In  1223  he  joined  the  Dominicans, 
and  was  the  first  Englishman  of  that  order.  This  oeca* 
sioned  his  removal  to  Oxford,  where  the  Dominicans  had 
two  schools,  in  which  he  became  a  professor  and  lecturer 
both  in  the  arts  and  in  divinity,  and  was  of  great  service  to 
the  Dominicans  by  his  personal  credit  and  reputation.  A, 
close  intimacy  took  place  between  him  and  the  celebrated 
Grossetete,  bishop  of  Lincoln,  who  obtained  leave  of  the 
general  of  the  Dominicans  that  iEgidius  might  I'eside  with 
him  as  an  assistant  in  his  diocese,  at  that  time  the  largest 
in  England.  Leland,  Bale,  and  Pitts  ascribe  some  writings 
to  him,  but  they  seem  to  be  all  of  doubtful  authoritv.  * 

-  iEGIDIUS,  or  GILES  (Peter),  a  lawyer,  was  born  at 
Antwerp  in  1486.  He  was  educated  under  the  care  of  the 
celebrated  Erasmus,  with  whom  he  lived  afterwards  in  close 
friendship,  as  he  did  with  the  illustrious  sir  Thomas  More^ 
and  other  eminent  scholars  of  that  age.  More  introduces 
him  in  the  prologue  to  his  Utopia  with  high  praise,  as  ^^  a 
inan  there  in  his  country  of  honest  reputation,  and  also  pre- 
ferred to  high  promotions,  worthy  truly  of  the  highest. 
For  it  is  hard  to  say  whether  the  young  man  be  in  learnuig 
or  in  honesty  more  excellent.  For  he  is  both  of  wonder- 
ful virtuous  conditions,  and  also  singularly  well  learned, 
and  towards  all  sorts  of  people  exceeding  gentle."  Sir 
Thomas  adds,  that  ^^  the  charms  of  his  conversation  abated 
the  fervent  desire  he  had  to  see  his  native  country,  from 
which  sir  Thomas  had  been  absent  more  than  four  months." 
He  occurs  also  with  hig-h  praise  in  the  life  and  writings  of 
Erasmus.  In  1510,  on  the. death  of  Adrian  Blict,  first  no* 
tary  at  Antwerp,  he  was  unanimiously  elected  into  his  place. 
He  died  Nov.  29,  1533.  His  works  are,  1.  "  Threnodiain 
funus  Maximiliani  Caesaris,  cum  Epitaphiis  aliquot  et  Epi« 
grammatum  libello,"  Antwerp,  1519,  4to.  2.  "  Hypothe- 
sesf  sive  Spectacula  Carolo  Y.  Caesari  ab  S.  P.  Q.  Antver,'* 
ib»  4to.  3.  "  jinchiridion  Principis  ac  Magistratus  Chris- 
tianijV  Colon.  1541.  He  edited  also  "  Titulos  Legum  ex  ' 
Codice  Theodosiano,"  Louvain,.  1517,  folio.'* 

,     iEGINHARD.     SeeEGINHARD, 

}  Tanner.— rPegge^s  Life  of  Grosseiete. — $axil  Onomasticoii. 
«  Foppen  Bibl.  Bel|ic, — Dibdlu'i  edition  of  sir  TI108.  Mora's  Utopia. -^Jur-^ 
fern's  Life  of  firasmus. 

190  JE  L  F  R  I  C. 


-ELFRED.     See  ALFRED. 

-SLFRIC,  successively  bishop  of  Wilton  and  archbishop 
6f  Canterbury,  and  oi>e  of  the  greatest  luminaries  of  his 
dark  age,  was  the  son  of  an  eaYl  of  Kent,  and  aft^r  receiv- 
ing a  few  scanty  instructions  from  an  ignorant  secular 
priest,  assumed  the  habit  of  the  Benedictine  order  of 
monks  in  the  monastery  at  Abingdon,  oyer  which  AtheU 
wold  then  presided,  having  been  appointed  abbot  in  the 
year  955.  Athelwold,  being  created  bishop  of  Winchester 
in  the  year  693,  settled  several  of  the  Abingdon  monks  in 
his  cathedral.  Among  these  was  iElfric  ;  who,  in  return 
for  the  be!iefit  which  he  had  formerly  derived  from  the 
instructions  of  Athelwold,  was  now  eager  to- show  bis  gra- 
titude, by  forwarding  the  wishes  of  his  benefactor  to  in* 
struct  the  youth  of  his  diocese.  With  this  view  he  dre^ 
up  his  **  Latin-SaxoTT  Vocabulary,"  and  some  *'  Latin 
Colloquies."  The  former  of  these  works  was  published  by 
Somner,  under  the  title  of  a  Glossary,  Oxon.  1659  (See 
Somner).  During  his  residence  in  this  city,  iElfric  trans- 
lated, from  the  Latin  into  the  Saxon  language,  most  of  the 
historical  books  of  the  Old  Testament :  the  greatest  part  of 
whieh  translations  has  reached  our  time,  having  been  print- 
ed at  Oxford  in  1 698. ,  Here,  likewise,  at  the  request  of  Wulf-» 
sine,  bishop  of  Sherborn,  he  drew  up  what  has  been,  called 
his  "  Canons,"  b^t  might  more  properly  be  styled,  a  charge 
to  be  delivered  by  the  bishops  to  their  clergy.  They  are 
preserved  in  the  first  volume  of  Spelman's  Councils,  and 
were  composed,  between  the  years  980  and  987.  Some 
time  about  this  last  year,  ^Ifric  was  removed  to  Ceme 
Abbey,  to  instruct  the  monks,  and  regulate  the  affairs  of 
that  monastery*  Here  it  was  that  he  translated,  from  tjie. 
Latin  fathers,  the  first  volume  of  his  "  Homilies."  After 
remaining  in  this  place  about  a  year,  he  was  made  abbot 
of  St.  Alban's  in  the  year  988,  and  composed  a  liturgy  for 
the  service  of  his  abbey,  which  continued  to  be  used  there 
till  Leland's  time.  In  the  year  989  he  was  created  bishop 
of  Wilton,  and  during  his  continuance  in  that  see,  trans-* 
lated/  about  the  latter  end  of  the  year  991,  a  second  vo-* 
lume  of  "  Homilies."  These  are  the  volumes  of  which 
Mrs.  Elstob  issued  proposals  for  a  trb^nslation,  in  1713,  ac- 
companied with  the  ori^iinal,  but  did  not  liv«  to  publish  the 
work.  Here  also  -Slfric  wrote  his  "Grammar,"  a  supple- 
ment to  his  Homilies,  and,  probably,  ^  t^act  dedicated  t^ 

•   >a:  L  p  R  I  &  f^i 

Sigeward  or  Sigeferth,  coiitaining  two  epistles  on  the  Old 
and  New  Testament,  which  his  biographer  concludes  to 
have  been  written  between  the  years  987  and  991.  In 
S94y  he  was  translated  to  Canterbury,  where,  after  exert- 
ing himself  for  some  years,  with  equal  spirit  and  pradence^ 
in  defending  bis  diocese  against  the  incursions  of  the  Danes,' 
he  died  Nov.  16,  1005.  He  was  buried  at.  Abingdon,'  the 
place  where  he  first  embraced  the  profession  of  a  monk^^ 
whence  his  remains  were  afterwards  transferred  to  Canter- 
bury, in  the  reign  of  Canute. ' 

JULIAN  (Claudius),  an  historian  and  rhetorician,' boni 
at  Praeneste  in  Italy,  about  the  year  160^  tauglH  rhetoric  at 
Rome,  according  to  Perizonius,  under  the  emperor  Alex« 
ander  Severus.  He  was  surnamed  MEXiyXAKr^®-,  Honey-* 
tongue,  on  account  of  the  sweetness  of  his  style.  He  wa4 
likewise  honoured  with  the  title  of  sophist,  an  appellation 
in  his  days  given  only  to  men  of  learning  and  wisdom.  He 
loved  retirement,  and  devoted  himself  to  study ;  and  hi» 
works  shew  him  to  have  been  a  man  of  excellent  principles 
and  strict  integrity.  He  greatly  admired  and  studied  Plato, 
Aristotle,  Isocrates,  Plutarch,  Homer,  Anacreon,  Archilo-* 
chus,  &c. ;  and,  though  a  Roman,  gives  the  preference  to 
the  writers  of  the  Creek  nation.  His  two  most  celebrated 
works  are  his  "  Various  History,"  and  that  "  Of  Animals/* 
He  wrote  also  an  invective  against  Heliogabalus,  or,  as 
some  think,  Domitian  ;  but  this  is  not  certain,  for  he  gives 
the  tyrant,  whom  he  lashes,  the  fictitious  name  of  GynuLs. 
He  composed  likewise  a  book  ^*  Of  Providence,'^  men- 
tioned by  Eustathius;  and  another  on  divine  appearances,  or 
the  declarations  of  providence.  Some  ascribe  to  him  alsiJ 
the  work  entitled  '^  Tactica,  or  De  re  Militari ;"  but  Peri- 
zonius is  of  opinion,  that  this  piece  belonged  to  another 
author  of  the  same  name,  a  native  of  Greece.  There  have 
been  several  editions  of  his  "  Various  History."  The 
i^^reek  text  was  published .  at  Rome  in  154<5,  by  Camillus 
Peruscus.  Justus  Vulteius  gave  a  Latin  translation,  which 
was.  printed  separately  in  1548  ;  and  joined  to  the  Greek 
text  in  a  jiew  edition,  by  Henricus  Petrus,  at  Basil,  1555.  It 
containsiikewise  the  works  of  several  other  authors,  who  have 
treated  on  such  subjects  as  iElian.  John.7'omaesius  pub^ 
lished  tbrj^e  several  editions  at  Lyons,  in  1537,  1610,  and 

.  1  Ed.  Howe  Moresi  de  ^ifrico  Commentarias,   a.G.  J«  Thorkeliti,  4to,  Load* 
W89.— ..\Joiuh.  U«y*.voi.  II.  N.  }S.  pu  ^61. 


1*2  JE  L  I  A  N. 


1625/  All  these  were  eclipsed  by  that  of  John  Scheffenis^ 
in  1647  and  1662  :  he  rectified  the  text  in  many  p]ac<^, 
and  illustrated  the  whole  with  very  learned  notes  and  ani- 
madversions. Perizonius  gave  a  new  edition  in  two  vo« 
lumes,  8VO9  at  Ley  den,  1701.  He  followed  the  translation 
of  Vulteius,  which  he  rectified  in  many  places,  together 
with  the  Greek  text,  illustrating  the  most  intricate  pas- 
sages with  learned  notes.  The  niext  and  best  edition  of 
this  work  is  that  of  Abraham  Gronovius,  who  has  given  the 
Greek  text  and  version  of  Vulteius,  as  corrected  by  Peri- 
zonius, together  with  the  notes  of  Conrad  Gessner,  Johu 
Scbefferus,  Tanaquil  Faber,  Joachim  Kubnius,  and  Jac. 
Perizonius  ;  to  which  he  has  added  short  notes  of  bis  own^ 
and  the  fragments  of  iElian,  which  Kuhnius  collected  from 
Suidas,  Stoba:us,  and  Eustathius.  His  treatise  on  animals 
is  in  many  respects  a  curious  and  important  work,  but,  like 
that  of  Pliuy,  often  disgraced  with  ridiculous  and  fabulous 

iELIANUS  (Mecciu^j),  a  physician  of  the  second  cen- 
tury, under  the  reign  of  Adrian,  was  the  first  who  employ -:• 
ed  the  Tberiaca,  both  as  a  remedy  and  preservative,  in  the 
plague.  Galen  in  his  treatise  on  the  subject,  considers  him 
as  one  of  the  first  of  his  masters,  and  praises  him  also  for 
his  great  knowledge  and  success. ' 

iELIUS  SEXTUS  POETUS  CATUS,  a  celebrated 
Roman  lawyer,  and  author  of  the  oldest  work  on  jurispru- 
dence, flourished  in  the  sixtii  century  after  the  building 
of  Rome.  He  was 'successively  asdile,  consul,  and  censor. 
When  Cnsus  Flavins  divulged  his  formula,  the  patricians, 
who  considered  themselves  as  the  depositories  of  thelaw, 
composed  novels,  and  endeavoured  to  conceal  theni  with 
the  utmost  care.  But  iElius,  when  aedile,  got  access  to 
them,  and  published  them.  These  last  obtained  the  name 
of  thciElian  law,  as  what  Flavius  had  published  were  called 
the  Flavian  law.  It  appears  also,  that  notwithstanding  what. 
Grotius  and  Bertrand  have  advanced,  he  was  the  author  of 
a  work  entitled  the  "Tripartite,"  by  far  the  oldest  work 
on  the  subject.  It  was  so  called  as  containing,  1.  The 
text  of  the  Law;  2.  Its  interpretation  ;  and  3.  The  forms 
of  procedure.  He  was  appointed  consul  in  A.  U.  C.  5S&^ 
at  the  end  of  the  second  Punic  war;  and  was  distinguished 

1  Gen.   Diet— Fabric^  Bibl.  Graec— Saxii  OnofidasticoD.  —  Bibliographical 
Dictionary.  t  Bi^graphie  Uaiver3eUe. 

JE  L  I  V  S.  195 

for  his  homely  diet,  and  sunple  manners,  tod  his  rejecting 
of  presents^  ^ 


AELST  (Evert,  or  Everhard  Van),  a  Dutch  painter, 
bom  at  Delft  in  1 602,  acquired  a  great  reputation  by  his 
delicate  manner  of  painting  fruit,  still  life,  and  dead  game. 
He  was  exact  in  copying  every  thing  after  nature,  dispos- 
ing them  with  elegance,  and  finishing  his  pictures  with 
neatness,  and  transparency  of  colour.  Whether  he  paint- 
ed dead  game,  fruit,  helmets  with  plumes  of  feathers,  or 
vases  of  gold  and  silver,  to  each  he  gave  a  true  and  striking 
resemblance  of  nature,  and  an  extraordinary  lustre  to  the 
gold,  silver,  and  steel.     He  died  in  1658.  * 

AELST  (William  Van,  called  in  Italy  GuuELMO),wa$ 
the  nephew  and  disciple  of  the  preceding,  born  at  Delft  in 
1620,  and  arrived  at  a  much  higher  degree  of  perfection 
than  his  instructor.  In  his  youth  he  went  to  France,  and 
exercised  his  art  there  for  four  years,  and  afterwards  to 
Rome,  where  he  resided  for  seven  years ;  and  in  both  places 
was  encouraged  by  the  patronage  of  persons  of  the  first 
distinction.  In  1656,  he  returned  to  his  own  country, 
and  settled  at  Amsterdam,  where  his  pictures  were  highly 
valued,  and  sold  at  a  very  great  price.  Some  of  them  are 
still  in  the  collections  of  the  amateurs  of  that  city.  Van 
Aelst  knew  his  own  merit,  and  would  not  submit  to  disre- 
spect. On  one  occasion  when  a  burgomaster  of  Amster^ 
dam  gave  him  a  very  haughty  answer  in  a  matter  of  some 
importance  to  him,  he  opened  his  breast  and  shewed  him 
a  gold  chain  and  medal  which  the  grand  duke  of  Tuscany 
had  given  him,  adding,  <^  You  came  into  the  woild  with  a 
sack  of  money,  that  is  all  your  merit :  as  to  mine,  it  is  in 
my  talents."  Like  his  uncle  he  employed  himself  chiefly 
on  still  life,  and  his  pencil  was  so  light,  and  his  touch  so 
delicate,  that  the  objects  he  painted  seemed  real.  He  died 
in  1679.* 

^MILIANI  (St.  Jerome),  a  nobleman,  born  at  Venice 
in  1 481,  carried  arms  in  his  youth,  and  was  taken  prisoner. 
On  his  release  be  made  a  vow  to  dedicate  his  liiTe  to  the 
care  of  orphans,  and  accordingly  collected  a  considerable 
number  of  them  in  a  house,  where  they  were  educated  in 
virtue  and  industry.  This  laid  the  foundation  of  the  regu- 
lar clerks  of  St.  Maieul,  who  are  also  called  the  fathers  of 

>  Biographie  UiiiTenelle.— Gen.  Diet 

•  Pimington't  Diet,— JBiographt«  UfUTenselle.  '  Ibid. 

Vol.  I.  O 

19%  JE  M  I  L  I  A  N  I. 

Sottias^uo,  from  the  place  where  he  first  established  thcif 
communitj^.  They  were  afterwards  successively  confirm* 
ed  \>y  the  popes  Paul  III.  and  Pius  IV.  Their  chief  occu- 
pation was  to  instruct  young  persons  in  the  principles  of 
the  Christian  religion,  and  particularly  orphans.  He  ap- 
pears to  have  been  a  man  of  a  most  humane  disposition ; 
and  in  1528,  when  plague  and  famine  raged  in  Italy,  he 
sold  even  his  furniture  to  assist  the  poor.  He  died  in  1537, 
and  was  admitted  into  the  number  of  saints  by  Benedict 
XIV*  Andreas  Stella,  the  general  of  the  Somasques,  wrot6 
his  life. ' 

iEMILIUS  (Anthony),  professor  of  history  in  the  uni- 
versity of  Utrecht,  was  born  Dec.  20,  1589,  at  Aix-la* 
Chapelle,  whither  his  father  John  Meles  (Latinized  by  his 
son  into  ^milius)  had  fled  on  account  of  his  attachment  tA 
the  Protestant  religion.  He  studied  first  at  Aix-la-Cha- 
pelle,  and  afterwards  at  Juliers  under  Kunius,  and  at  Dort 
under  Adrian  Marcellus,  and  Gerard  Vossius.  At  Leyden, 
he  attended  the  lectures  of  Baudius,  and  spent  four  years- 
in  visiting  the  foreign  universities.  On  his  return,  in 
1615,  he  succeeded  Vossius  as  rector  of  the  coUeg^e  at 
Dort.  At  Utrecht  lie  was^  some  years  after,  appointed 
professor  of  history  ;  the  subjects  of  the  lectures  which  he 
gave  for  above  twenty-six  years,  were  taken  from  Tacitus. 
He  was  a  firm  supporter  of  the  Cartesian  philosophy,  and 
refused  to  have  any  hand  in  the  proceedings  of  the  univer- 
sity of  Utrecht  again^  Des  Cartes.  He  "died  Nov.  10, 1660. 
His  only  publication  was  a  "  Collection  of  Latin  Orations 
and  Poems,"  1651,  l2mo.* 

JEMlllUS  (Paulus).     See  EMILIUS. 

.^NEAS,  or  iENGUS,  an  Irish  abbot,  or  bishop,  and 
historian,  of  the  eighth  century,  called  Hagiographus, 
from  his  having  written  the  lives  of  the  saints,  desqended 
from  the  kings  of  Ulster  ;  and  was  reputed  one  of  the  Coli- 
dei,  or  Culdees,  worshippers  of  God,  on  account  of  his 
great  piety.  The  accounts  we  have  of  him  are  rather  con- 
fused ;  but  it  appears  that  he  took  extraordinary  pains  in 
compiling  ecclesiastical  histoiy  and  biography,  under  the 
names  of  martyrology,  fastology,  &c.  Sir  James  Ware 
iays,  that  his  martyrology  wjls  extant  in  his  time.  Moreri 
gives  an  account  of  it,  or  of  a  diffeirent  book  under  thr 

^  Mosheim.— Dictionnaire  Historiqu*,  1810*  ^. 

*  QcB.  2>i(au««-SiH(u  Onoinaiticoii.  ^ 


;E  N  E  A  S.  195 

title  ^^  De  Sanctu  Hibemiae,^  which  sihews  die  |n&t  labour 
bestowed  on  it,  or  the  fertility  of  his  iavefition  in  bringing 
together  such  a  mass  of  bio^aphical  legends.  It  consists 
of  five  books :  The  first  comprehends  three  hundred  and 
ft)rty-five  bishops,  two  hundred  and  ninety- nine  priests  or 
abbots,  and  seventy-eight  deacons,  all  men  of  eminence 
for  their  piety.  The  second  book,  entitled  the  Book  of 
homofwmieSf  is  a  wonderful  piece  of  labour,  and  compre- 
hends all  the  saints  who  have  borne  the  same  name.  The 
third  and  fourth  gives  an  account  of  their  families,  parti* 
cularly  the  maternal  pedigree  of  two  hundred  and  ten  Iridt 
saints.  The  fifth  book  contains  litanies  and  invocations  of 
saints,  &c.  He  is  said  also  to  have  written  the  history  of 
the  Old  Testament  in  very  elegant  verse,  and  a  psalter 
called  Na-rann,  which  is  a  collection,  in  prose  and  verse^ 
Latin  and  Irish,  concerning  the  affairs  of  Ireland.  He  ia 
thought  to  have  died  either  in  the  year  819,  824,  or  830. » 

iENEAS  (Gazeus),  a  Platonic  philosopher  in  the  fifth 
century,  embraced  Christianity^  and  wrote  a  dialogue  en* 
titled  "  Theophrastus,"  from  the  principal  speaker,  in 
which  he  treats  of  the  immortality  of  the  soul  and  the  re- 
surrection of  the  body.  He  appears  to  have  been  extreme- 
fy  credulous  in  miracles.  This  was  printed,  with  a  Latin 
translation,  and  the  notes  of  Gaspard  Barthius,  by  Bower, 
Leipsic,  1655,  4to.  John  George  Justiniani  published  an- 
other edition  at  Genoa,  1645,  ^<  cum  variorum  epistolia 
Ahdreolo  Justiniano  ^criptis."  A  translation,  with  oth^ 
pieces,  was  published  by  Wolfius,  Basle,  1558,  2  vols. 
8vo,  and  1561,  fol.  It  is  also  printed  in  Gesner^s  "  Libri 
Gr®ci  Theologorum  GrsBcorum,"  Zurich,  1559 — 1560, fol. 
Cave  says,  that  the  first  Latin  translation  was  published  at 
Basle  in  1 5 1 6,  by  Ambrosius  Camaldulensis.  * 

iENEAS  (SiLVius).     See  PIUS  IL 

^NEAS  (TACTifcus),  probably,  according  to  Casaubon, 
a  native  of  Stymphalus,  an  ancientcity  of  the  Peloponnesus 
16  one  of  the  oldest  authors  on  the  art  of  war :  he  is  sup- 
posed to  have  lived  in  the  time  of  Aristotle,  or  about  the 
year  $61  B.  C. ;  and  to  have  been  emperor  of  Arcadia,  and 
commander  at  the  battle  of  Manttnea.  Gasauboii  publisih- 
ed  his  work,  with  a  Latin  translatron,  along  with  his  edition 
<lf  *Polybiu»,  foL  Paris,  1 60^.    It  wa«  repdbli^cd  by  -Scri- 

►IHorcri,— Tanner.— Ware  de  Script.  Hibem.— Nicolion'f  Hiftpnofti  ilbrtry. 
*  ««I4  niot.«-^STe  rol.  I.-fi«xii  Onomastitoiil    ' 

0   2 

19e  JE  N  E  A  S. 

veriuSy  Lej^len,  1633,  ISmo,,  with  Vegetias  and  oflier^  ott 
military  affairs;  and  the  Count  de  Beausobre  published  a 
French  translationi  with  other  pieces  on  the  same  subject^ 
and  a  learned  commentary,  Paris,  1757,  2  vols.  4to.' 

JEPINUS  (Francis-Marie-Ulrick-Theodore),  a  Ger- 
man physician  of  considerable  eminence,  was  born  at  Ros- 
tock, Dec^  13,  1724,  and  died  at  Dorpt,  in  Livonia,  Aug« 
1802.  He  is  best  known  to  the  learned  world  by  his 
^^  Tentamen  theorisB  Electricitatis  et  Magnetismi,**  Per 
tersburgh,  4to ;  of  which  M.  HaUy  pubUshed  an  abridge-^ 
ment  and  analysis,  Paris,  1787,  8vo.  In  1762  he  also  pub- 
lished **  Reflections  on  the  distribution  of  Heat  on  the  sur- 
&ce  of  the  Earth,"  translated  afterwards  into  French  by 
Raoult  de  Rouen,  and  wrote  several  papers  in  the  memoirs 
of  the  academy  of  Petersburgh.  He  was  likewise  among^ 
the  first  who  made  correct  experiments  on  the  electricity  of 
the  tourmalin,  and  published  the  result  in  a  small  volume, 
8vp,  Petersburgh,  1762.  His  reputation  has  been  much 
greater  on  the  continent,  than  among  the  philosophers  of 
our  country;  probably  owing  to  the  very  slight  and  almost 
unintelligible  account  which  Dr.  Priestley  has  given  of  hia^ 
**  Tentamen,"  in  his  history  of  Electricity.  The  hon.  Mr. 
Cavendish  has  done  it  more  justice  in  thQ  Philosophical 
Transactions,  vol.  LXI,  where  his  own  excellent  dissertation 
is  an  extensive  and  accurate  explanation  of  iEpinus's  theory. 
But  a  more  elaborate  analysis  has  since  appeared  in  Dr. 
Gleig's  supplement  to  the  Encyclopaedia  Britannica,  to 
which  we  refer  our  readers.^ 

^PINUS  (John),  a  fellow-labourer  with  Luther  in  pro- 
moting the  Reformation,  was  bom  1499,  in  the  Marche  of 
Brandenburgh.  His  family  name  was  Huch,  or  Hech, 
which  he  changed  to  ^pinus,  a  custom  very  common  with 
the  learned  men  of  his  time.  He  was  originally  a  Francis- 
can firiar,  and  entered  that  society  when  in  England ;  but 
on  his  return  to  Germany  he  studied  under  Luther,  whose 
religious  principles  he  adopted,  and  propagated  with  zeal, 
fir&t  at  Stndsund,  and  afterwards  at  Hamburgh,  where,  as 
pastor  of  the  church  of  St.  Peter,  and  ecclesiastical  in- 
spector, he  obtained  great  influence.  In  1547,  when 
Charles  V.  endeavoured  to  obtrude  the  Interim  on  the  Pro- 
testantSy  after  he  had  defeated  their  forces,  and  after  the. 

<  den.  Diet— Saxii  Onomasticon.— Fabric.  Bibl.  Gr.       .  ^ 

•  Biographit  ViUTergeUe.«*J>r«  Glcig's  ;Suppl«^«iit  to  tit«  Eacyclop,  Brit,  avt. 

^SPINUS.  197 

^eatii  of  Luther,  he  opposed  this  species  of  formulary,  or 
confession  of  feith,  so  called  because  it  was  <ml]r  to  take 
place  in  the  tnterimf  until  a  general  council  should  decide 
all  the  points  in  question  between  the  Protestants  and  Ca« 
tholics.  It  indeed  satisfied  neither  party,  and  the  Lutheran 
preachers  refused  to  subscribe  to  it  Those  who  did  sub** 
scribe  got  the  name  of  adiapharisUj  or  indifferent  or  luke* 
warm  persons,  against  whom  ^pinus  contended,  both  iti 
the  pulpit  and  press.  He  died  May  13,  }  553,  leaving  se* 
veral  works,  of  which  Melchior  Adam  has  giren  the  sub- 
jects, but  no  notice  of  the  dates,  or  proper  titles/  In 
learning,  zeal,,  and  intrepid  spirit,  he  was  equal  to  most  of 
his  contemporaries  who  opposed  the  church  of  Rome^ ' 

£RIUS,  an  Arian  presbyter,  or  monk,  of  the  fourth  cen- 
tury, had  a  contest  with  Eustatfaius  for  the  bishoprick  of 
Sebastia  and  Armenia;  and  being .  disappointed,  endea- 
voured to  lessen  the  power  and  dignity  of  the  episcopal 
order,  by  maintaining  that  bisdiops  were  not  distinguished 
from  presbyters  by  any  divine  right,  but  that  according  to 
the  institution  of  the  New  Testament,  their  offices. and  au- 
thority were  absolutely  the  same.  As  about  this  time  there 
were  some  bishops  who  had  given  offence  by  their  arro- 
gance, these  opinions  of  ^rius  became  highly  popular,  and 
he  was  enabled  to  form  a  considerable  sect,  named  Brians. 
He  also  condemned  |»rayers  for  the  dead^  stated  fasts,  and 
the  celebration  of  Easter ;  but  whether  these  were  consti- 
tuent principles  with  his  followers,  does  not  appear.  Both 
they  and  he,  however,  were  opposed  by  the  Arians ;  and 
by  the  church  at  large,  excluded  from  churches  and  cities, 
and  obliged  to  associate  in  private  places  and  deserts,  as 
long  as  they  continued  a  party.  It  is  perhaps  unnecessary 
to  add,  that  their  opinion  respecting  the  equality  of  bishops 
and  presbyters  has  been  since  adopted  by  the  modem  pres- 
byterians,  and  has  been  ably  combated  by  writers  in  favour 
of  the  established  church.* 


AERTGEN,  or  AARTGEN,  a  painter  of  merit,  wa*  the 
son  of  a  wool-comber,,  and  born  at  Leyden  in  \Ai^l^  He 
worked  at  his  father^s  trade  till  he  was  eighteen,:  and  then, 
having  discovered  a  genius  for  designing,  he  was  placed 
with  Cornelius  Engelhechtz,  under. whom  he  made  a  coa% 

»  * 

1  Melchior  Adam.-^Moreri.-— Biographie  UnirerseUe« 
3  Mosheim  and  Lardper.-— 'Morerit 

S9f  A  E  R  T  ]G  E  N. 

ttderable  progress  in  pamting.  He  became  so  distdngaii 
that;  the  celebrated  Fraocis  Floris  weot  to  Ley den^  out  of 
mere  curiosity,  to  see  him,  and  being  directed  to  a  very 
mean  apartment^  when  Aertgen  was  absent,  he  drew  a  St. 
Luke  on  the  wall;  which  Aertgen  had  no  sooner  seen,  than 
he  exclaimed,  that  Floris  only  could  haire  done  it,  and  went 
immediately  in  search  of  him.  Floris  solicited  him  to  go  to 
Antwerp,  promising  him  wealth  and  rank  suitable  to  his 
laerit;  but  Aertgen  refosed,  dechffing  that  he  found  more 
sweets  in  his  poverty  than  others  did  in  their  riches.  It 
was  a  custom  with  this  painter  never  to  work  on  Mondays, 
but  to  devote  that  day  with  his  disciples  to  tbelbottle.  He 
used  to  stroll,  about  the  streets  in  the  night,  playing  on  the 
German  flute ;  and  in  one  of  those  frolics  he  was  drowned, 
in  1564.* 

AERSENS  (Peter),  called  by  the  Italians  Pietro  Longo^ 
from  hb  tailness^  was  a  celebrated  painter,  and  born  at  Am* 
iterdam  in  15L9«  His  father,  who  was  a  stocking-* maker, 
bad  intended;  to  train  him  in  his  own  way;  hut  the  naother^ 
finding  in  hiiti  an  inclination  towards  painting,  was  resolved 
that  her  son  should  pursue  his  genius,  even  though  she  al** 
ways  were  forced  to  spin  for  her  livelihood :  and  to  this  her 
husband  at  length  consented.  His  first  master  was  Aiart 
Claessen^  an  emhient  painter  in  Amsterdam,  under  whom 
be  so  distinguished  himself,  that  he  soon  engaged  the  at- 
tention -o£  the  great.  When  he  was  about  eighteen,  he 
went  to  Bossu  in  Hainault,  to*  view  the  pieces  of  several 
masters;  thence  to  Antwerp,  where  he  married  and  entered 
into  the  company  of  painters.  He  excelled  very  particu-^ 
larly  in  representing  a  kitchen;  and  generally,  upon  alt 
kinds  of  subjects.  An  altar-piece  of  his,  viz.  a  crucifix^ 
setting  forth  an  executioner  breaking  with  an .  iron  bar  the 
legs  of  the  thieves,  &c.  was  much  admired.  This  nob}« 
piece  was  destroyed  by  the  rabble  in  the  time  of  the  insure 
rection,  1566,  although  the  lady  of  Sonneveldt,  in  Alek-^ 
maer,  offered  200  crowns  for  its  redemption,  as  the  furious 
peasants  were  bringing  it  out  of  the  churdb  :  but  they  tore 
It. to  pieces,  tand  trod  it  under  foot.  This  he  afterward^i 
complained  of  to  the  populace  in  terms  of  such  severity, 
tfaat  more  thaa  once  they  were  going  to  murder  him.  Pil- 
kington,  however,  speaks  of  a  fine  altar-piece  of  his  at  Am-* 
sterdam,  representing  the  death  of  the  Virgin,  as  still  esiat- 

}  Biofraphie  Unirerselle.*— Baldinucci  notizie  de  profess!. 

A  E  R  S  E  N  S,  l$t 

lag ;  and  of  a  Nativity  and  the  Wi$6  Men's  Offering  at  Delft^ 
1)Qth.excellent  performances.  He  was  well  skilled  in  per^ 
spective  and  architecture,  and  enriched  his  grounds  with 
elegant  ornaments  aiid  aDimals.  His  figures  were  well  dis* 
posed;  their  attitudes  had  abundance  o?  variety,  and  their 
draperies  were  well  chosen  and  well  cast*  He  died  in  1 5B5j^ 
leaving  three  sons,  who  succeeded  in  his  profession.  H^ 
had  a  mean  aspect,  which  he  did  not  amend  by  any  atten-. 
tion  to  the  exterior ;  for  he  always  appeared  very  meanly 

^SCHINES,  a  Socratic  philosopher,  in  the  fourth  cen« 
tury  B.  C.  was  an  Athenian  of  mean  birth,  but  discovered 
an  early  thirst  after  knowledge,  and,  though  oppressed  by 
poverty,  devoted  himself  to  the  pursuit  of  wisdom,  under 
the  tuition  of  Socrates.  When  he  first  became  his  disciple, 
be  told  Socrates,  that  the  only  thing  which  it  was  in  his 
power  to  present  him,  in  acknowledgment  of  his  kind  in-, 
structions,  was  himself.  Socrates  replied,  that  he  accepted 
and  valued  the  present,  but  that  he  hoped  to  render  it  more 
valuable  by  culture.  iEschines  adhered,  to  this  master  with 
unalterable  fidelity  and  perseverance,  and  enjoyed  bis  par* 
ticular  friendship.  Having  spent  many  years  in  Athens^* 
without  being  able  to  rise  above  the  poverty  of  his  birth,  ha 
determined,  after  the  example  of  Plato  and  others,,  to  visit 
the  court  of  Dionysius,  the  tyrant  of  Sicily,  who  at  this  time 
had  the  reputation  of  being  ageneral  patron  of  philosophers. 
On  his  arrival  at'  Syracuse,  though  slighted  on  account  of 
his  poverty  by  Plato,  he  was  introduced  to  the  prince  by 
Aristippus,  and  was  liberally  rewarded  for  his  Socratic  dia*« 
logues.  He  remained  in  Sicily  till  the  expulsion  of  th%, 
tyrant,  and  then  returned  to  Athens.  Here,  not  daring  ta 
become  a  public  rival  of  PJato  or  Aristippus,  he  taught  phi* 
losopfay  in  private,  and  received  payment  for  hjs  instruct 
tions.  Afterwards,  in  order  to  provide  himself  with  a  more 
plentiful  subsistenqe,  he  appeared  as  a  public  orator;  and 
Demosthenes,  probably  because  he  was  jealous  of  his  abili^ 
ties  (for  he  excelled  in  eloquence),  became  his  opponent; 
The  time  when  he  died  is  not  known.  He  wrote  seven 
Socratic  dialogues,  in  the  true  spirit  of  his  master,  on  tem« 
perance,  moderation,  humanity,  integrity,  and  other  virtues^ 
under  the  titles,  Miltiades,  Callias,  Hhinon,  Aspasia,  Alcir 
blades,  A^iochus,  and  Telauges.     Of  these  only  three  ai^ 

I  PUklpgton. 

200  iE  S  C  H  I  N  E  S. 

extant,  the  best  edition  orwhich  is  by  Le  Clerc,  Amsterdam^ 
1711,  8vo.  There  is  another  valuable  edition,  with  the 
notes  of  Horreeus,  Leovard.  1788,  8vo.» 

^SCHINES,  a  celebrated  Greek  orator,  contemporary 
with  Demosthenes,  to  whom  he  was  little  inferior,  was  bom 
at  Athens  327  years  B,  C.  He  is  said  to  have  been  of  dis* 
tinguished  birthi  although  Demosthenes  reports  that  he  was 
the  son  of  a  courtezan :  but  whatever  his  birth  may  have 
been,  his  talents  were  very  considerable.  His  declamations 
against  Philip  king  of  Macedon,  first  brought  him  into  no* 
tice.  Demosthenes  and  hie  were  rivals;  but  Demosthenes 
having  vanquished  him  in  a  solemn  debate,  he  went  to 
Rhodes,  and  opened  a  school  there,  beginning  his  lectures 
by  reading  the  two  orations  which  occasioned  his  removal 
thither.  When  they  excessively  applauded  that  of  De- 
mosthenes, he  was  generous  enough  to  say,  "  What  would 
you  have  thought  if  you  had  heard  him  thunder  out  the 
words  himself!"  He  afterwards  remored  to  Samos,  where 
'  he  died  at  the  age  of  75.  There  are  only  three  of  his  ora- 
tions extant,  which  however  are  so  very  beautiful,  that  Fa- 
bricius  compares  them  to  the  three  graces.  One  is  against 
Timarchus  his  accuser,  whom  he  treated  so  severely,  as  to 
make  him  weary  of  life ;  and  some  have  said,  that  he  did 
actually  lay  violent  hands  upon  himself.  Another  is  an 
**  Apology'*  for  himself  against  Demosthenes,  who  had  ac- 
cused him  of  perfidy  in  an  "  Embassy"  to  Philip.  The 
thiril  ^'  against  Ctesiphon,"  who  had  decreed  the  golden 
crown  to  Demosthenes,  This  excellent  oration,  together 
with  that  of  Demosthenes  against  it,  was  translated  by  Ci- 
cero into  Latin,  as  St.  Jerome  and  Sidonius  inform  us.  The 
three  orations  were  published  by  Aldus  1513,  and  by  Henry 
Stephens  among  other  orators,  1 575,  in  Greek.  They  are,  as 
might  have  been  necessarily  expected,  inserted  in  Reiske's 
valuable  edition  of  the  Grecian  orators.  There  are  also  attri- 
buted to  ^schines  twelve  epistles,  which  Taylor  has  added 
to  his  edition  of  the  orations  of  Demosthenes  and  £schines. 
They  have  also  been  published,  with  various  readings,  by  I. 
Samuel  Sammet,  Leipsic,  1772,  8vo.  Wolfius  has  given  them 
in  his  edition  of  Demosthenes,  with  a  Latin  version  and  notes, 
1604 ;  and  this  edition  is  most  esteemed.  *  The  abb£  Auger 
published  a  French  translation  pf  ^schines  and  Demo- 
sthenes, in  6  vols.  8vo,  JParis,  1789  and  liJ04.    Of  his  con- 

1  Jracker.^— Fabr.  Bibl.  Gr,— Stanley's  Hist,  of  Philosophy^— -Saxii  Ouoniast. 

£  S  C  H  I  N  E  S.  201 

test  with  Demosthenes,  Dr.  Blair  gives  this  opinion ;  De- 
mosthenes appears  to  great  advantage,  when  contrasted  with 
iEschines,  in  the  celebrated  oration  pro  Corona,  ^scbines 
was  his  rival  in  business,  and  his  personal  enemy ;  and  one 
of  the  most  distinguished  orators  of  that  age.  But  when 
we  read  the  two  orations,  iEschines  is  feeble  in  comparison 
of  Demosthenes,  and  makes  much  less  impression  on  the 
mind.  His  reasonings  concerning  the  law  that  "^as  in  ques* 
tion,  are  indeed  very  subtile;  but  his  invective  against  De- 
mosthenes is  general,  and  ill  supported;  whereas  Demo- 
sthenes is  a  torrent,  that  nothing  can  resist.  He  bears  down 
his  antagonist  with  violence;  he  draws  his  character  in  the 
strongest  colours;  and  the  particular  merit  of  that  oration 
is^  diat  all  the  descriptions  in  it  are  highly  picturesque.' 

^SCHYLUS,  one  of  the  most  eminent  tragic  poets  of 
ancient  times,  was  bom  at  Athens.  Authors  differ  in  re- 
gard to  the  time  of  his  birth^  some  placing  it  in  the  65th, 
others  in  the  70th  olympiad;  but  according  to  Stanley, 
who  relies  on  the  Arundeiian  marbles,  he  was  born  in  the 
63d  olympiad,  or  about  iOO  years  B.  C.  He  was  the  son  of 
Euphorion,  and  brother  to  Cynegirus  and  Aminias,  who 
distinguished  themselves  in  the  battle  of  Marathon,  aiid  the 
sea-fight  of  S^lamis ;  at  which  engagement  iEschylus  was 
likewise  present.  In  this  last  action,  according  to  Diodo- 
rus  Siculus,  Aminias,  the  younger  of  the  three  brothers, 
commanded  a  squadron  of  ships,  and  behaved  with  so  much 
conduct  and  bravery,  that  he  sunk  the  admiral  of  the  Per- 
sian fleet,  and  signalized  himself  above  all  the  Athenians. 
To  this  brother  our  poet  was,  upon  a  particular  occasion, 
pbliged  for  saving  his  life,  ^lian  relates,  that  ^schylus, 
being  charged  by  the  Athenians  with  certain  blasphemous 
expressions  in  some  of  his  pieces,  was  accused  of  impiety, 
and  condemned  to  be  stoned  to  death.  They  were  just 
going  to  put  the  sentence  in  execution,  when  Aminias, 
with  a  happy  presence  of  mind,  throwing  aside  his  cloak, 
shewed  his  arm  without  a  hand,  which  he  had  lost  at  the 
battle  of  Salamis,  in  defence  of  his  country.  This  sight 
made  such  an  impression  on  the  judges,  that,  touched  with 
the  remembrance  of  his  valour,  and  the  friendship  he 
shewed  for  his  brother,  they  pardoned  ^schylus.  Our 
poet  however  resented  the  indignity  of  this  prosecution, 
^nd  resolved  to  leave  a  place  where  his  life  had  been  in 

'    \  Fabr,  Bibl.  Gnec-^Sazii  Onomasticon<— Blaif  s  Lectures. 

202  iE  S  C  H  Y  L  U  S. 


danger.  He  became  more  determined  in  this  resolutiortj^ 
when  he  found  his  pieces  less  pleasing  to  the  Athenian^t 
than  those  of  SophocieS)  though  a  much  younger  writer. 
$imonides  had  likewise  won  the  prize  from  him,  in  aa 
elegy  upon  the  battle  of  Marathon. .  Suidas  having  said 
that  JEschylus  retired  into  Sicily,  because  the  seats  broke 
down  during  the  representation  of  one  of  his  tragedies^ 
some  have  taken  this  literally,  without  considering  that  ia 
this  sense  such  an  accident  did  great  honour  to  iEschylus  i 
buty  according  to  Joseph  Scaliger,  it  was  a  phrase  amongst 
the  con^edians ;  and  he  was  said  to  break  down  the  seats,^ 
whose  piece  could  not  stand,  but  fell  to  the  ground.  Some 
affirm,  that  ^scbylus  never  sat  down  to  compose  but  when 
he  had  drunk  liberally*  This  perhaps  was  in  allusion  to 
bis  esxessive  imagination,  which  was  apparent  in  an  ab-^ 
rupt,  impetuous,  and  energetic  style.  They  who  could 
not  relish  the  sublimer  beauties  of  language,  might  per-' 
haps  have  ascribed  his  rapid  and  desultory  n^nner,  rather 
to  the  fumes  of  wine  than  to  the  result  of  reason*.  He 
wrote  agreatnumber  of  tragedies,  of  which  there  are  but 
seven  remaining;  viz,  Prometheus,  the  Seven  Champions 
before  Thebes,  the  Persae,  the  Agamemnon,  the  Choephorsej^ 
the  Eumenides,  and  the  Suppliant  Virgins ;  and  in  these 
it  is  evident,  that  if  he  was  not  the  father,  he  was  the  great 
improver  of  the  Grecian  stage.  In  the  time  of  Thespis 
there  was  no  public  theatre  to  act  upon;  the  strollers  drove 
about  from  place  to  place  in  a  cart.  iEschylus  furnished 
his  actors  with  masks,  and  dressed  them  suitably  to  their 
characters.  He  likewise  introduced  the  buskin,  to  make 
them  appear  more  like  heroes;  and  the  ancients  give 
iElschylus  the  praise  of  having  been  the  first  who  removed 
murders  and  shocking  sights  from  the  eyes  of  the  specta- 
tors. He  is  said  likewise  to  have  lessened  the  number  of 
the  chorus;  but  perhaps  this  reformation  was  owing  to  an 
accident;  in  his  Eumenides,  the  chorus,  which  consisted  of 
fifty  persons,  appearing  on  the  stage  with  frightful  habits, 
had  such  an  effect  on  tbe  spectators,  that  the  women  with 
child  miscarried,  and  the  children  fell  into  fits;  which  oc«* 
casioned  a  law  to  be  made  to  reduce  the  chorus  to  fifteen* 
Mr.  Le  Fevre  has  observed,  that  iEschylus  never  repreni 
sented  women  in  love,  in  his  tragedies,  which,  he  says,  was 
not  suited  to  bis  genius ;  but  in  representing  a  woman  trans- 
ported vrith  fury,  he  was  incomparable.     Longiqus  says. 

iE  S  e  H  Y  L  U  &  J80S 

that  .£scliy^us  ba&  a  noble  boldness  of  expression;  aa4 
that  his  imagination  is  lofty  and  heroic.  It  must  be  owned^ 
however,  that  he  affected  pompous  words,  and  that  his 
sense  is  too  oft^n  obscured  by  figures.  But,  notwithstand** 
ing  these  imperfections,  this  poet  was  held  in  great  vene*** 
ration  by  the  Athenians,  who  made  a  public  decree  that  his 
tragedies  should  be  played  after  his  death.  When  £scfay<^ 
lus  retired  to  the  court  of  Hiero  king  of  Sicily,  thi^  prince 
^as  then  building  the  city  of  iEtna,  and  our  poet  cele^ 
brated  the  new  city  by  a  tragedy  of  the  same  name.  After 
having  lived  some  years  at  Gel  a,  we  are  told  that  he  died 
of  a  fracture  of  his  skull,  caused  by  an  eagle  letting  fall  a 
tortoise  on  his  head ;  and  that  this  death  is  said  to  have 
been  predicted  by  an  oracle,  which  had  foretold  that  he 
should  die  by  somewhat  from  the  heavens.  He  died,  hour^ 
ever,  by  whatever  means,  according  to  Mr.  Stanley,  in  the 
69th  year  of  his  age.  He  had  the  honour  of  a  pompous 
funeral  from  the  Sicilians,  who  buried  him  near  the  river 
Gela;  and'the  tragedians  of  the  country  performed  plays 
and  theatrical  exercises  at  his  tomb ;  upon  which  was  in-* 
scribed  aq,  epitaph,  celebrating  him  only  for  his  valour  at 
the  battle  of  Marathon. 

He  has  been  justly  compared  to  Shakspeare  for  energyr 
of  style~  and  sentiment,  for  expression  of  character  and 
passion,  often  by  the  happiest  use  of  trivial  circumstances. 
His  merits  have  been  skilfully  analysed  by  the  author  of 
the  Observer,  No.  132,  133,  and  134,  who,  it  is  now 
known,  derived  his  materials  from  the  unpublished  writings 
of  Dr.  Bentley,  and  perhaps  yet  better  by  the  abb^  Barthe^ 
lemy,  in  his  Anacharsis. 

The  editions  of  i£schylus  are  very  numerous.  The  best 
are  those  of  Rob^rtellus,  Venet.  1552,  8vo;  Victorius, 
Paris,  1557,  4to;  Canterus,  Antwerp,  1580,  12mo;  Stan* 
ley,  London,  1663 — 1664,  fol.  from  the  text  of  Canter,  a 
magniiicent  book,  containing  the  scholia,  fragtnents,  the 
notes  and  prefaces  of  preceding  editors,  and  the  annota* 
tions  of  the  very  learned  editor  himself.  Another  mag- 
nifieent  edition  of  Glasgow,  1795,  fol.  from  the  text  of  the 
late  professor  Person,  is  said  to  be  incorrect.  The  learned 
professor's  genuine  edition  was  published  in  1306,  2  vols, 
9vo,  and  contains  many  admirable  improvements  of  the 
text.  It  is  much  to  be  regretted,  that  the  notes  have  not 
appeared.    The  English  reader  has  been  introduced  to  the 

204  iE  S  O  P. 

beauties  of  iEschylus  by  the  elegant  poetical  translation 
of  Mr.  Potter,  published  in  1777.» 

-SSOP,  the  fabulist.  Of  this  man,  the  reputed  author 
of  many  fables,  it  is  very  doubtful  whether  we  are  ill  pos- 
session of  any  authentic  biography.  The  life  by  Planudes, 
a  monk  of  the  fourteenth  century,  is  universally  considered 
as  a  series  of  fictions:  and  the  notices  of  him  in  writers  of 
better  authority,  are  not  sufficiently  consistent  to  form  a 
narrative.  The  particulars  usually  given,  however,  are  as 
follow.  He  was  born  at  Amorium,  a  small  town  in  Phry- 
gia,  in  the  beginning  of  the  sixth  century  before  the 
Christian  sera,  and  was  a  slave  to  two  philosophers,  Xan* 
thus  and  Idmon,  the  latter  of  whom  gave  him  his  liberty, 
on  account  of  his  good  behaviour  and  pleasantry.  The 
philosophers  of  Greece  gained  a  name  by  their  lofty  sen- 
tences, clothed  in  lofty  words ;  iEsop  assumed  a  more  sim* 
pie  and  familiar  style,  and  became  not  less  celebrated. 
He  taught  virtue  and  ridiculed  vice,  by  giving  a  language 
to  animals  and  inanimate  things ;  and  composed  those  bi- 
bles, which  under  the  mask  of  allegory,  and  with  all  the 
interest  of  fable^  convey  the  most  useful  lessons  in  mo- 
rality. The  fame  of  his  wisdom  spreading  over  Greece 
and  the  adjoining  countries,  Croesus,  the  king  of  L3rdiay 
sent  for  him,  and  was  his  generous  benefactor.  There  he 
found  Solon,  whom  he  soon  equalled  in  favour,  however 
different  his  mode  of  conducting  himself.  Solon  preserved 
his  austerity  in  the  midst  of  a  corrupt  court,  was  a  philoso- 
pher among  courtiers,  and  often  offended  Croesus  by  ob- 
truding his  advice,  who  at  last  dismissed  him.  "  Solon,'* 
said  ^sop,  ^^  let  us  not  address  kings,  or  let  us  say  what  is 
agreeable."  "  By  no  means,"  replied  the  philosopher, 
**  let  us  either  say  nothing,  or  tell  them  what  is  profitable.'* 
JEsop  made  frequent  excursions  from  the  court  of  Lydia 
into  Greece.  When  Pisistratus  assumed  the  chief  power 
at  Athens,  iEsop,  who  witnessed  the  dissatisfaction  of  the 
people,  repeated  to  them  his  fable  of  the  frogs  petitioning 
Jupiter  for  a  king.  He  afterwards  travelled  through  Persia 
and  Egypt,  everywhere  inculcating  morality  by  his  fables. 
The  kings  of  Babylon  and  Memphis  received  him  with  dis- 
tinguished honour;  and  on  his  return  to  Lydia,  Croesus 
sent  him  with  a  sum  of  money  to  Delphi,  where  he  was  to 
offer  a  magnificent  sacrifice  to  the  god  of  the  place,  and 

f  Gen.  Diet. — ComberIand*s  Observer. — British  Essayutg,  vol.  XL.-^DihdiVi^ 
Classics.—- BibUographicalDicU — Saxii  Onomasticon.— fAiiachartLi«  vol.  V^ 

^  S  O  p.  205 

distribute  a  certain  sum  of  mcmey:  to'  each  of  the  inhabit- 
ants. But  being  offended  by  the  people,  he  offered  his 
sacrifice,  and  sent  the  rest  of  the  money  to  Sardis,  repre- 
4senting  the  Delphiansr  as  unworthy  of  his  master's  bounty. 
In  revenge,  they  threw  him  from  the  t6p  of,  a  rock.  Ail 
Greece  was  interested  in  his  fate,  and  at  Athens  a  statue 
was  erected  to  his  memory.  Lurcher,  in  his  notes  an 
Herodotus,  fixes  his  death  in  the  560th  year  before  the 
Christian  aera,  under  the  reign  of  Pisistratus.  Planudes, 
who,  as  already  observed,  wrote  his  life,  represents  him 
as  exceedingly  deformed  in  person,  and  defective  in  his 
speech,  for  which  there  seems  no  authority.  It  is  to  this 
monk,  however,  that  we  owe  the  first  collection  of  Msop*s 
Fables,  such  as  we  now  have  them,  mixed  with  many  by 
other  writers,  some  older,  and  some  more  modern  than  the 
time  of  ^sop.  He  wrote  in  prose ;  and  Socrates,  when 
in  prison,  is  said  to  have  amused  himself  by  turning  some 
of  them  into  verse.  Plato,  who  banished  Homer  and  the 
other  poets  from  his  republic,  as  the  corruptors  of  man- 
kind, retained  £sop  as  being  their  preceptor.  Some  are 
of  opinion,  that  Lockman,  so  famotis  among  the  orientals, 
and  Pilpay  among  the  Indians,  were  one  and  the  same 
with  ^sop.  Whatever  may  be  in  this,  or  in  the  many 
other  conjectures  and  reports,  to  be  fqu;id  in  the  authori^ 
ties  cited  below,  the  fables  of  JEsop  may  surely  be  con- 
sidered as  the  best  models  of  a  species  of  instructive  com^ 
position,  that  has  been  since  attempted  by  cejtain  men  of 
learning  and  fancy  in  all  nations,  and  particularly  our  own; 
nor  will  it  be  easy  to  inVent  a  mode  of  arresting  and  en- 
gaging the  attention  of  the  young  to  moral  truths,  more 
pleasant  or  more  successful.  The  best  editions  of  iEsop 
are  those  of  Plantin,  Antwerp,  1565,  16mo;  of  Aldus, 
with  other  fabulists,  Venice,  1505,  fol.  and  Franckfort, 
1610;  that  called  Barlow's,  or  ^' iEsopi  Fabularum,  cum 
Vita,"  London,  1666,  fol.  in  Latin,  French,  and  English; 
the  French  and  Latin  by  Rob.  Codrington,  with  plates  by 
Barlow,  now  very  rare,  as  a  great  part  of  the  edition  was 
burnt  in  the  fire  of  London;  Hudson's,  published  under 
the  nanie  of  Marianus  (a  member  of  St.  Mary  Hall),  Ox- 
ford, 1718,  8vo.  They  have  been  translated  into  all  mo- 
dern languages;  and  CroxaU's  and  Dodsley's  editions  de- 
serve praise,  on  account  of  the  life  of  iEsop  prefixed  to  each.  \ 

*  Diet.  Hist.— Atheonum,  toI.  III.— Work?  of  the  Learned,  vol,  I.  p.  94.— 
6en.  Diet,  fcc 

:  yESOP,  a  Greek  historian,  wrote  a  romantic  history  oi 
Alexander  the  Great :  but  it  is  not  known  at  what  timo  he 
lived.  His  work  was  translated  into  Latin  by  one  Julius 
Valerius,  who  is  not  better  known  than  Msop.  Freinshe* 
ifiitts  has  the  following  passage  concerning  this  work  :  *'  Ju* 
Kus  Valerius  wrote  a  fabulous  Latin  history  of  Alexander, 
which  by  some  is  ascribed  to  iEsop,  by  others  to  Callis- 
thenes.  Hence  Antoninus,  Vincentius,  Uspargensis,  and 
ethers,  have  taken  their  romantic  tales*  Barthius,  in  his 
Adversaria,  says :  ^  There  are  many  such  things  in  the 
learned  monk,  who  some  years  ago  published  a  life  of 
Alexander  the  Great,  full  of  the  most  extravagant  fictions ; 
yet  this  romance  had  formerly  so  much  credit,  that  it  is 
quoted  as  an  authority  even  by  the  best  writers.  Whether 
this  extraordinary  history  was  ever  published  I  know  not ; 
I  have  it  in  manuscript,  but  I  hardly  think  it  worthy  of  a 
place  in  my  library."  It  is  the  same  author  that  Francis- 
Cus  Juretus  mentions  under  the  name  of  iEsop.  The  work 
was  published  in  German  at  Strasburgh,   1486. ' 

^SOP  (Clodius),  ^a  celebrated  actor,  who  flourished 
about  the  670th  year  of  Rome-  He  and  Roscius  were  con- 
temporaries, and  the  best  performers  who  ever  appeared 
upon  the  Roman  stage  ;  the  former  excelling  in  tragedy, 
the  latter  in  comedy.  Cicero  put  himself  under  theit  di- 
rection to  perfect  his  action,  ^sop  lived  in  a  most  expen- 
sive manner,  and  at  one  entertainment  is  said  to  have  had 
a  dish  which  jcost  above  800/. ;  this  dish  we  are  told  was 
filled  with  singing  and  speaking  birds,  some  of  which  cost 
near  50/.  Pliny  (according  to  Mr.  Bayle)  seems  to  refine 
too  much,  when  he  supposes  that  iEsop  found  no  other 
delight  in  eating  those  birds  but  as  they  were  imita« 
tors  of  mankind;  and  says  that  ^sop  himself  being  an 
actor  was  but  a  copier  of  man  ;  and  therefore  he  should 
B0t  have  been  lavish  in  destroying  those  birds,  which,  like 
himself,  copied  mankind.  The  delight  which  JEsop  took 
in  this  sort  of  birds  proceeded,  as  Mr.  Bayle  observes,  from 
the  expence.  He  did  not  make  a  dt^h  of  them  because 
Aey  could  speak,  but  because  of  their  extraordinary  price. 
JEsop's  son  was  no  less  luxurious  than  his  father,  for  he 
dissolved  pearls  for  his  guests  to  swallow.  Some  speak  of 
this  as  a  common  practice  of  his,  but  others  mention  his 
fjidling  into  this ,  excess  only  on  a  particular  day^  when  he 

I  Qm.  Diet 

JE  S  O  P*  $07 

iinM  treating  his  friends.     Horace  speaks  only  of  one  peail 
of  great  vsuue,  which  he  dissolved  in  vinegar,  and  drank. 

^sop,  notwithstanding  his  expences,  is  said  to  have 
died  worth  above  160,000/.  When  he  was  npon  the  stage, 
he  entered  into  his  part  to  such  a  degree,  as  sometimes  to 
be  seized  with  a  perfect  ecstacy.  Plutarch  mentions  it  as 
reported  of  him,  that  vtdiilst  he  was  representing  Atreus 
deliberating  how  he  should  revenge  himself  on  Thyestes, 
he  was  so  transported  beyond  himself  in  the  heat  of  action^ 
that  wilii  his  truncheon  he  smote  one  of  the  servants  cross-* 
ing  the  stage,  and  laid  him  dead  on  the  place. ' 

^THERIUS,  was  an  architect  of  the  6th  century,  un- 
der the  reign  of  Anastasius  I.  emperor  of  the  east,  wha 
stowed  many  honours  upon  him,  and  admitted  him  into 
bis  council.  He  is  said  to  have  built  the  great  wall,  or- 
dered by  Anastasius,  to  preserve  Constantinople  from  the 
inroads  of  the  Huns,  Goths,  and  Bulgarians.  It  was 
eighteen  leagues  in  length,  and  twenty  feet  in  breadth* 
He  built  also  several  edifices  in  Constantinople,  particulariy 
the  Chalcis  in  the  grand  palace.  ^ 

^TION,  a  Greek  painter,  highly  praised  by  Cicero 
and  Lucian,  painted  a  picture,  which  he  exhibited  at  the 
Olympic  games,  the  subject  of  which  was  the  nuptials  of 
Alexander  the  Great  and  Roxana.  It  was  so  much  ap- 
plauded, that  Proxenidas,  who  was  one  of  the  judges  ap« 
pointed  to  decide  on  the  merits  of  the  artists,  enchanted 
with  the  talents  oi  ^tion,  bestowed  on  him  his  daughter 
in  marriage.  Lucian  says  that  he  saw  this  picture  in  Italy, 
and  gives  a  very  accurate  description  of  it,  from  which 
Raphael  sketched  one  of  his  richest  compositions. ' 

^TIUS,  a  heretic  of  the  fourth  century,  and  by  some 
surnamed  The  Atheist,  as  being  one  of  the  first  opposers 
of  the  doctrine  of  the  Trinity,  was  born  at  Antioeh,  the 
son  of  a  person  reduced  in  his  circumstances,  and  was  con- 
sequently obliged  to  work  at  the  trade  of  goldsmith  for  a 
livelihood.  He  afterwards  studied,  and  with  considerable 
success,  at  Alexandria,  whence  he  returned  to  Antiech, 
and  was  ordained  deacon  by  Leon  tins,  then  bishop  of  that 
city.  What  his  principles  were  is  not  very  clear.  Theo- 
doret  says,  he  improved  upon  the  blasphemies  of  Arius  3 
and  for  that  reason  was  banished  by  the  emperor  Con* 
atantius  into  a  remote  part  of  Phrygia,     The  emperor 

.  * 

A  '<3en.  Diet.'  *  Biographk  Univertelle. 

f  M«rori.--*BiQgr»plu«  Uairerselle, 

20S  ^  T  I  US- 

•  .  •  •     • 

Julian  recalled  him,  and  enriched  him  with  an  est^te^ 
Others  insinuate  that  he  was  a  defender  of  faith  in  oppo-^ 
sition  to  works,  and  leaned  to  the  Antinomian  extreme. 
The  displeasure  of  the  orthodox,  however,  was  such  that 
he  had  the  surname  of  Atheist.  Atbanasius  gives  him  the 
same  appellation,  and  Cave  says,  justly.  Epiphanius  has 
preserved  a  small  book,  containing  forty-seven  erroneous 
propositions  of  ^tiu^,  which  he  answered.  His  followers 
were  called,  from  his  name,  ^Etians.  Their  distinguishing 
principle  was,  that  the  Son  and  the  Holy  Ghost  are  in  all 
things  unlike  the  Father. ' 

^TIUS,  a  physician  of  Armida,  a  town  of  Mesopotamia, 
lived  about  the  end  of  the  5th  or  the  beginning  of  the  6th 
century.  The  work  for  which  he  is  now  known  is  hia 
"  Tetrabiblos,"  a  compilation  from  all  the  physicians  who 
preceded  him,  particularly  Galen,  Archigenes,  Dioscorides, 
&c.  He  describes  also  som6  new  disorders,  and  throws 
out  some  opinions^  not  known  before  his  time,  respecting 
the  diseases  of  the  eye,  and  the  use  of  outward  applications^ 
Partaking  of  the  credulity  of  his  time,  he  describes  all  thq 
pretended  speciBcs,  charms,  and  amulets  in  vogue  among 
the  Egyptians,  which  forms  a  curious  part  of  his  writings^ 
What  he  says  on  surgical  topics  is  thought  most  valuable. 
The  work,  by  the  various  transcribers,  has  been  divided 
mto  four  Tetrabiblons,  and  each  into  four  discourses ;  and 
originally  appears  to  have  consisted  of  sixteen  books.  The 
first  eight  only  were  printed  in  Greek,  at  Venice,  by  the 
heirs  of  Aldus  Manutius,  1534,  fol.  The  others  remain 
in  manuscript  in  the  libraries  of  Vienna  and  Paris.  There 
have  been  many  editions  in  Latin,  of  the  translation  of 
Janus  Cornarius,  under  the  title  of  "  Contractae  ex  veteri- 
bus  Medicinae  Tetrabiblos,"  Venice,  1543,  8vo;  Basle, 
1542,  1549,  fol.;  another  at  Basle,  1535,  fol.  translated 
by  J.  B.  Montanus;  two  at  Lyons,  1549,  fol.  and  1560, 
4  vols.  12mo,  with  the  notes  of  Hugo  de  Soleriis;  and  one 
at  Paris,  1567,  fol.  among  the  "  Medicw  artis  principes.** 
Dn  Freind  has  adverted  to  iEtius,  in  his  history,  more 
than  to  almost  any  ancient  writer,  but  has  not  the  same 
Opinion  of  his  surgical  labours  as  is  expressed  above.  Some 
writers  have  confounded  this  £tius  with  the  subject  of  the 
preceding  article.  * 

*  Lardner's  VTorkSi-^ave,  toK  L 

«  Biographie  UniveneUe.^tiancr  BibY.  Med.  Pnct— FrtU'i  Hiitorjr  of 
Physic— Manget  Bibl. 

A  F  £  ft.  209 

AFEU  (DoMlTius),  a  famous  orator^  born  at  NismeSy 
fifteea  or  sixteen  years  B.  C.  and  flourished  under  Ca- 
ligula, Claudiusj^  and  Nero.  He  was  elected  to  the  pr»- 
torsbip ;  but,  not  being  afterwards  promoted  according  to 
his  ambitious  expectations,  and  desirous  at  any  rate  to 
advance  himself,  he  turned  informer  against  Claudia 
Pulchra,  cousin  of  Agrippina,  and  pleaded  himself  in 
that  affair.  Having  gained  this  cause,,  he  was  ranked 
amongst  the  first  orators,  and  got  into  favour  with  Tibe- 
rius, who  hated  Agrippina  :  but  this  princess  not  thinking 
Domitius  the  author  of  this  process,  did  not  entertain  the 
least  resentment  against  him.  The  encomiums  passed  by 
the  emperor  on  the  eloquence  of  Domitius,  made  him 
now  eagerly  pursue  the  profession  of  an  orator  j  so  ijiat 
he  yi^2LS  seldom  without  some  accusation  or  defence,  by 
which  he  acquired  a  greater  reputation  for  his  eloquence 
than  his  probity.  In  the  779th  year  of  Rome,  he  carried 
on  an  accusation  against  Claudia  Pulchra ;  and  the  year 
following,  Quintilius  Varus  her  son  was  impeached  by  him 
and  Publius  Dolabella.  It  was  not  surprising  that  Afer,  who 
had  been  poor  for  many  years,  and  squandered  the  money 
got  by  former  impeachments,  $hould  return  to  this  prac- 
tice ;  but  it  was  matter  of  great  surprise  that  one  who  was 
a  relation  of  Varus,  and  of  such  an  illustrious  family  as 
that  of  Publius  Dolabella,  should  associate  with  this  in- 
former. Afer  had  a  high  reputation  as  an  orator  for  a 
considerable  time,  but  this  he  lost  by  continuing  to  plead 
when  age  had  impaired  the  faculties  of  his  mind. 

Quintilian,  in  his  youth,  cultivated  the  friendship  of 
Domitius  very  assiduously.  He  tells  us  that  his  ])leadings 
abounded  with  pleasant  stories,  and  that  there  were  public 
collections  of  his  witty  sayings,  sopie  of  which  he  quotes- 
He  also  mentions  two  books  of  his,  "  On  Witnesses."  Do- 
mitius was  once  in  great  danger  from  an  inscription  he 
put  upon  a  statue  erected  by  him  in  honour  of  Caligula, 
wherein  he  declared,  that  this  prince  was  a  second  time 
consul  at  the  age  of  27.  This  he  intended  as  an  enco- 
mium ;  but  Caligula,  taking  it  as  a  sarcasm  upon  his  youth, 
and  his  infringement  of  the  laws,  raised  a  process  against 
him,  and  pleaded  himself  in  person.  Domitius,  instead 
ef  making  a  defence,  repeated  part  of  the  emperor's 
speech,  with  the  highest  marks  of  admiration  ;  after  which 
befell  upon  his  knees,  ami  beggiqg  pardon,  declared,  that 
he  dreaded  more  the  eloquence  of  Caligula  than  his  im- 

Vol.  L  P 

«10  A  F  E  R. 

perial  power.    This  piece  of  flattery  succeeded  so  well, 
that  the  emperor  not  only  pardoned^  but  also  raised  him  to 
the  consulship.     Afer  died  in  the  reign  of  Nero,  A.  D.  59;^ 
AFFLITTO,   in  Latin  De  AFFLICTIS   (Matthew), 
an  eminent  laivyer,  the  grandson  of  Matthew  AfflittP,  coun- 
sellor-royal in  140,9  under  Ladislaus,  was  born  at  NapJeis 
about  1430.     Being  attached  to  the  study  of  law  from  his 
youth,  he  made  great  progress,  and  acquired  so  much  re- 
putation, that  he  was  promoted  to  the  council  of  state  bj 
king   Ferdinand   I.    and   shared  the   confidence   of  that 
prince  and  of  his  son^  afterwards  Alphonsus  II.     He  was 
afterwards  appointed  president  of  the  royal  chamber,  and 
Vf98  employed  in  public  transactions  of  the  greatest  import* 
unce  under  five  successive  kings  of  Naples.     To  the  know- 
ledge displayed  in  his  works,    he   joined  the  strictest 
probity  and  most  amiable  manners.     Camerario,  lieutenant 
of  the  royal  chamber,  and  an  eminent  feudal  lawyer,  gives 
him  the  character  of  the  most  learned  and  excellent  man 
of  his  own  or  the  preceding  age ;  nor  are  Ferron  and  Fon* 
tanella  more  sparing  of  their  praises.     Pancirollus  only 
considers  him  as  rather  laborious  than  acute  in  his  writings. 
Notwithstanding  the  distractions  of  the  times  in  which  he 
lived,  and  his  numerous  labours,  .he  reached  the  age  of 
eighty,  and  died  in  1510.     He  was  interred  in  the  con-^ 
Ventual  church  of  Monte- Vergine  in  Naples,    under  a 
monument  representing  St.  Eustachius,   from  whom  his 
family  derived  their  origin.     He  was  twice  married,  and 
from  his  second  wife,  Diana  Carmignana,  are  descended 
the^Afflittos,  barons  of  Rocca-GlorLosa. 

Afflitto*s  works  are:  1..  ^^  Commentarius  in  Constitu- 
tiones  Siciliae  et  Neapolis,"  Francfori,  1603,  fol.  2.  "  Com- 
mentarius'super  tres  libros  Feudoruni,"  Venice,  1534,  fol. ; 
JLyons,  1548,  and  1500;  Francfort,  1598,  1608,  1629. 
3.  ^<  Decisiones  NeapolitanaB  antique  et  novae,^'  Venice, 
1564,  1600,  and  1635,  fol.;  and  Francfort,  1616,  tod 
}^35,  foL  4«  ^^  Lecturse  super  consuetudinibus  Neapo- 
litan! Siciliaeque  regni,*'  Leyden,  )1535,  fol.  ;  reprinted 
under  different  titles,  and  with  the  additions  of  other 
writers  on  the  subject.  5.  "  De  Jure  Protomiseos  cum 
Baldo  et  Marantha,  Tr.  Tr.  xviii."  Francfort,  1571,  aitd 
J  588;  reprinted  at  Spire^,  1603,  8vo.  6.  <<  Enumer^tia 
JPrivileglonun  fisci,''  Basle,  1550^  foL     7,  ^^  Lecturse  su^ 

-     1  den.  Dwt, 

A  F  F  L  I  T  T  O.  211 

per  7  CodicU  Justiniani,''  1560.  8.  ^<  De  consiliarik 
principuin  et  officialibus  eligendis,  ad  justitiam  regendam^" 
Naples;  a  very  scarce  work.  The  frequent  editions  of 
these  voluminous  works  sufficiently  prove  the  high  esUma- 
tioii  in  which  they  were  held.  The  family  of  Afflito  has 
produced  other  celebrated  men,  as  1.  John  Afflito,  an 
eminent  mathematician,  particularly  skilled  in  the  art  <^ 
fortification,  and  employed  as  an  engineer  by  John  of 
Austria  in  some  of  his  wars.  He  published,  in  Spanish,  a 
treatise  on  the  subject,  2  vols.  4to,  and  a  volume  of  '^  Theo- 
logical and  Philosophical  Miscellanies.^'  He  died  at  Naples^ 
1673«  2.  Gaetan-Andrb  D*Afflitto,  advocate-general^ 
who  published  law-pleadings  and  decisions  at  Naples,  1 655« 
And  lastly,  CjESAB,  D* Affutto,  who  left  a  work  on  the 
feudal  laws.  * 

A  FFO  (IRENEU3),  a  native  of  Bussetto,  a  small  town  in  the 
duchy  of  Piacenza,  was  appointed  in  1768  by  the  Infant 
don  Ferdinand  to  be  professor  of  philosophy  at  Guastalla^ 
where  he  wrote  his  '^  Historia  di  Guastalla,"  4  vols.  4 to.  It 
commences  with  the  reigu  of  Charlemagne ;  comprizes  the 
three  dynasties  who  governed  that  state :  viz.  the  Torelli's^ 
the  Gonzago's,  and  the  Bourbons,  dukes  of  Parma ;  and 
finishes  in  1776.  On  account  of  this  work,  he  was  ap- 
pointed superintendant  of  the  valuable  library  of  Parma. 
He  is  a  diffuse  writer,  as  he  allows  in  his  preface,  but  his 
researches  are  valuable  and  correct.  Writing  under  a 
prince  so  particular  as  the  last  Infant,  be  was  obliged  to 
suppress  some  things  of  a  delicate  kind.  He  wrote  also 
*^  Historia  di  Parma,''  printed  there  2  vols.  4to,  and 
other  works  respecting  the  antiquities  and  the  lives  of  the 
sovereigns  of  these  states.  He  left  a  manuscript  history  of 
Peter  Louis  Farnese,  which  the  Infant  would  not  suffer  to 
be  published.  He  died  at  the  age  of  sixty,  about  the  be* 
ginniog  of  the  present  century.  ^ 

.  AFKANIUS,  a  Latin  poet,  who  wrote  several  comedies 
in  imitation  of  Menander.  He  was  a  man  of  wit  and  sense, 
^uintilian  blames  him  for  the  licentious  amours  in  his 
plays.  He  liyed  about  100  years  before  the  vulgar  cfera, 
according  to  Vpssius.  Only  some  fragments  of  this  poet 
aine  come  down  to  our  times,  which  are  inserted  in  the 
**  Corpus  Poetarum"  of  Maittaire,  London,  1715,  folio. » 

.1  Biographie  UmTerieHe^«»Diot.  Hi^rique. 

9  Biosraphie  tJmverseUe^  >  M9r«ri.«*»?abr*  BiM^  LaU 

212  A  F  R  I  C  A  N  tr  S. 

AFRICANUS  (Julius),  a  Christian  historian,  was  bom 
at  Nicopdlis  in  Palestine,  in  the  third  century.     He  conir 
posed  a  chronology,  to  convince  the  heathens  of  the  an^ 
tiquity  of  the  true  religion,  and  the  novelty  of  the  fables 
6f  Paganism.     This  work  was  divided  into  five  books,  and 
is  a  sort  of  universal  history,  from  the  creation  of  Adam^ 
to  the  reign  of  the  emperor  Macrinus.     No  more,  how- 
ever,  is  extant  than  what  we  find  of  it  in  the  Chronicon  of 
Eusebius.     He  wrote  a  letter  to  Origen  concerning  the 
histoiy  of  Susannah,  which  he  deemed  to  be  spurious,  and 
another  to  Aristides,  to  reconcile  the  genealogical  tablei^ 
of  St.  Matthew  and  St.  Luke.     It  was  in  consequence  of 
his  entreaties  that  the  emperor  Heliogabalus  rebuilt  the 
tity  of  Nicopdlis,  which  he  founded  on  the  spot  where  the 
▼ill^ge  of  Emmaus  stood.     A  mathematical  work,  entitled 
<*  Caestus,*'  has  been  attributed  to  him.     The  fragments 
which  remain  of  this  author  were  printed  among  the  ^^  Ma^ 
diematici  Vcterea,"  at  Paris,  in  1693,  fol.  and  were  trans- 
lated into  French  by  M.  Guiscard,    in  his  *^  Meraoires ' 
Miiitaires  des  Grecs  et  des  Remains,**  Paris,  1774,  3  vols*. 
Svo.     It. is  supposed  that  the  ancient  part  of  the  work  of 
Julius  Africanus,  was  an  abridgment  of  the  famous  work  of 
Manetho,  an  Egyptian  priest,  who  flourished  about  300 
years  before  Christ.     (See  Manetho).     A  great  part  of 
Africanus*iiChronography  is  extant  in  Georg.  Syncellus^  edit. 
Paris,   1652,  from  whence,  not  being  then  published,  it 
was  borrowed  by  Scaliger  in  his  edition  of  Eusebius*s 
Chronicon  in  Greek.     Africanus  is  placed  by  Cave  at  the 
fe9X  220,  who  likemse  supposes  that  he  died  in  an  ad* 
vanced  age,  about  the  year  232.     But  Dr.  Lardner  do«s 
not  think  that  he  was  then  in  an  advanced  age,  or  died 
^o  soon.     Of  his  character,  be  says,  that  we  may  glory  itk 
Africanus  as  a  Christian.     For  it  cannot  but  be  a  pleasure 
to  observe,  that  in  those  early  days  there  were  some  within 
the  inclosure  of  the  church  of  Ct^rist,  whose  shio^ing  abili- 
ties rendered  them  the  ornament  of  the  age  in  wt^ch  they 
lived ;  when  they  appear  also  to  have  been  men  of  uH* 
spotted  characters,  and  give  evident  proofs  of  honesty  and 
integrity. »  . 

AGANDURU  (Roderic  Mohk),  a  Spanish  missionary 
of  the  i  7  th  century,  who  lived  under  the  reigns  of  Philip  III; 

1  Lardner's.  Works.— Fabr..  Bibl.  Gr86C.*-Bibliographioal  ])ict  vol.  I.«rfMo« 
rerl— <^ave.— -SaxiiOaonuaticou. 

A  G  A  N  D  U  R  U.  uii 

and  Philip  IV.  was  a  barefooted  Augustin,  and  celebrated 
for  his  apostolic  zeal.  These  religious  had  a  prihgipal 
band  in  the  rapid,  but  for  the  most  part  short^livedy  pro» 
gress  of  the  Catholic  faith  in  Japan ;  and  converted  the  po« 
pulous  nation  of  the  Tagalians,  or  Tagaleze,  Malayans  by 
descent,  who  inhabited  Lucon,  one  of  the  Philippine  islands^ 
and  who  remain  Christiaas  to  this  day.  In  1640,  Aganv 
duruwas  appointed  by  bis  brethren^  and  with  tihe  authoi» 
rity  of  Philip  IV.  to  go  to  Rome  and  offer  to  the  pop^, 
Urban  VIII.  the  homage  and  -obedience  of  these  new  con* 
verts;.  He  wrote  a  ^^  History  of  Conversions  in  Japan  aa4 
the  Philippine  islands,  with  a  detail  of  his  religious  em* 
bassy :''  and  a  ^^  G^ieral  History  of  the  Mduccas  and  th« 
Philippines,^'  2  vols,  from  the  discovery  of  them,  to  the 
middle  of  the  seventeenth  century.  * 

AGAPETUS,  d^<;on  of  the  church  of  Coniftantiaople^ 
in  the  sixth  century,  or  about  527,  presented  the  emperor 
Justinian,  on  his  accession  to  the  (hrone,  with  a  work  in 
seventy-two  chapters,  which  has  been  called  ^^  Charta  Re# 
gm,"  ahd  contains  excellent  advice  on  the  duties  of  a 
Christian  prince.  This  work  was  long  esteemed,  and  pro* 
eured  the  author  a  place  among  the  best  writers  of  his  age* 
2t  was  finst  printed,  Gr.  et  Lot,  at  Venice,  1SQ9,  Svo; 
Und  is  often  printed  in  the  same  volume  with  various  edU 
iious  of  ^sop's  fables.  The  most  correct  edition  is  that  of 
Bandttri,  in  a  ceUection  entitled  ^<  Imperium  Orientale,'^ 
Paris^  1711,  2  vols.  fol.  The  last  edition  was  publish^ 
at  Leipsic,  1733,  8vo,  Gi^;  et  Lat  by  Grasbelius,  with 
notes ;  but  those  not  of  much  importance.  Louis  XIII.  in 
bis  youth  translated  it  into  French,  and  this  was  pritited  in 
1612,  8vo,  and  often  since.  * 

AGARD  (Arthur),  a  learned  and  ihdustriom  Englidi 
antiquary,  and  one  of  the  members  of  the  first  society  of 
antiquaries,  was  the  son  of  Clement  Agard,  of  Fostoi)  (not 
Toston,  as  in  the  Biog.  Brit.)  in  Derbyshire,  by  Eleanor, 
Ifae  daughter  of  Thomas  Middieborough,  c^  Egbaston  in 
Warwickshire.  He  was  born  1540^  and  orijginally  studied 
law ;  >  but  it  does  not  appear  that  he  was  at  either  univer<- 
Mty.  He  afterwwrds  became  u  clerk  in  the  Exchequer  of* 
fice ;  and  in  157Q  was  made  deputy  chamberlain  of  the 
Ei^cheqner,  which  he  held  forty^five  years.  During  this 
time,  he  had  leisure  and  industry  to  accumulate  large  coU 

>  Biogif  pb>e  U^iterflielle. 

*  Ibid.*^Moreri.--Cave,  vol.  I.<i*Fabr.  Bibl,  6r»c.— Saxii  Ononufticon* 


1ect;ioDs  of  mktters  pertaining  to  the  antiquities  of  hU  coon-* 
try;  and  his  zeal  in  these  researches  procured  him  the  ac* 
qnaintance  of  that  eminent  benefactor  to  English  litenitttre 
and  antiquities,  sir  Robert  Cotton,  with  whom  he  enjoyed 
the  strictest  friendship  as  long  as  he  lived.  Wood,  in  hit 
AthensB,  has  made  a  strange  mistake  here  in  ascribing 
Agard*s  proficiency  in  antiquary  knowledge  to  Sir  Robert, 
who  was  but  just  bom  the  year  Agard  came  into  office. 
There  can  be  no  doubt,  however,  that  they  improved  and 
assisted  each  other  in  their  pursuits.  Agard  also  could 
number  the  most  eminent  and  learned  men  of  the  ago 
Among  his  friends  and  coadjutors.  It  was  in  his  days, 
about  1572,  that  the  society  of  antiquaries  was  formed  by 
archbishop  Parker ;  and  among  the  names  of  its  original 
members,  we  find  Agard,  Andrews,  Bouchier,  Cuaden^ 
Carew,  Cotton,  Dodderidge,  Ley,  Spelman,  Stow,  De» 
thicke,  Lambart^  and  others.  In  this  society,  Agard  read 
these  essays,  which  have  since  been  published  by  Hearne, 
in  his  *' Collection  of  Curious  Discourses,*'  1720  and  1775, 
S  vols.  Agard's  discourses  are :  1.  Opinion  touching  the 
antiquity,  power,  order,  state,  manner,  persons,  and  pro* 
ceedings  of  the  high  court  of  parliament  in  England. 
3.  On  this  question.  Of  what  antiquity  shires  were  in  Eng* 
land  ?  In  this  essay  various  ancient  manuscripts  axe  cited; 
and  Mr.  Agard  seems  to  think  king  Alfred  was  the  author 
of  this  division:  it  was  delivered  before  the  socie^  in 
Easter  term,  33  Eliz.  1591.  3.  On  the  dimensions  of  the 
lands  in  England.  In  this  he  settles  the  meaning  of  these 
words,  solin,  hida,  carucata,  jugum,  virgata,  ferltngata,  fer- 
linges,  from  ancient  manuscripts  and  authentic  records  in 
the  exchequer.  4.  The  authority,  office,  and  privileges 
<^  heraults  [heralds]  in  England.  He  is  of  opinion,  that 
this  office  is  of  the  same  antiquity  with  the  institution  of 
the  garter.  5.  Of  the  antiquity  or  pririleges  of  the  houses 
or  inns  of  court,  and  of  chancery.  In  this  he  observes, 
that  in  more  ancient  times,  before  the  making  of  Magna 
Charta,  our  lawyers  were  of  the  clergy :  that,  in  the  time  of 
Edward  I.  the  law  came  to  receive  its  proper  form ;  and 
that  in  an  old  record,  the  exchequer  was  styled  the  mother* 
court  of  all  courts  of  record.  He  supposes  that  at  this 
time  lawyers  began  to  have  settled  places  of  abode,  but 
affirms  he  knew  of  no  privileges^.  6.  Of  the  diversity  of 
names  of  this  island.  In  this  we  find  that  the  first  Saxons, 
residing  in  this  islaud|  came  here  under  the  command  of 

A  G  A  R  D.  215 

6iie  Aelle  and  \kvs  three  sons,  in  4a5 ;  and  that  the  reason 
why  it  was  called  England  rather  than  Saxon  land,  was  be«* 
^use  the  Angles,  after  this  part  of  the  island  was  totally 
subdued,  were  more  numerous  than  the  Saxons.  He  like* 
wise  observes,  that  after  this  conquest,  the  name  of  Briton 
grew  into  distaste,  and  all  valued  themselves  on  being 
Englishmen.  This  was  read,  June  29,  1604,  and  is  the 
last  discourse  of  A(^rd  in  the  collection.  The'  society  was 
dissolved  soon  after,  and  did  not  revive  until  the  last  cen- 

.Agard  made  the  Doomsday  book  his  particular  study, 
and  endeavoured  to  explain  it  in. a  treatise,  ^<  De  usu  et 
obsoorioribus  verbis,**  on  the  use  aud  true  meaning  of  the 
obscure  words  in  the  Doomsday  book.  This  is  preserved 
in  the  Cotton  library,  under  Vitellius,  N*  9.  He  likewise 
compiled  for  the  benefit  of  his  successors,  ^^  A  Catalogue 
of  all  such  records  as  were  in  the  four  treasuries  belong*, 
ing  to  his  Majesty ;  and  an  account  of  all  leagues,  and 
treaties  of  peace,  intercourses,  and  marriages,  with  fmreignt 
nations."  This  he  deposited  with  the  officers  of  his  Ma*, 
jesty's  receipt ;  and  by  his  will  be  directed  that,  on.  a 
smsdl  reward  being  paid  to  his  executor,  eleven  other  MS 
treatises,  relating  to  exchequer  affairs,  should  be  delivered 
«p  to  the  offioe.  Ail  the  rest  of  his  collections,  consisting; 
of  at  least  twenty  volumes,  he  bequeathed  to  sir  jlobeft 
Cotton,  in  whose  library  they  were  deposited.  Previous' 
^  bis  death,  he, caused  a  monument  to  be  erected  for  him<* 
self  and  his  wife^  near  the  chapter  door  in  the  cloister  of> 
Westminster^abbey.  He  died  Aug.  22,  1615.  Camden, 
Seldeo,  and  other  antiquaries,  bear  ample  testimony  to  his 

ACASIAS,  a  sculptor  of  Ephesus,  the  seholar  or  son  of 
Dositheos..    Mr.  Fuseli  observes,  that  the  name  of  Agasias. 
does  not  occur  in.  ancient  reconl;  and  whether  he  be  the 
Egesias  of  Quintilian  and  Pliny »  or  these  the  same,  cannot 
be  ascertained;  though  the  style  of  sculpture,  and  th^ 
form  of  the  letters  in  the  insqription,  are  not  much  at  va- 
riance with  the  chsuracter  which  the  former  gives  to  the  age^ 
of  Calen  and  Egesias.     There  are,  therefore,,  no.particu- 
lars  of  his  life;  but  be  is  well  kniown  in  the  history  of  the. 
arts,  for  his  admired  statue,  usually  called  the  Gladiator ; 
formerly  in  the  villa  Borgbese, .  and  now  in  the  museum  at 
Paris.     It  was  found,  with  the  Apollo  Belvidere,  at  Net^ 

>  Biog.  Brit.<— Archeologia^  vol  I.  pp.  7.  347  \  vol.  XIV.  |vw  164. 


C16  A  G  A  fi  I  A  S. 

tunO|  formerly  Antium,  the  \>irth-place  of  Nc^o ;  wbert 
he  bad  collected  a  great  number  of  the  best  works  brougbt 
lr<Mn  Greece  by  his  freed-maii  Acratus.  The  form  of  the 
letters  on  the  inscription  mark  the  high  antiquity  of  thia 
otatue,  which  is  less  ideal  than  the  Apollo^  but  not  less  ad-^ 
mirable.  Winkelman  calls  it  an  assemblage  of  the  beau-* 
ties  of  nature  in  a  perfect  age^  without  any  addition  from 
imagination.  Fuseli  terms  it-  ^^  A  figure,  whose  tremen-* 
dous  energy  embodies  every  element  of  motion,  whilst  its 
pathetic  dignity  of  character  enforces  sympathy.^'  It -is  iA 
perfect  preservation^  with  fexc^tion  of  the  right  ai*m,  which 
was  restored  by  Algardi. .  It  is  now,  however^  agreed  that 
it  is  not  the  statue  of  a  Gladiator,  but  apparently  one  of  a 
^proupe.  The  attention  and  action  of  the  figure  is  upwards 
|o  some  higher  Object,  as  a  person  on^honebaek ;  and  it  is 
thought  to  be  of  a  date  prior  to  the  introduetioli  of  tb^ 
gladiatorial  sports  into  Greece; '  .       ' 

":  AGATH ANGELU8,  an  Armenian  historian,  was  secre-^ 
|ary  to  Tiridates,  the  first  Christian  king  of  that  country,  and 
lived  in  the  beginning  of  the  fourth  century,  probably  about 
the  year  32(X  Moyses  Choreuensis,  Barpezius,  and  otheat* 
AMn^iian  writers  speak  highly  in  his  praise,  particularly  in 
l^peot  to  the  parity  of  hia  style.  He  wrote  a  ^^  History  of 
the  introduction  of  Christianity  into  Armenia,^'  with  a  life 
pf  king  Tiridates*  It  has  been. translated  into  Greek ;  but 
the  original  was  published  at  Constantinople,  170^,  4to« 
The  imperial  library  at  Paris  has  a  copy  of  this  book,  »id' 
a  manusicript  much  more  oomplete*  * 
.  AGATHARCHIDES,  a  vohiminous  geographer  and 
hortorian,  was  a  native  of  Gnidus ;  and  in  hit  youth  reader' 
to  the  historian  Heraclides,  and  afterwards  tutor  to  Ptolomy 
Alesander,  who  reigned  in  Egypt  about  Ae  year  104  B.  C. 
according  to  Dodwell.  Agatharchides  was  altached  to  the 
doctrine  of  the  Peripatetics.  Among  the  numerous  works 
be  wrote  on  history  and  geography,  the  ancients  mentton 
the  following :  1.  '^  On  die  Red  Sea,"  in  five  books,  which 
is  a  kind  of  periplns  of  the  gulph  of  Arabia ;  with  vavny 
carious  particulars  of  the  Sabeans,  and  other  nations  of 
Arabia  Felix.  The  fragments  of  this  work  preserve  by 
Diodorus  and  Pfaotins,  were  printed  by  Heury  Stephens^ 
1:557,  8vo  ;  and  collected  more  fully  by  Hudson  in  hift 
'^  Geographi  minores,"  vol.  I.     M.  Gosselin  also  has  c(»i^ 

1  Biogrttpbie  Univenielle.-^Dict.  Hist.— Faseli's  Lectures,  p.  115« 
•  DicUilisl. 

A  G  A  T  H  A  B  C  H  I  D  £  S.  21T 

mented  on  them  in  his  '^  Recberches  sur  la  Geographie.** 
2.  ^^  On  Asia/'  a  work  of  the  historical  kind,  in  ten  books; 
quoted  by  Diodorus^  Phlegon,  Lucian,  Athenseus,  Pho* 
tins,  and  Pliny.  3.  <^  Of  Europe ;"  a  large  work,  of  which 
AtbensBus  quotes  the  28th,  34tb,  and  38th  books.  As  the 
name  of  Agatharcbides  occurs  in  many  authors  of  reputa^ 
tion,  it  is  to  be  regretted  that  so  many  of  his  works  have 
perikhed.  It  is  uncertain  whether  he  was  the  same  with 
Agatharcbides  of  Samos,  who  wrote  on  the  Phrygian  his^ 
tory,  and  on  that  of  Persia,  quoted  by  Diodorus,  Josephus, 
and  Phottus.  ^  ,    , 

AGATHARCUS,  an  ancient  painter,  the  son  of  £ude« 
mas,  was  born  at  Samos,  and  practised  bis  art  at  Athens^ 
He  painted  with  great  facility,  and  was  distinguished  for 
bis  skill  in  anifloals,  ornaments,  and  decorations.  Alci* 
biades  employed  him  to  decorate  his  magnificent  bouse ; 
and,  according  to  Demosthenes  (in  his  oration  against  Mi« 
dias),  while  thus  employed,  he  contrived  to  seduce  the 
mistress  of  Alcibiades,  who  having  discovered  the  intrigue^ 
punished  him  no  otherwise  than  by  close  imprisonmeni 
until  he  completed  his  work ;  and  then  dismissed  him  with 
many  rich  presents.  Plutarch  in  bis  lives  of  Alcibiades  and 
Pelopidas,  speaks  only  of  the  imprisonment,  which  he  iai^ 
putes  solely  to  Alcibiades'  impatience  to  have  his  house 
finished.  From  his  connexion  with  Zeuxis  and  Alcibiades, 
it  is  probable  that  he  lived  about  the  ninety«fifth  olym-f 
piad,  or  400  years  B,  C. ;  but  this  does  not  aceord  with 
Vitruvius's  account,  who  informs  us  that  Agatharcus  was 
the  first  who  painted  scenes  for  the  theatre ;  and  wrote  a 
treatise  on  the  subject,  under,  the  direction  of  ^schylus^ 
who  died  4S0  B.  C.  This  anachronism  has  given  rise  ta 
the  conjecture  that  there  may  have  been  two  paintecs  o€ 
the  name.  * 

AGATHEMER,  a  Greek  geographer.  It  is  not  certain 
at  what  time  he  lived  ;  but  he  was  posterior  to  Ptolomy,  and 
placed  by  Saxius  and  others  in  the  third  century.  The 
only  work  of  his  now  known  is  an  abridgement  of  geogra-* 
l^y,  entitled  ^  Hj^>otyposes  Geographicie ;"  the  first  edi* 
tion  of  which  is  that  of  Tennulius,  Gr.  Lat.  Amsterdam, 
1671,  Svo.  It  is  also  inserted  among  the  ancieqt  geogra- 
phers in  Gronovitts's  edition,  Leyden,  4to,  1697  and  1700; 
and  lastly^    in   Hudson's  ^^  Geogmphi  minores,"    vol.  11. 

1  Moreri.-— -Biographie  Univerielle.— Fabr.  Bibl.  Gnec— -Saxii  Onomasticon. 
*  lfefWk*»4iosrapht«  Uaiyer&eUe.— JMci.  Uiat. 

mz  A  G  A  T  H  E  ME  R. 

This  little  work,  ^n4tich  contains  leveral  partkulars  which 
have  escaped  Strabo  and  other  celebrated  geographers,  i« 
nevertheless  in  a  very  imperfect  state.  It  is  a  series  of  l^s* 
sons  dictated  to  one  Philo;  but  what  is  taught  in  the  first 
iM>ok  is  repeated  in  the  second,  with  so  many  contradictions 
end  obscurities,  that  one  can  scarcely  suppose  this  second 
part  to  be  the  production  of  the  same  author.  Even  the 
first  part  seems  composed  of  two  fragments  not  very  accu- 
fately  placed  together.  ^ 

AGATHIAS,  a  Greek  historian,  who  lived  in  the  6tiL 
century,  under  the  emperor  Justinian,  was  born  at  Myrina 
in  Asia  Minor.  Some  have  concluded  from  Suidas,  that 
he  was  an  advocate  at  Smyrna;  but  Fabricius  thinks. that 
fae  was  in  general  an  advocate,  or  scholasticus,  as  he  is 
called,  from  having  studied  the  law  in  the  schools  appointed 
for  that  purpose.  In  his  youth  he  was  strongly  inclined  to 
poetry,  and  published  some  small  pieces  of  the  gay  and 
amatory  kind,  under  the  title  of  ^'  Daphniaca  f '  he  tells 
us  likewise,  that  he  was  author  of  a  ^'  Collection  of  epi* 
grams''  written  by  divers  hands,  a  great  part  of  which  are 
presumed  to  be  extant  in  the  Greek  Anthologia,  where^ 
however,  he  calls  himself  Agathius.  These  are  also  in 
Bmnck's  Analecta.  There  have  been  doubts  about;  his  re-r. 
ligion :  Vossius  and  others  have  supposed  him  a  pagan  ;^ 
and  they  have  concluded  this  chiefly  from  a  passage  in  the 
third  book  of  his  history ;  where,  giving  a  reason  why  the 
fortress  of  Onogoris  in  Colchis  was  called,  in  his  time,  St. 
Stephen's  fort,  he  says,  that  this  first  Christian  martyr  was 
iitoned  there,  but  uses  the  word  ^ooi,  they  say ;  as  if  he 
did  not  himself  believe  what  he  might  think  it  necessary  to 
relate.  But  this  is  by  no  means  conclusive ;  and  Fabricius 
supposes  him,  upon  much  better  grounds,  to  have  been  a 
Christian,  because  he  more  than  once  gives  very  explicitly 
the  preference  to  the  doctrines  of  Christians:  and  in  the 
first  book  be  speaks  plainly  of  the  Christians  as  embracing 
the  most  reasonable  system  of  opinions.  i 

•  He  wrote  an  ^Mlistory  of  Justinian's  reign^'  in  five 
books,  at  the  desire  of  Eutychianus,  secretary  of  state,. 
who  was  his  intimate  friend,  and  probably '  furnished  him 
witli  many  important  materials  for  the  purpose.  It  begins 
at  the  26th  year  of  Justinian's  reign,  where  Procopius 
ends ;  and,  as  Evagrius  says,  was  carried  down  to  the. 
flight  of  Cosroes  the  younger  to  the  Romans,  and  his  re« 

1  Biog.  Universelle.— Diet.  Hist.— >Stoii  Ontma8ticon.«-Fabr.  BibL  Gfbbg^ 


Utoration  by  Mauritius:  but  the  same  Evagrius  adds,  that 
the  work  was  not  then  published.  It  was  printed  in  Greek, 
with  Bonaventnre  Vulcanius's  Latin  version  and  notes,  at 
Leyden,  L5d4,  in  4to  ;  and  at  Paris  in  the  king's  printing* 
house,  1660,  in  folio,  to  accompany  the  other  Byzantine 
histprians.  His  manner  is  prolix,  and  his  style  too  much 
interspersed  with  poetical  flights ;  but  his  facts  are  said  to 
be  accurate.  * 

AGATHO,  or  AGATHON,  a  Greek  poet,  of  Athens, 
and  hot  of  Samos  as  Gyraldi  asserts,  wrote  several  trage- 
dies and  comedies,  of  which  only  some  fragments  remain. 
Aristotle  speaks  of  one,  "  The  Flower,**  with  great  praise* 
His  first  tragedy  received  the  prize  at  the  Olympic  games* 
He  was  a  man  of  expensive  manners,  and  kept  a  magnifi- 
cent table ;  at  which  the  wits  of  his  days  used  to  assemble. 
Grotiiis  has  collected  the  fragments  left  of  his  dramas  from 
Aristotle  and  Athenseus,  in  his  collection  of  the  fragments 
of  Greek  tragedies  and  comedies.  He  was  the  first  who 
hazarded  invented  subjects.  His  comedies  were  written 
with  elegance,  but  his  tragedies  abounded  in  antitheses 
and  symmetrical  ornaments.  He  lived  about  735  B.  C  ; 
but  Barthelemi  places  him  much  earlier.  ^ 

AGELADAS,  or  AGELAS,  an  eminent  Greek  sculp- 
tor, flourished  in  the  eighty- seventh  olympiade,  or  432 
B.  C.  according  to  Pliny  and  Pausanias.  His  statues  were 
once  well  known  and  admired  in  Greece,  particularly  two^ 
in  brass,  of  an  in&nt  Jupiter,  and  a  young  Hercules,  and 
the  femlale  captives. ' 

AGEL1U8,  or  AGELLI  (Anthony) j  a  native  of  Sor- 
rento^ in  the  kingdom  of  Naples,  was  celebrated  in  the 
sixteenth  century  for  his  general  learning,  and  acquaint- 
ance with  the  learned  languages,  and  for  bis  writings  on 
the  Holy  Scriptures.  He  was  one  of  the  inspectors  of  the 
Vatican  press,  where  he  bestowed  great  care  in  examining 
Dew  editions  by  the  best  manuscripts.  When  he  was  pro* 
moted  to  the  bisboprick  of  Acerno  or  Acerre,  in  the  king- 
dom of  Naples,  in  1595^  the  learned  Peter  Morin  com- 
plained of  this  transaction,  in  a  letter  addressed  to  cardinal 
Cajetan,  as  depriving  the  Vatican  press  of  an  editor  of  the 
first  ability  and  accuracy ;  and  begged  that  the  cardinal 
would  induce  him,  before  he  took  poissession  of  his  bishop- 
ric, to  iustruct  his  successors  in  the  library  and  press  of 

>  Oen.  Pict.'^Moreri.-— Fabric.  Bibt.  Orec. — Saxii  Onomatticoii* 
*  Ibid.  Cbaufepie.-— Bio|;impbie  UniYenelle. 

tZO  A  G  E  L  I  U  S. 

the  Vatican,  and  superintend  such  works  as  he  bad  bea^an^ 
What  effect  this  had,  we  are  not  told  ;  but  he  was  employe^ 
by  pope  Gregory  XI 1 1,  on  the  Greek  edition  of  the  Bible^ 
Konie,  1587}  fol.  His  original  works  consist  of  Commen*- 
taries :  1.  On  the  ^^  Psalms  and  Canticles/*  fol.  Rome» 
1606;  Cologne,  1607  ;  and  Paris,  1611.  2.  "  On  the  Lai- 
mentations,'*  conipiled  from  the  Greek  fathers,  Rome^ 
1589,  4to.  3.  "On  the  Proverbs  of  Solomon:  ?ind,  4^ 
"On  the  prophet. HabakkukjV. Antwerp,  1697,  8vo.  Le 
Long  mentions  other  works  of  Agelius  in  manuscript ;  but 
bis  Commentary  on  the  Psalms  procured  him  most  repu* 
tation,  and  has  been  frequently  reprinted.  He  died  ^i 
Acerno  in  1 608. » 

AGELNOTH,  or  Egelnoth,  or  iETHELNOTH,  in  LatiiL 
AcHEUNOTUS,  archbishop  of  Canterbury  in  the  reign  of 
Canute  the  Great,  succeeded  to  that  see  in  the  year  1020. 
This  prelate,  surnamed  the  Goo(^,  was  son  of  earl  Agilipeft 
and,  at  the  time  of  his  election,  dean  of  Canterbury* 
After  bis  promotion  he  went  to  Rome,  and  received  bif 
pall  from  pope  Benedict  VIH.  In  his  way  thither,  as  he 
passed  through  Pavia,  he  purchased,  for  an  hundred  talent$ 
of  silver  and  one  of  gold,  St.  Augustine^s  arm,  which  Wa^ 
kept  there  as  a  relic ;  and  sent  it  over  to  England,  as  a 
present  to  Leofric,  earl  of  Coventry.  Upon  his  return,  he 
is  said  to  have  raised  the  see  of  Coventry  to  its  former 
lustre.  He  was  much  in  favour  with  king  Canute}  an4 
iefnployed  his  interest  with  that  monarch  to  good  purposes. 
It  was  by  his  advice  the  king  sent  over  l^rge  £^ums  of  money  * 
for  the  support  of  the  foreign  churches :  and  Malmsbury 
observes,  that  this  prince  was  prompted  to  acts  of  piety, 
and  restrained  from  excesses,  by  the  regard  he  bad  for  thi^ 
archbishop.  King  Canute  being  dead,  Agelnoth  refused 
to  crown  his  son  Harpld,  alleging  that  the  la^e  king  ha4 
enjoined  hijn  to  set  the  crown  upon  none  but  the  issue  of 
queen  Emma ;  that  he  had  given  the  king  a  promise  upoi| 
this  head,  and  that  he  was  resolved  to  be  true  to  his  en^ 
gagement.  Having  declared  himself  with  this  freedom,  b^ 
laid  the  crown  upon  the  altar,  with  an  imprecation  against 
those  bishops  who  should  venture  to  perform  the  ceremony^ 
HarolJ,  wha  was  greatly  chagrined  at  this  disappomtmenti 
endeavoured,  both  by  menaces  and  large  offers,  to  prevau 
upon  the  archbishop,  but  in  vain :  and  whether  he  way 
afterwards  crowned  by   any   other    person  is  uncertain* 

1  Moreri.— Le  lOBg  Biblioibeca  Sacra^'^-Saxii  Onpmasticon. 

A  G  E  L  N  O  T  H.  ,  aai 

Agelnoth,  after  he  bad  held  the  see  of  Canterbury  seven- 
teen years,  died  Oct.  29,  1038.  Three  works  have  been 
attributed  to  him :  "  A  panegyric  on  the  blessed  Virgin 
Mary;"  "A  letter  to  Earl  Leofric,  concerning  St  Au- 
gustine ;**  and  **  Letters  to  several  persons."  * 

AGER,  or  AGERIUS  (Nicholas),  professor  of  medicine 
and  botany  at  Strasbourg,  in  the  seventeenth  centuiy,  was 
the  contemporary  and  friend  of  the  two  learned  brothers, 
John  and  Gaspar  Bauhin,  to  whom  he  communicated  se- 
veral new  plants  which  he  had  discovered.  In  honour  of 
him,  a  species  of  the  genus  Pcederota,  which  he  first  made 
known,  was  named  Ageria.  He  was  likewise  eminent  for 
his  knowledge  of  natural  philosophy  and  natural  history 
in  all  its  branches.  He  published  "  Disputatio  de  Zoo- 
phytis;"  Strasburgh,  1625,  4to.  and  "  De  Anima  Vege- 
tativa,  ibid.  1629,  4to.  Manget  attributes  to  him  a  thesis 
**  De  Homine  sano  et  de  Dysenteria,*'  1593,  4to.  • 

AGESANDER,  a  sculptor  of  Rhodes,  who  flourished 
probably  in  the  fifth  century  B.  C.  is  renowned  for  having 
executed,  in  concert  with  his  son  Athenojdorus  and  Poly- 
doros,  that  stupendous  monument  of  Grecian  art,  the 
Laocoon.  It  is  supposed  that  this  is  the  same  groups 
which  decorated  the  baths  of  Titus  in  the  time  of  Pliny,  to 
whom  we  owe  our  knowledge  of  the  names  of  the  artistsi* 
It  has  been  astonishingly  preserved  ever  since  to  exhibit 
the  perfection  of  the  Greek  artists  in  the  imitation  of  na-^ 
ture  and  passion.  It  was  discovered  in  the  sixteenth  cen- 
tury, in  the  baths  of  Titus,  and  in  the  very  spot  where,  ac- 
cording to  Pliny,  it  had  attracted  admiration  in  his  time. 
The  only  circumstance  which  suggests  a  doubt  on  this 
subject  is,  that  Pliny  represents  the  groupe  to  have  been 
formed  of  one  solid  block,  whereas  the  present  is  evidently 
composed  of  several ;  but  it  is  probable  that  time  has  reh^i 
dered  the  fissures  between  the  pieces  more  visible  thait 
when  Pliny  saw  it.  Julius  II.  bestowed  a  very  liberal  re- 
ward on  Felix  de  Fredis  who  discovered  the  Laocoon,  and 
it  remained  in  Rome  until  the  arrival  of  the  French  army^ ' 
when  that  and  other  celebrated  monuments  of  art  were 
removed  to  the  museum  at  Paris.  Borghini  and  WihkeU 
man  place  the  Laocoon  and  its  sculptors  in  the  most  briU 
Kant  sera  of  the  art  in  Greece ;  but  of  this  some  doubts 
have  been  entertained.     Lessing,  in  his  ingenious  disser-^ 

1  Biog.  Brin  >  Biographic  Unurersellt.— ^faoget.  Bibi. 

«22  AGE  SAND  E  R. 

fation  on  poetry  and  paintingr,  of  which  the  Laocoon  h 
both  the  title  and  the  subject,  endeavours  to  prove  that 
the  statue  was  made  after  the  sublirae  passive  in  Virgil^ 
in  which  Laocoon^s  story  is  given ;  and  from  a  consideration 
of  the  exquisite  finishing  of  this  groupe,  compared  with 
the  works  of  the  Grecian  artists,  he  is  of  opinion  that  it 
was  executed  under  the  Caesars.  Be  this  as  it  may,  the 
Laocoon  has  immortalised  the  names  of  Agesander,  Athe« 
nodorus,  and  Polydorus.  ^ 

AGGAS  (Ralph),  a  surveyor  and  engraver^  in.  the  six- 
teenth centuiy,  whose  original  plates  are  now  extremely 
rare.     He  first  drew  a  plan  of  London,  which,  though  re* 
ferred  to  the  time  of  Henry  VUI.  and  Edward  VI.  appears 
from  several  circumstances  to  have  been  made  eariy  in 
Elizabeth's  reign,  about  1560,  on  wood.  It  was  republished 
in  1618,  with  alterations,  in  six  sheets,  cut  in  wood,  and 
re-engraved  by  Vertue  in  1743.     The  plates  were  bought 
by  the  Society  of  Antiquaries,  and  published  in  177$.   His 
next  performances  were  plans  of  Oxford  and  Cambridge, 
about  1578.     The  former  is  the  oldest  plan  of  the  city  of 
.    Oxford  extant     It  was  engraved  at  the  expence  of  the 
university  in  1728,  with  ancient  views,  on  the  borders,  of 
the  colleges  and  schools  as  they  originally  stood.     This 
plate  was  unfortunately  destroyed  at  the  fire  which  con- 
sumed so  much  literary  property  belonging  to  Mr.  Nichols, 
in  1 808.     The  only  other  plan  of  Aggas^s  workmanship, 
now  known,  is  one  of  Dunwich  in  Suffolk,  dated  March, 
1589,  on  vellum,  and  not  engraved.     Ames  attributes  to 
|iim  a  work  entitled  *^  A  Preparative  to  platting  of  Landes 
and  Tenements  for  surveigh,  &c.**  1596.    He  is  supposed 
to  have  been  related  to  Edward  Aggas,  the  son  of  fiLobert 
Aggas,  of  Stoke-nayland  in  Suffolk,  who  was  a  bookseller 
of  some  note  from  1576  to  1594 ;  and  from  one  or  otiner 
probably  descended  Robert  Aggas,  or  Augus,  a  landscape 

E inter  and  scene  painter,  whose  best  work  extant  is  a 
idscape  now  in  Painter-stainers  hall.     He  died  in  Lon« . 
•don,  1679,  aged  about  sixty. * 

AGLIONBY  (Edward),  educated  at  Eton,  and  in  1536 
elected  to  King's  College,  Cambridge,  of  which  he  after*' 
wards  became  a  fellow  and  M.  A.  was  esteemed  a  very  good 
Grecian  and  Latin  poet.     He  was  afterwards  a  justice  of 

\  Biographie  UoiTenelte. 

f  6oagU*tTopo^phy.«»Ames>s  History  of  Printings— Walpole't  Anecdotes  of 

A  G  L  rO  N  B  Y.  «2$ 

peace  in  Warwickshire.  He  wrote  the  genea-logy  of  Qtieen 
JElizabeth^  for  which  she  gave  him  an  aonual  pension  of 
.five  pounds :  and  a  Latin  poem  ^^  in  obi  turn  duorum  &aU 
folciensium  fratrum/'  which  is  printed  in.Wilson**  *^  Epi- 
grammata/'  1552,  4to. » 

.     AGLIONBY  (John),  an  eminent  divine  c(  a  very  anr 
cient  family  in  Cumberland  (whose  name  was  de  Aguiloii, 
corruptly  Aglionby),  the  son  of  Edward  Aglionby,  e^.  and 
Elizabeth  Musgrave  of  Crookdayke^  was  admitted  a  student 
of  Queen's  College,  Oxford,  in  1583.    Being  elected  felr 
ipWy  he  went  into  orders,  and  became  an  eloquent  and 
learned  preacher.     Afterwards  he  travelled  abroad,  and 
was  introduced  to  the  acquaintance  of  the  famous  cardinal 
Bellarmin.     On  his  return  he  was  made  chaplain  in  ordi- 
narjr  to  Queen  Elizabeth,  and  in  1600  took  the  degree  of 
D.I),     About  that  time  he  obtained  the  rectory  of  Islip, 
Bet»r  Oxford,  and  in  1601  was  elected  prinoipal  q{  St.  Ed,^ 
mund'^s  hall.     He  was  likewise  chaplain  in  ordinary    to 
king  James  I.  and,  according  to  Wood,  had  a  considerable 
share  in  the  translation  of  the  New  Testament  ordered  by 
the  king  in  1604.     The  Biog.  Brit,  says,  that  Wood  pie^n^ 
tions  no  authority  for  this  assertion  ;  but  Wood,  in  his 
Annals,  gives  his  name  among  the  other  Oxford  divines 
who  were  to  translate  the  Gospels,  Acts,  and  Apocalypse, 
Pr.  Aglionby  died  at  Islip,  Feb.  6,  160i>-10,  aged  forty- 
three,  and  was  buried  in  the  chancel  of  the  parish  church. 
He  was  eminent  for  his  learning,  deeply  read  in  the  Fathers^ 
and  a.  distinguished  critic  in   the    languages.     His    soft. 
G£ORG£  Aglionhy  was  eighth  dean  of  Canterbury,  by 
appointment  of  Charles  I.  but. was  never  installed,   tiof: 
reaped  any  advantarge  by  it,  as  the  parliament  had  then 
(1642)   seized  on  the  profits  of  those  capitular ,  bodies^' 
which  were  within  the  power  of  their  arms,  and  he  sur^ 
vived  his  nomination  but  a  few  months^  dyiujg^  at  Oxford 
Nov.  1643,  aged  forty.     From  this  family  probably  d^r 
scended  William  AaLiON^y,  a  gentleman  of  polite  learn- 
ing, who  was  envoy  from  Queen  Anne  to  the  Swiss  Can- 
tons, and  author  of  a  book  entitled  ^^  Painting  illustrated, 
in  ,three  dialogue^,  with  the  lives  of  the  o»ost  emipent^ 
painters  from  Cimabue  to  RapbaeV  Loud.  1685,  4tQ.,.  .1% 
Macky^s  Clj^aracters  (really  written  by  Mr.  Davis,  an  officer 
in  the  customs)  he  is  thus  spoken  of :  ^'  He  has  abundance 

I  TADDer.—Harwood's  Alumni  Etopeases,  p.  15S. 

-\  ♦ 




of  wit,  and  understands  most  of  the  languages  well :  knows 
how  to  tell  a  stoty  to  the  best  advantage  ;  but  has  an  affect- 
ed manner  of  conversation  :  is  thin,  splenetic,  and  tawny 
complexioned,  turned  of  sixty  years  old ;"  to  which  Swift 
added  in  manuscript,  "  He  had  been  a  Papist."  In  a  col- 
lection of  letters  published  some  years  ago,  there  are  se- 
veral from  Dr.  William  Aglionby,  F.  R.  S»  dated  from  1685 
to  1691,  principally  written  from  different  parts  of  the 
continent,  arid  probably  by  the  same  person,  who  is  styled 
Doctor  in  Swift's  Works.  * 

AGNELLI  (Joseph),  a  learned  Jesdit,  bom  at  Naples 
in  1621,  and  for  many  years  teacher  of  divinity,  and  go- 
vernor of  the  colleges  of  Monte-Pulciano,  Macerata,  and 
Ancona.  He  passed  the  last  thirty  years  of  his  life  among 
the  society  of  Jesuits  at  Rome,  where  he  wrote  many 
works,  and  died  Oct.  8,  1 706.  Of  these  works,  the  most 
celebrated  is  "II  parrocl\iano  instruttore,**  Rome,  1677, 
2  vols.  4to;  reprinted  at  the  same  place,  1704,  in  6  vols* 
«  vo.  * 

AGNELLI,  or  AGNELLUS  (or  Andrew),  archbishop  of 
Havenna  in  the  ninth  century,  wrote  the  history  of  his  pre- 
decessors in  that  see,  in  a  bold  style,  and  with  little  respect 
for  the  interests  or  character  of  the  court  of  Rome,  by 
which  his  grandfather  or  great-grandfather  had  been  put  to 
'  death.  There  are  many  curious  facts  in  this  collection  of 
lives,  but  also  several  mistakes  in  dates.  It  was  published 
by  father  Bacchini,  in  1708,  with  notes,  under  the  title 
^  Agnelli  qui  et  Andteas,  abbatid  S.  Mari®  ad  Blachernas, 
liber  pontificalis,  sive  vitae  Pontificum  Ravennatum,  &c.'* 
5^vols.  4to.  Muratori  reprinted  it  in  his  collection  of  Ita- 
fian  historians.  Spreti,  who  wrote  on  the  history  of  Ra-* 
venna,  Vossius,  and  Moreri,  have  confounded  Agnelli  with 
one  of  the  same  name  who  lived  in  the  sixth  century,  and 
is  supposed  to  have  written  a  letter  in  the  Bibliothec.  Pa* 
tnim,  "  De  ratione  Fidei  ad  Armenium.^' ' 

AGNESI  (Maria  Cajetana,  or  Gateana),  an  Italian 
lady  of  great  learning,  was  born  at  Milan^  March  16, 1718; 
Her  i^iclinations  from  her  earliest  youth  led  her  to  the 
study  of  science,  and  at  an  age  when  young  persons  of  her 
9ex  a<ttend  only  to  frivolous  pursuits,  she  had  made  such 

«1  Biog.  Brit^r^Hutchinfion's  Cumberland,  vol.1,  p.  194.'— Weed's  Atheoit.--' 
Annals.— Colleges  and  Halls. — Todd's  Deans  of  Canterbury.— Swift's  Works.— 
Cent.  Mag.  vol.  LXIV.  686,  798,  8 1 4,. 823  ;  LXV.  367.  «  Moreri.' 

*  ll^ri.— Di(^«  Histoiiqa^.— Biographic  UnMfereelte.— Sa^  OnomastiotMk 

A  G-N  ESI.  225 

Iftstoniidiiiig  progress  in  mathematics,  that  when  in  1750 
her  father,  professor  in  the  university  at  Bologna,  was  un« 
ible  to  continue  his  lectures  from  infirm  health,  she  ob-- 
tained  permission  from  the  pope,  Benedict  XIV.  to  fill  his 
chair.  Before  tliis,  at  the  early  age  of  nineteen,  she  had 
supported  one  hundred  and  ninety-one  theses,  which  were 
published^  in  1738,  under  the  title ."  Propositiones  Philo- 
sophicae."  She  was  also  mistress  of  Latin,  Greek,  Hebriew, 
^French,  German,  and  Spanish.  At  length  she  gave  up  her 
studies,  and  went  into  the  monastery  of  the  Blue  Nuns,  at 
Milan^  where  she  di«d  Jan.  9,  1799.  In  1740  she  pub- 
lished a  discourse  tending  to  prove  ^'  that  the  study  of  the 
liberal  arts  is  not  incompatible  with  the  understandings  of 
Women."  This  she  had  written  when  scarcely  nine,  years 
old.  Her  "  Instituzioni  analitiche,"  1748,  2  vols.  4to, 
were  translated  in  part  by  Antelmy,  with  the  notes  of  Mi 
Bossut,  under  the  title  of  "  Traites  elementaires  du  Calcul 
differentiel  et  dii  Calcul  integral,"  1775,  8vo  :  but  itoord 
completely  into  English  by  that  eminent  judge  of  mathe-- 
matical  learning,  the  late  rev.  John  Colson,  M.  A.  F.  R.  S, 
and  Lucasian  professor  9f  mathematics  in  the  univer** 
isity  of  Cambridge*  This  learned  and  ingenious  .man^  who 
had  translated  sir  Isaac  Newton's  Fluxions,  with  a  com-* 
ment,  in  1736,  and  was  well  acquainted  with  what  ap- 
peared on  the  same  subject,  in  the  course  of  fourteen  years 
afterward,  in  the  writings  of  Engierspn^  Maclaurin,  and 
Simpson^  found,  after  all,  the  analytical  institutions  of  Ag- 
nesi  to  be  so  excellent,  that  he  learned  the  Italian  language^ 
at  an  advanced  age,  for  the  sole  purpose  of  translating  that 
work  into  English,  and  at  his  death  left  the  manuscript 
nearly  prepared  for  the  press.  In  this  state  it  remained  for 
some  years,  until  Mr.  Baron  Maseres,  with  his  usual  libe« 
ral  and  active  spirit,  resolved  to  defray  the  whole  expence 
of  printing  a  handsome  edition^  2  vols.  4to,  1801,  which 
was  superintended  in  the  press  by  the  rev.  John  Hellins, 
B.  D.  F.  R.  S.  vicar  of  Potter's-pury,  in  Northamptonshire* 
her  eloge  was  pronounced  by  Frisi,  and  translated  into 
French  by  Boulard*  > 

AGNOLO  (Baccio  d'),  a  sculptor  and  architect  of  Flo-* 
rente,  was  born  in  1460,  and  was  first  distinguished  ipt 
the  beauty  of  his  inlaid  work,  which  he  applied  to  articled 
of  likrniturej^.  and  with  which  he  ornamented  the  stalls  in 

1  BiogriiphiieUBiTeT8eU<i.»^I)Ict,  Htst.-^Saxii  Ono^ftasticQD.'-^Colggn'i  Tr^ii«« 
l^tioD,  preface; 

vot.  I.  a 

t26  AG  NOLO. 

the  choir  of  the  church  of  St.  Maria-Novelle,  tie  aJsd 
executed  the  carved  wooden  work  on  the  organ  of  the 
same  church,  and  on  the  altar  of  de  la  Nunziata.  Having 
been  led  to  the  study  of  architecture,  he  came  to  Rome  to 
devote  his  attention  to  it,  but  did  not  give  up  the  practice 
6f  carving,  and  soon  had  a  favourable  opportunity  to  exef* 
cise  both.  When  Leo  X,  travelled  in  Italy,  all  the  cities 
through  which  he  passed  wished  to  receive  him  with  ho- 
nour, and  Baccio  gave  designs  for  many  of  the  triumphal 
arches  ordered  to  be  erected.  On  his  return  to  his  coun-*. 
try,  his  workshop  became  a  iortof  academy  to  which  ama- 
teurs, artists,  and  strangers  resorted.  Raphael,  then  very 
young,  and  Michael  Angelo  are  said  to  have  been  of  these 
parties.  By  this  means  Baccio  acquired  great  reputation, 
and  was  employed  on  many  splendid  buildings  in  Florence. 
Conjointly  with  Cronaca,  he  executed  the  decorations  of 
the  grand  saloon  of  the  palace,  and  the  beautiful  «taircase 
leading  to  it.  But  his  best  work  is  to  be  seen  in  the  Bar- 
tolini  palace  and  garden.  Here  he  shewed  the  first  speci- 
men of  square  windows  surmounted  by  pediments,  aivdt 
doors  ornamented  by  columns,  a  mode  which  although  fol- 
lowed generally  since,  was  much  ridiculed  by  his  country* 
men  as  an  innovation.  In  other  palaces  he  executed  isome 
beautiful  ornaments  in  wood.  He  preserved  his  vigour 
and  reputation  to  a  great  age,  dying  in  1543,  in  his  eighty- 
third  year.  He  left  three  sons,  one  of  whom,  Giuliano,  in- 
herited his  skill  in  architecture,  but  designed  more  than 
he  executed.  * 

AGOBARD,  archbishop  of  Lyons,  was  one  of  the  most 
;celebrated  and  learned  prelates  of  the  ninth  century.  Dr, 
CaVe  and  Olearius  tell  us  he  was  a  Frenchman,  but  Dtt 
Pin  says  there  is  no  absolute  proof  of  this.  He  was  bom 
in  the  year  779,  as  father  Mabillon  deduced  from  a  short 
martyrology,  upon  which  Agobard  seems  to  have  written 
tome  notes  with  his  own  hand.  In  the  year  782  he  came 
from  Spain  to  France.  Leidrade,  archbishop  of  Lyons, 
ordained  him  priest  in  the  y^ar  804,  and  nine  years  after 
he  was  appointed  coadjutor,  or  corepiscopus  to  that  pre* 
late,  and  when,  in  the  year  816,  Leidrade  returned  to  a 
monastery  at  Soissons,  Agobard  was  substituted  in  his 
room  with  the  consent  of  the  emperor,  and  the  whole  synod 
of  the  French  brshops,  who  highly  approved  of  the  choice 

^  Biograpbi«  UhiTerselie. 

A  G  O  B  A  R  D.  227 

#bich  Leidrade  had  made  of  a  successor.  This  ordina« 
tion,  however,  was  objected  to,  as  it  is  contrary  to  the 
canons,  that  a  bishop  should  choose  his  successor  him- 
self. Agobard  notwithstanding  enjoyed  the  see  quietly 
till  he  war  expelled  from  it  by  the  emperor  Louis  le  De- 
bonnaire,  because  he  had  espoused  the  party  of  his  son 
Lothaire,  and  been  one  of  the  chief  authors  of  deposing 
him  in  the  assembly  of  bishops  at  Compiegne  in  the  year 
833.  For  Lewis,  having  secured  himself  against  the  injus- 
tice and  violence  which  had  been  offered  by  Lothaire  and 
the  bishops  of  his  party,  prosecuted  the  latter  in  the  coun- 
cil of  Thionville  in  the  year  835.  Agobard,  who  had  re-* 
tired  to  Italy,  with  the  other  bishops  of  his  party,  was  sum- 
moned three  times  before  the  council,  and  refusing  to  ap- 
pear, was  deposed,  but  no  person  was  substituted  in  his 
room.  His  cause  was  again  examined  in  the  year  836,  at 
an  assembly  held  at  Stramiac  near  Lyons :  but  it  continued 
still  undetermined,  on  account  of  the  absence  of  the  bi- 
shops j  wbose  sole  right  it  was  to  depose  their  brother.  At 
length,  the  sons  of  the  emperor  haying  made  their  peace 
with  him,  they  found  means  to  restore  Agobard,  who  was 
present  in  the  year  838,  at  an  assembly  held  at  Paris ;  and 
he  died  in  the  service  of  his  sovereign,  in  Xaintonge,  June 
5,  in  the  year  840.  This  church  honoured  him  with  the 
title  of  saint.  He  had  no  less  share  in  the  affairs  of  the 
church,  than  those  of  the  empire  ;  and  he  shewed  by  his 
writings  that  he  was  a  much  abler  divine  than  a  politician. 
He  was  a  strenuous  defender  of  ecclesiastical  discipline, 
very  tenacious  of  the  opinions  he  had  once  espoused,  and 
very  vigorous  in  asserting  and  defending  them.  Dupin, 
however,  acknowledges  that  he  was  unfriendly  to  the  wor- 
ship of  images,  and  it  appears  that  he  held  notions  on  that 
subject  which  would  have  done  honour  to  more  enlight- 
ened times.  He  wrote  a  treatise  entitled  "  Adversus  dogma 
Fselicis  ad  Ludovicum  Imp."  against  Felix  Orgelitanus,  to 
shew  that  Christ  is  the  true  son  of  God,  and  not  merely  by 
adoption  and  grace.  He  wrote  likewise  several  tracts 
against  the  Jews,  a  list  of  which  may  be  seen  in  the  Gene- 
ral Dictionary,  10  vols.  fol.  from  whence  our  account  of 
him  is  principally  taken.  His  style  is  simple,  intelligible, 
and  natural,  but  without  elevation  or  ornament.  He  rea- 
sons with  much  acuteness,  confirming  his  arguments,  as 
was  the  custom  then,  by  the  authority  of  the  fathers,  whom 
j^e  has  largely  quoted.     His  works  were  buried  in  obscurity 

a  2 

S2S  A  G  O  B  A  R  D. 

for  several  ages,  until  Papirius  Masso  found  a  mafiuscriptr 
of  them  by  chance  at  a  bookseller's  shop  at  Lyons,  who 
was  just  going  to  cut  it  to  pieces  to  bind  his  books  with^ 
Masso  published  this  manuscript  at  Paris  in  1603  in  8vo, 
and  the  original  was  after  his  death  deposited  in  the  king 
of  France's  library.  But  Masso  having  suffered  many 
errors  to  escape  him  in  his  edition,  M.  Baluze  published 
a  more  correct  edition  at  Paris,  1666,  2  vols.  8vo,  from  the 
same  manuscript,  and  illustrated  it  with  notes.  He  like- 
wise added  to  it  a  treatise  of  Agobard  entitled  "  Contra 
quatuor  libros  Amalarii  liber,"  which  he  copied  from  aa 
old  manuscript  of  Peter  Marnapsiiis,  and  collated  with  an- 
other manuscript  of  Cbifflet;  This  edition  has  been  like^ 
wise  reprinted  in  the  "  Bibliotheca  Patrum."  * 


AGOSTiNI  (LiONARDo),  an  eminent  antiquary,  lived  iu 
the  seventeenth  century.  Under  the  pontificate  of  Urban 
VIlI.  he  resided  in  the  court  of  cardinal  Barberini ;  and 
afterwards  pope  Alexander  Vtl.  who  had  a  great  esteem  for 
him,  gave  him  the  appointment  of  examiner  of  antiquities 
in  the  Roman  territory.  He  published  the  two  following 
works,  which  are  now  scarce,  and  much  valued.  1.  "La 
Sicilia  di  Filippo  Paruta  descritta  con  Medaglie,  con  la 
giunta  di  Lionardo  Agostini,"  Rome,  1649,  folio.  This  is 
a  new  edition  of  Paruta's  Sicilian  medals,  which  was  origi- 
nally published  at  Palermo,  1612,  folio,  under  the  title 
*'  Delia  Sicilia  di  Filippo  Paruta  descritta  con  Medaglie, 
parte  prima."  This  first  part,  which  has  become  very  rare, 
contains  only  engravings  of  the  medals,  to  which  a  descrip- 
tion was  promised,  in  a  second  part,  which  never  appear- 
ed. Agostini  used  the  same  plates  as  Paruta,  and  added 
about  four  hundred  medals  to  those  in  Paruta's  edition,  but 
still  without  explanations.  After  his  death,  Paruta's  plates 
having  fallen  into  the  hands  of  Marco  Maier,  a  bookseller, 
he  published  at  Lyons,  in  1697,  anew  edition,  in  folio, 
entitled,  "  La  Sicilia  di  Filippo  Paruta  descritta  con  Me- 
daglie, e  ristampata  con  aggiunta  di  Lionardo  Agostini,. 
hora  in  miglior  ordine  disposta  da  Marco  Maier,  arrichita 
d'una  descrittione  compendiosa  di  quella  famosa  isola.^ 
But  notwithstanding  the  explanations  and  historical  addi-- 
tions  of  this  editor,  this  edition  is  less  valued  than  those  of 
Paruta  and  Agostini.     The  best  and  most  complete  is  that 

'  Ofen»  Dicti— 'Mosheim^s  Hist,— Moreri.— 5axii  OnOBia&t.— Cave, 

A  G  0  S  t  I  N  I.  ?a> 

which  Havercamp  published  in  Latin,  at  Leyden,  1723, 
3  vols,  folio,  with  a  commentary ;  these  form  the  sixths 
seventh,  and  eighth  volumes  of  Graevius's  Thesaurus.  The 
pther  work  of  Agostini  is,  2.  "  Le  Gemme  antiche  figurate 
di  Lionardo  Agostini,  con  le  annotazioui  del  sig.  Gio. 
Pietro  Bellori,"  part  I.  Rome,  1636  and  1657,  4to;  part  IL 
Rome,''l670  ;  reprinted  1686,  2  vols.  4to.  In  1702,  Do-, 
minique  de  Rossi  published  au  enlarged  edition  at  Rome, 
2  vols.  4to ;  and  in  1707,  a  fourth  edition  was  published  at 
the  same  place  in  four  large  vols.  4to,  with  a  vast  number 
of  additions  by  Maffei.  The  first,  however,  is  still  in 
highest  esteem  on  account  of  the  beauty  of  the  plates, 
which  were  executed  by  Galestnizzi ;  aud  die^editors  of  th« 
Orleans  gems  in  1780  seem  to  undervalue  the  labours  of 
MafFei  and  Gronovius,  who  translated  this  work  into  Latin, 
Amsterdam,  1685;,  4to,  reprinted  at  Franeker>  1694.  Joe- 
cher,  in  his  Dictionary  of  learned  Men,  attributes  to  Agos-- 
tini  a  work  entitled  "  Consiglier  di  pace,"  which  was  writ*- 
ten  by  Lionardo  Agosti.  * 

.  AGOSTINO  (Paul),  of  Valerano,  an  eminent  musician, 
was  born  in  1 593,  and  was  the  scholar  of  Bernardo  Nanini, 
and  successor  to  Soriano  in  the  pontifical  chapel.  Antinia 
Liberati  speaks  of  him  as  one  of  the  most  scientific  and. 
ingenious  composers  of  his  time,  in  every  species  of  music 
then  cultivated ;  and  adds,  that  when  he  was  master  of  the 
chapel  of  St.  Peter's  church  at  Rome,  he  astonished  the 
musical  world  with  his  productions  for  four,  six,  and  eight 
bhoirs  or  choruses;  some  of  which  might  be  sung  in  four 
or  six  parts  only,  without  diminishing  or  enervating  the 
harmony.  Father  Martini,  who  bears  testimony  to  the 
truth  of  this  eulogium,  has  inserted  an  Agnus  Dei,  in  eight 
parts,  of  this  composer,  which  is  truly  a  curious  produc- 
tion, three  different  canons  being  carried  on  at  the  same 
time,  in  so  cleacand  natural  a  manner,  both  as  to  melody 
and  harmony,  that  this  learned  father,  who  had  been  long 
exercised  in  such  arduous  enterprizes,  speaks  of  it  as  one 
of  the  greatest  efforts  of  genius  and  learning  in  this  roost  dif« 
ficult  kind  of  composition.  Agostino  died  in  1629,  in  the 
prime  of  life.  * 

AGOULT  (William  d'),  a  Provencal  gentleman  and 
poet,  of  the  twelfth  century,  died  in  1181,  leaving  behind 

1  Biographic  Univer8elle.-«-Descriptioa  des  Pierres  graveefi  du  c&binet  P'(>i;« 
leans,  preface. 
%  Bumey's  Hist,  of  Mu6;c,  toI.  III.«»-^Biographi«  XJiiiYerseUe^ 

t%0  A  G  O  U  L  T. 

him  the  character  of  a  man,  learned,  amiable,  witty,  and 
elegant  in  person  and  manners.  He  married  Jausserande 
de  Lunel,  in  praise  of  whom  he  wrote  many  verses,  dedi** 
cated  to  Ildefonso,  the  first  of  the  name,  king  of  Arragon^ 
prince  of  Provence,  and  count  of  Barcelona,  in  whose 
court  he  held  the  rank  of  first  gentteman.  He  complained 
that  in  his  time  the  passion  of  love  was  not  properly  under* 
stood,  and  therefore  wrote  a  treatise  or  poem,  entitled  **  La 
maniera  d'Amar  del  temps  passat."  In  this  he  maintains^ 
in  a  chain  of  reasoning,  that  no  one  can  be  happy  unless 
he  is  a  good  man  *,  that  no  one  can  be  a  good  man  unless 
he  is  in  love;  and  that  no  man  knows  how  to  love  who  is 
not  careful  of  hi&  mistress's  honour.  None  of  his  writings 
have  been  published.  The  family  of  Agoult  still  exists  in 
Dauphiny  and  Provence.* 

AGREDA  (Maria  d'),  a  singular  impostor  and  entha^ 
siast,  the!  daughter  of  Francis  Coronel,  was.  born  at  Agreda 
in  1602.  Her  father  made  his  house  a  convent  of  female 
Cordeliers,  under  the  name  of  The  Immaculate  Conception^ 
and  his  wife  and  daughters  made  profession.  Maria  was 
elected  superior  of  the  convent,  and  died  there  in  1665^ 
after  having  written  "  The  Mystical  City  of  God,**  which 
contains  a  life  of  the  blessed  Virgin,  full  of  absurdity  and 
impiety.  Yet  it  was  printed  at  Lisbon,  at  Madrid,  at  Per^ 
pignan,  and  at  Antwerp,  and  at  last  translated  into  French 
by  father  Crozet,  and  printed  at  Brussels,  3  vols.  4to,  and 
8  vols.  8 vo.  The  doctors  of  the  Sorbonne  condemned  it ; 
but  their  sentence  was  not  allowed  to  be  promulgated  in 
Spain,  where  this  work  was  highly  popular. ' 

AGRICOLA  (Cneius  Julius)  was  bom  at  the  colony  of 
Forum*Julii,  or  Frejus  in  Provence,  A.  D.  40,  in  the  reign 
of  Caligula.  His  father's  name  was  Julius  Graecinus,  a  man 
of  senatorian  rank,  and  famous  for  his  eloquence.  He  was 
put  to  death  by  Caligula  for  refusing  to  accuse  Marcus  Si-* 
lanus.  His  mother's  name  was  Julia  Procilla,  a  lady  of  ex« 
emplary  virtue.  He  studied  philosophy  and  civil  law  at 
Marseilles,  as  far  as  was  suitable  to  his  character  as  a  Ro- 
man and  a  senator.  His  first  service  in  war  was  under  Sue- 
tonius Paulinus  in  Britain ;  and  upon  his  return  to  Rome 
lie  married  Domitia  Decidiana,  with  whom  he  lived  in  the 
lltmost  harmony  and  tranquillity.     He  was  chosen  questot 

'  Biograpbie  Umtrerselle. — t3\ct,  de  I'Avocat.— Mofcri*  , 

'Gen.  Diet— Moreri.-— Biogr»phieU«iversell(, 

A  G  R  I  C  O  L  Ak  2^ 

ID  Asia  at  the  same  time  thai  Salvius  Titianus  was  pro-coitr 
Bul  there ;  and  he-preserved  his  integrity,  though  that  pro*- 
vince  was  extremely  rich,  and  Titianus,  who  was  v^ry  ' 
^taricious,  would  have  readily  countenanced  bis  extortions 
in  order  to  screen  his  own.  He  was  afterwards  chosen  tri* 
bune  of  the  people,  and  then  praetor,  under  the  emperor 
Nero.  In  Vespasian's  time  he  was  made  legate  to  Yettius^ 
Bolaqus  in  Britain,  and  upon  his  return  was  ranked  among 
the  patricians  by  that  emperor,  and  afterwards  appointed 
goyerqor  of  Aquitania;  which  post  he  held  for  three  years, 
^nd  upon  his  return  was  chosen  consul,  and  then  governor 
of  Britain,  where  he  distinguished  himself  Iby  his  courage 
and  conduct  in  several  campaigns.  He  subdued  the  Ordo** 
vices,  or  people  of  North  Wales,  and  the  island  Mona,  or 
Anglesey ;  and  then  reformed  the  abuses  occasioned  by  the 
avarice  or  carelessness  of  the  former  governors,  putting  a 
stop  to  all  manner  of  extortions,  and  causing  justice  to  be 
impartially  administere(l. 

Vespasian  dying  about  this  tinye,  Titus  his  son,  knowing 
Agricola's  great  merit,  continued  him  in  the  government. 
In  the  spring  he  marched  towards  the  north,  where  he  made 
some  new  conquests,  and  ordered  forts  to  be  built  for  the 
Romans  to  winter  in.  He  spent  the  following  winter  in  en- 
deavouring to  bring  the  Britons  to  conform  to  the  Romish 
custqms.  He  thought  the  best  way  of  diverting  them  from 
rising  and  taking  arms,  was  to  soften  their  rpugh  manners 
by  the  more  refined  amusements  of  Rome ;  and  sooq  after, 
the  country  was  adorned  with  magnificent  temples,  porti- 
CQes,  baths,  and  other  fine  public  and  private  edifices.  The, 
British  nobles  had  their  sons  educated  in  learning,  and  they 
who  before  had  the  utmost  aversion  to  the  Rom^n  language, 
now  made  it  their  study.  They  wore  likewise  the  Roman 
habit ;  and,  as  Taicitus  observes,  they  wjere  brought  to  con-» 
sider  those  things  as  signs  of  politeness,  which  were  only  so 
many  badges  of  slavery. — In  his  third  campaign  he  ad« 
vanced  as  far  as  the  river  Tweed ;  and  in  his  fourth  he  sub^ 
du^d  the  nations  between  the  Tweed  and  the  firths  of 
Edinburgh  and  Dumbarton,  into  which  the  Clyde  and  the 
Tay  discharge  themselves^  Here  he  built  castles  and  for- 
tresses, in  order  to  shut  up  the  nations  which  were  yet  un- 
Qooquered.  In  his  fifth  campaign  he  marched  beyond  the 
firths,  where  he  subdued  some  nations,  and  fixed  garrison* 
along  the  western  coasts  over-agaiiist  Ireland,  designing  to 
jpake  a  descent  upon  that  i^andt  having  had  perfect  in-* 

Z^  A  G  II  I  C  O  L  Ai 

formation  of  its  state  from  a  chief  who  had  been  banished 
from  thence.,  In  his  sixth  campaign  he  passed  the  firth  of  * 
Forth,  ordering  his  fleet,  the  first  which  the  Romans  eyer 
bad  upon  those  seas,  to  row  along  the  coasts,  and  take  a 
view  of  th^  northern  parts.  He  was  advancing  farther 
northwards,  when  he  was  informed  that  the  northern  na« 
tions  were  marching  against  him  with  a  formidable  army, 
which  he  routed.  In  the  following  spring  the  Britons 
raised  an  army  of  thirty  thousand  men,  commanded  by 
Galgacus,  who  endeavoured  to  rouse  their  patriotism  by  an 
admirable  speech  which  may  be  seen  in  Tacitus,  and  which 
seems  adapted  to  the  case^  of  every  nation  about  to  lose  its 
liberties  by  the  invasion  of  a  powerful  enemy.  Agricola 
on  this  occasion  likewise  addressed  his  soldiers  in  a  very 
eloquent  harangue,  which  was  so  prevailing,  that  the  Bri- 
tons were  routed,  with  the  loss  of  ten  thousand  killed ; 
whereas  but  three  hundred  and  forty  of  the  Romans  were 
killed.  Pomitian,  being  informed  of  this  victory,  grew  jea- 
lous of  the  conqueror,  and  recalled  him  under  pretence  of 
making  him  governor  of  Syria.  His  death  was  suspected 
to  have  been  occasioned  by  poison  given  him  by  that  em- 
peror ;  and,  as  Tacitus  remarks,  happened  viery  seasonably 
for  him,  as  he  did  not  live  to  witness  the  calamities  brought 
upon  his  country  by  the  cruelty  of  Dpmitian.  He  died 
Aug.  23,  A.  D.  93,  in  the  fifty-fourth  year  of  his  age.  It 
is  scarcely  needful  to  remind  bur  readers  that  his  life  was( 
affectionately  written  by  his  son-in-law  Tacitus,  who  gives 
hini  a  very  high  character,  but  not  more  than  is  warranted 
by  contemporary  authority;  at  least  we  are  acquainted  with 
no  documents  that  can  detract  from  it,  * 

AGRICOLA  (George),  a  Qerman  physician,  eminent 
for  his  knowledge  of  pietallurgy,  was  born  at  Glaucha  in 
Misnia,  March  24,  1494.  The  discoveries  which  he  made 
in  the  mountains  of  Bohemia  after  his  return  from  Italy,^ 
whither  ha  went  to  pursiie  bis  studies,  gave  him  such  a  taste 
for  exaininin^  every  thing  that  related  to  metals,  that  when 
engaged  in  the  practice  of  physic  at  Joachimstal  in  Misnia, 
hei  employed  all  the  time  be  could  possibly  spare  in  the 
study  of  fossils;  and  at  length  removed  to  Chemintz,  that 
he  might  wholly  devote  hinCi'self  to  this  pursuit^  He  is  said 
to  have  applied  to  it  with  such  disinterested  zeal,  that  he 
iiot  only  spent  the  pension  procured  for  him  from  Mauricei 

1  Gen.  Diet. 

AGRICOLA.  2  J3. 

duke  of  Saxony,  but  a  considerable  part  of  his  own  estate  ^ 
and  when  duke  Maurice  and  duke  Augustus  went  to  joia 
the  army  of  Charles  V.  in  Bohemia,  Agricola  attended  them, 
in  order  to  demonstrate  his  attachment,  ahhough  this 
obhged  him  to  quit  the  care  of  his  family  and  estate.  He 
died  at  Chemintz,  Nov.  21,  1555.  He  was  a  zealous  Ro- 
man Catholic,  but  was  considered  by  the  Lutherans  as  in 
some  respects  an  apostate  from  the  reformed  reUgion,  and 
they  carried  their  rancour  against  him  so  far  as  to  refuse  his 
body  the  rites  of  burial.  It  was  therefore  obliged  to  be  re- 
moved from  Chemintz  to  Zeits,  \riiere  it  was  interred  iu 
the  principal  church.  Bayle  thinks  that  he  must  have  irri- 
tated the  Lutherans  by  some  instances  of  excessive  aversion 
to  them,  and  Peter  Albinus  represents  him  as  an  intolerant 
bigot.  His  works  are  *^  De  ortu  et  causis  Subterraneo^ 
rum.  De  natura  eorum,  quse  effluunt  ex  terra.  De 
natura  Fossilium.  De  Medicatis  Fontibus.  De  Subter- 
raneis  Animantibus.  De  veteribus  et  novis  Metallts.  De 
re  Metallica."  This  last  has  been  printed  at  Basil 
four  times,  in  folio,  1546,  1556,  1558,  and  1561,  which 
shews  the  very  high  esteem  in  which  it  was  held.  His  work 
^'  De  ortu  et  causis  Subterraneorum"  was  printed  at  Basil, 
1583,  fol.  Bayle  mentions  a  political  work  of  his,  <'  De 
bello  Turcis  inferendo,"  Basil,  1538,  and  a  controversial 
treatise,  ^^  De  Traditionibus  Apostolicis."  His  principal 
medical  work,  ^^  De  Peste,"  was  printed  at  Basil,  1554. 
He  wrote  also  ^^  De  Ponderibus  et  Mensuris^'  against  Bu- 
deus,  Leonard  Portius,  and  Alciati,  which  the  latter  endea^ 
voured  to  answer,  but  without  success.  His  life  is  written 
by  Melchior  Adam.  ^ 

.  AGRICOLA  (John),  a  Saxon  divine,  bom  at  Isleben, 
April  20,  1492,  was  an  eminent  doctor  of  the  Lutheran 
church,  though  chargeable  with  vanity,  presumption,  and 
artifice.  Bayle  gives  rather  a  confused  account  of  his  life, 
from  which,  however,  it  appears  that  he  made  hhtnself  dis- . 
tinguished  in  1538,  upon  the  following  occasion.  Luther, 
in  the  course  of  his  ministry,  was  insisting  upon  the  neces- 
sity of  imprinting  deeply  in  the  minds  of  the  people,  that 
doctrine  of  the  gospel,  which  represents  Christ's  merits  as 
the  source  of  man's  salvation;  and  while  he  was  eagerly 
employed  in  censuring  and  refuting  the  popish  doctors, 
who  mixed  the  law  and  the  gospel  together,  and  repre- 

1  Qen.  Pict.-rMoreri.'— S^xii  Onomut.— Melchior  Adam, 

134  A  G  R  I  C  O  L  A. 

sented  eternal  happiness  as  the  fruit  of  legal  obedieiiC6|t 
Agricola  took  an  opportunity  to  declaim  against  the  law^ 
maintaining  that  it  was  neither  fit  to  be  proposed  to  the 
people  as  a  rule  of  manners,  nor  to  be  used  in  the  church 
as  a  means  of  instruction ;  and  that  the  gosjiel  alone  was  to 
be  incul6ated  and  explained  both  in  the  churches  and  im 
the  schools  of  learning.  This  was  the  foundation  of  the' 
sect  of  AntinomianS)  who  appeared  in.  England  during 
the  usurpation  of  Cromwell,  and  carried  their  extravagant 
doctrines  to  a  higher  pitch  than  this  Agricola.  But  the  for- 
titude,  vigilance,  and  credit  of  Luther,  suppressed  the  fol-t 
lowers  of  Agricola  for  the  present ;  and  Agricola  himself, 
intimidated  by  the  opposition  of  so  powerful  an  adversary, 
acknowledged  and  renounced  his  system.  His  recantation, 
however,  does  not  seem  to  have  been  sincere,  since  we  are 
told  that,  when  bis  fears  were  dispelled  by  the  dea|th  of 
Luther,  he  returned  to  his  errors,  and  gained  many  prose«« 
lytes.  Still  it  has  been  pleaded  oo  the  part  of  Agriqola, 
by  Mosbeim,  that  the  fall  extravagance  of  Antinomianism 
is  not  to  be  attributed  .to  him,  and  that  his  principal  fault 
lay  in  some  harsh  and  inaccurate  expressions,  that  were 
susceptible  of  dangerous  and  pernicious  interpretations.  If 
therefore,  we  follow  the  intention  of  Agricola,  without  in- 
terpreting, in  a  rigorous  manner,  the  i^ncouth  phrases  *and 
improper  expressions  he  so  frequently  and  so  injudiciously 
employed,  his  doctrine,  Mosbeim  thinks,  will  plainly 
amount  to  this;  ^^  That  the  ten  commandments,  pubUdied 
during  the  ministry  of  Moses,  were  chiefly  'desigmd  for  the 
Jews,  and  on  that  account  might  be  lawfully  neglected  and 
laid  aside  by  Christians ;  and  that  it  was  sufficient  to  ex- 
plain with  perspicuity,  and  to  enforce  with  zeal,  what 
Christ  and  his  apostles  had  taught  in  the  New  Testament, 
both  with  respect  to  the  means  of  grace  and  salvation,  and 
the  obligations  of  repentance  and  virtue."  He  died  at 
Berlin  in  1566. 

Agricola  wrote  but  few  books.  The  first  was  *^  An  ex- 
planation of  three  hundred  German  Proverbs;'*  and  in  a 
s^ond  edition  he  added  another  hundred.  He  wtote  also 
*<  Commentaries  upon  St.  Lukej^''  8vo,  and  confuted  the 
explication  of  the  nineteenth  Psalm,  published  in  High 
Dutch,  by  Thomas  Muncer.  He  was  likewise  coi^cerned 
with  Julius  Pelugius,  bishop  of  Naumburg,  and  MichaeL 
Sidonius,  or  Heldingus,  by  desire  of  the  emperor  Charles 
y.  in  drawing  up  a  Ibrmulary,  which  might  serve  as-  a  rule 

A  G  It  I  C  O  L  A.  235 

of  taith  and  worship  to  the  contending  parties  of  P^rotest- 
^nts  and  Papists,  until  a  council  should  be  summoned :  this 
is  well  known  in  ecclesiastical  history  by  the  name  of  the 
Interim^  znd  was  opposed  by  many  of  the  reformers.* 

AGRICOLA  (Michel),  a  native  of  Finland,  and  a  Lu* 
tfaetan  divine  of  considerable  eminence  in  the  sixteenth 
century,  studied -divinity  and  medicine  in  the  university  of 
Wittemberg.  Having  become  acquainted  with  Luther, 
that  reformer  recommended  him  to  Gustavus  I. ;  and  on  his 
return  to  Sweden,  he  was  made  rector  of  Abo,  in  1539. 
Gustavus  afterwards  sent  him  to  Lapland  to  preach  Chris- 
tianity to  the  benighted  Laplanders.  In  1554,  he  was  ap^ 
pointed  bishop. of  Abo,  and  then  went  into  Russia,  with  the 
archbishop  of  Upsal,  Laurentius  Petri,  in  order  to  have  t, 
conference  with  the  clergy  of  that  country.  He  died  in 
1557.  He  translated  the  New  Testament  into  the  Finland 
language,  which  was  printed  at  Stockholm,  154S;  and  it 
said  also  to  have  translated  into  the  same  language  a  work 
entitled  <^  Rituale  EcclesisB  ab  erroribus  pontificiorum  re- 
purgatus^"  * 

AGRICOLA  (RoDOLPHUs),  one  of  the  most  learned 
men  of  the  fifteenth  century,  was  born  in  1442,  in  the  vil- 
lage of  Bafflon,  or  BafFehiy  near  Groningen,  in  Firiseland« 
Melchior  Adam  says,  his  parents  were  of  one  of  the  most 
considerable  families  in  Friseland;  but  Ubo  Emmius,  in  his 
history  of  that  country,  represents  him  as  of  mean  eistrac* 
tion ;  and  Bayle,  who  appears  to  have  examined  the  matter 
with  his  usual  precision,  inclines  to  the  latter  opinion.  He 
was,  however,  sent  to  school,  where  he  made  an  uncommon 
progress,  and  had  scarcely  taken  his  degree  of  M.  A.  at 
Louvain,  when  he  was  offered  a  professorship,  which  he 
did  not  accept^  as  it  would  have  prevented  his  travelling 
for  farther  improvement,  a  course  usually  taken  by  the 
learned  men  of  those  times.  He  went  from  Louvain  to 
Parisi  and  from  thence  to  Italy,  residing  two  years  at  Fer- 
rara,  where  he  learned  Greek  and  taught  Latin,  and  dis- 
puted in  prose  and  verse  with  Guarinus  and  the  Strozzas, 
and  where  the  duke  honoured  him  with  particular  atten- 
tion. He  read  lectures  likewise  on  philosophy  in  this  city, 
and  his  auditors  were  so  well  pleased  as  to  wish  he  had 
been  an  Italian.  At  his  return  to  his  own  country^  he  had 
ibe  oifer  of  many  considerable  employments;    and  at  last 

.  1  Gen.  Diet.-— Mosheim's  EcclesUstical  History.— Melchior  Adam.— -MoreriW 
*  Biograpllie  Uuiverielle.— G^d.  Diet. 

«6  A  G  R  I  C  O  L  A. 

accepted  of  a  post  at  Groningen,  and  attended  the  court 
of  Maximilian  I.  for  six  months,  upon  the  afiairs  of  that  city* 
After  this,  which  the  gratitude  of  his  masters  did  not  render 
a  very  profitable  employment,  he  resumed  his  travels  foF 
many  years,  in  the  course  of  which  he  refusedthe  president- 
ship of  a  college  at  Antwerp,  and  fixed  at  length  in  the 
Palatinate,  inSuenced  by  the  persuasions  of  the  bishop  of 
Worms,  whom  he  had  instructed  in  the  Greek  language. 
He  came  to  reside  here  in  1432,  and  passed  the  rest  of  his 
Jife,  sometimes  at  Heidelberg,  and  sometimes  at  Worms. 
The  Elector  Palatine  was  pleased  to  hear  him  discourse 
concerning  antiquity,,  and  desired  him  to  compose  an 
<^  Abridgement  of  Ancient  History,"  which  he  performed 
with  great  accuracy.  He  also  read  public  lectures  at 
Worms;  but  his  auditors  being  more  accustomed  to  the 
subleties  of  logic  than  to  polite  literature,  he  was  not  so 
popular  as  he  deserved.  About  the  fortieth  year  of  bis  age, 
he  began  to  study  divinity;  and  having  no  hope  to  succeed 
in  it  without  a  knowledge  of  Hebrew,  he  applied  himself 
to  that  language,  in  which  he  had  made  considerable  pro-r 
gress,  when  he  was  seized  with  an  illness,  which  put  an 
end  to  his  life  and  labours,  on  the  28Lh  of  October,  1485. 
He  died  in  a  very  devout  manner,  and  was  buried  in  the 
church  of  the  minor  friars  at  Heidelberg.  He  is  thought 
to  have  inclined  a  little  to  the  principles  of  the  reformers. 
He  was  accomplished  in  music  and  poetry,  although  he 
used  these  talents  only  for  his  amusement.  There  are  but 
two  works  of  his  extant:  "  De  Inventione  Dialectica," 
printed  at  Louvain,  1516;  and  at  Cologne  in  1539,  along 
with  his  "  Abridgement  of  Ancient  History,"  under  the 
title  <*  R.  Agricolae  lucubrationes,"  2  vols.  4to.  Erasmus 
gives  a  very  exalted  character  of  his  learning  and  abilities; 
and  by  some  of  his  admirers  he  was  compared  to  Virgil  in 
verse,  and  to  Politian  in  prose.  ^ 

AGRIPPA  (Camille),  a  celebrated  architect  of  Milan^ 
of  the  sixteenth  century.  He  was  a  successful  student  of 
mathematics,  physics,  and  philosophy.  Under  the  pontifi* 
cate  of  Gregory  XHI.  there  was  a  design  at  Rome  to  re- 
move a  vast  obelisk  to  St.  Peter's  square,  and  Agrippa  was 
one  of  those  employed  in  this  undertaking,  hitherto  thought 
so  difficult.  He  published  the  result  of  his  plan  under  the 
(itl^  of  ^>  Tr^ttato  di  trasportar  la  guglia  in  su  la  piaz^^i^ 

I  G«n.  Picti— Melchior  Adam, 

A  O  R  I  P  P  A.  337 

iJi  San  Pietro/'  Rome,  1583,  4to.  His  other  works  are^ 
li.  "  Trattato  di  scientia  d'Arme,  con  un  Dialogo  di  Filo- 
Sofia,"  Rome,  1553;  Venice,  1568,  1604,  4to.  2.  "Dia- 
logo sopra  la  generatione  de  Venti,  &c."  Rome,  1584, 
4to.  3.  "  I>ialogo  del  modo  di  mettere  in  Batta^Ua,'* 
Rome,  1585,  4to.  4.  ^^  Nuove  Invenzioni  sopra  ii  modo 
di  Navigare,"  Rome>  1595,  4to*  All  his  works  are  very 
scarce.  > 

AGRIPPA  (Henry  Cornelius),  a  man  of  considerable 
learning,  and  even  a  great  magician,  according  to  report, 
in  the  16th  century,  was  born  at  Coiogn,  the  14th  of 
September,  1486,  of  the  noble  family  of  Nettesheim.  He 
was  very  early  in  the  service  of  tlie  emperor  Maximilian : 
acted  at  first  as  his  secretary;  but  afterwards  took  to  the 
profession  of  arms,  and  served  that  emperor  seven  years 
in  Italy,  where  he  distinguished  himself  in  several  engage- 
ments, and  received  the  honour  of  knighthood  for  his  gal* 
lant  behaviour.  To  his  military  honours  he  was  desirous 
likewise  to  add  those  of  the  universities,  and  accordingly 
took  the  degrees  of  doctor  of  laws  and  physic.  He  was  a 
man  of  an  extensive  genius,  and  well  skilled  in  many  parts 
of  knowledge,  and  master  of  a  variety  of  languages ;  but 
his  insatiable  curiosity,  the  freedom  of  his  pen,  and  the 
inconstancy  of  his  temper,  involved  him  in  so  many  vicissi- 
tudes, that  his  life  became  a  series  of  adventures.  He  waa 
continually  changing  his  situation;  always  engaging  him- 
self in  some  difficulty  or  other;  and,  to  complete  his  trou-< 
bles,  he  drew  upon  himself  the  hatred  of  the  ecclesiastics 
oy  his  writings.  According  to  his  letters,  he  was  in  France 
before  the  year  1507,  in  Spain  in  1508,  and  at  Dole  ia 
1509.  At  this  last  place  he  read  public  lectures  on  the 
work  of  Reuchlin,  "  De  Verbo  mirifico,"  which  engaged 
him  in  a  dispute  with  Catilinet,  a  Franciscan.  These  lec- 
tures, though  they  drew  upon  him  the  resentment  of  the 
monks,  yet  gained  him  general  applause,  and  the  counsel- 
lors of  the  parliament  went  themselves  to  hear  them.  In 
order  to  ingratiate  himself  into  the  favour  of  Margaret  of 
Austria,  governess  of'  the  Low  Countries,  he  composed  a 
treatise  **  On  the  excellence  of  Women;"  but  the  perse- 
cution he  met  with  from  the  monks  prevented  him  from 
publishing  it,  and  obliged  him  to  go  over  to  England, 
where  he  wrote  a  "  Commentary  upon  St.  Paul's  Epistles,'.' 

1  Biographie  Univeraelle.— jDict.  Hist. 

258-  A  <J  R  I  P  P  A. 

Upon  his  return  to  Cologn,  he  read  pubKc  lectares  npori 
diose  questions  in  divinity  which  are  called  Quodlibitales. 
He  afterwards  went  to  Italy,  to  join  the  army  of  the  em- 
peror Maximilian,  and  staid  there  till  he  was  invited  to  Pisa 
by  the  cardinal  de  St.  Croix. 

In  the  year  1515  he  read  lectures  upon  Mercurius  Tris- 
ti()egistus  at  Pavia.  He  left  this  city  the  same  year,  or  the 
year  following;  but  his  departure  was  rather  a  flight  than 
a  retreat.  By  bis  second  book  of  letters  we  find,  that  his 
friends  endeavoured  to  procure  him  some  honourable  set- 
tlement at  Grenoble,  Geneva,  Avignon,  or  Metz :  he  chose 
the  last  of  these  places ;  and  in  1518  was  employed  as 
syndic,  advocate,  and  counsellor  for  that  city.  The  perse- 
cutions raised  against  him  by  the  monks,  because  he  had 
refuted  a  vulgar  notion  about  St.  Anne's  three  husbands, 
and  because  he  protected  a  countrywoman  who  was  ac- 
cused of  witchcraft,  obliged  him  to  leave  the  city  of  Metz; 
The  abuse  which  his  friend  Jacobus  Faber  Satulensis,  or 
Jacques  Faber  d^Estaples,  had  received  from  the  clergy  of 
Metz,  for  affirming  that  St.  Anne  had  but  one  husband,  had 
raised  his  indignation,  and  incited  him  to  maintain  the 
same  opinion.  Agrippa  retired  to  Cologn  in  the  yeai^ 
1 520,  leaving  without  regret  a  city,  which  those  turbulent 
inquisitors  had  rendered  hostile  to  all  polite  literature  and 
real  merit.  He  left  his  own  country  in  1521,  and  went  ta 
Geneva:  here  his  income  must  have  been  inconsiderable^ 
for  he  complains  of  not  having  enough  to  defray  his  ex-' 
pences  to  Chamber!,  in  order  to  solicit  a  pension  from  the 
duke  of  Savoy.  In  this,  however,  his  hopes  were  disap- 
pointed; and  in  1523  he  removed  to  Fribourg  in  Switzer* 
land.  The  year  following  he  went  to  Lyons,  and  obtained 
a  pension  from  Francis  I.  He  was  appointed  physician  to 
the  king's  mother;  but  this  was  not  ihuch  to  his  advantage; 
Bor  did  he  attend  her  at  her  departure  from  Lyons,  in  Au* 
gust  1525,  when  she  went  to  conduct  her  daughter  to  the 
borders  of  Spain.  He  was  left  behind  at  Lyons,  and  was 
obliged  to  implore  the  assistance  of  his  friends  in  order  to 
obtain  his  salary ;  and  before  he  received  it,  had  the  mor- 
tification of  being  informed  that  he  was  struck  off  the  list. 
The  cause  of  his  disgrace  was,  that,  having  received  orders 
from  his  mistress  to  examine  by  the  rules  of  astrology,  what 
success  would  attend  the  affeirs  of  France,  he  too  freely 
expressed  his  dislike  that  she  should  employ  him  in  such 
idle  curiosities^ instead  of  things  of  consequence :  at  which 

A  G  R  I  P  P  A.  23f 

the  vrais  highly  offended;  and  became  yet  more  irritated 
against  him,  when  she  understood  that  his  astrological  cal« 
Giilations  promised  neve  successes  to  the  constable  of  Bour- 
bon. Agrippa  finding  himself  thus  abandoned,  gave  way 
•16  the  utmost  rage  and  impetuosity,  of  temper:  he  wrote 
several  menacing  letters,  and  threateaed  to  publish  some 
books,  in  which  he  would  expose  the  secret  history  of 
those  courtiers  who  had  worked  his  ruin :  nay,  he  proceeded 
so  far  as  to  say,  that  he  would  for  the  future  account .  that 
princess,  to  whom  he  had  been  counsellor  and  physician,  as 
a  cruel  and  perfidious  Jezebel. 

He  now  resolved  to  remove  to  the  Low  Countries ;  this 
he  could  not  do  without  a  passport,  which  he  at  length  ob-> 
tained,  after  m^ny  tedious  delays,,  and  arrived  at  Antwerp 
in  July  1528.  The  duke  de  Vendome  was  the  principal 
cause  of  these  delays ;  for  he,  imtead  of  signing  the  pass- 
port, tore  it  in  pieces  in  a  passion,  protesting  he  would  ne- 
ver sign  a  passport  for  a  conjuror.  In  1529,  Agrippa  had 
invitations  from  Henry  VIII.  king  of  England,  from  the 
cha.ncellor  of  the  emperor,  from  an  Italian  marquis,  and^ 
from  Margaret  of  Austria,  governess  of  the  Low  Countries : 
he  preferred  the  last,  and  accepted  of  being  historiographer 
to  the  emperor,  which  was  offered  him  by  that  princess. 
He  published,  by  way  of  introduction,  the  **  History  of 
the  Coronation  of  Charles  V.'*  Soon  after,  Margaret  of 
Austria  died,  and  he  spoke  her  funeral  oration.  Her  death 
is  said  in  some  measure  to  have  been  the  life  of  Agrippa, 
for  great  prejudices  had  been  infused  into  that  princess 
against  him:  "  I  have  nothing  to  write  you  (says  he  in 
one  of  his  letters)  but  that  I  am  likely  to  starve  here,  being 
entirely  forsaken  by  the  deities  of  the  court;  what  the  great 
Jupiter  himself  (meaning  Charles  V.)  intends,  I  know  not. 
1  now  understand  what  great  danger  I  was  in  here:  the 
monks  so  far  influenced  the  princess,  who  was  of  a  super- 
stitious turn^  as  women  generally  are,  that,  had  not  her 
sudden  death  prevented  it,  I  should  undoubtedly  have  been 
tried  for  offences  against  the  majesty  of  the  cowl  and  the 
sacred  honour  of  the  monks ;  crimes  for  which  I  should 
have  been  accounted  no  less  guilty,  and  no  less  punished; 
than  if  I  had  blasphemed  the  Christian  religion."  His 
treatise,  "  Of  the  Vanity  of  the  Sciences,'*  which  he  pub- 
lished in  1 530,  greatly  enraged  his  enemies ;  and  that  which 
he  sooti  after  printed  at  Antwerp,  **  Of  the  Occult  Philo- 
sophy,'* aflbrded  them  iresh  pretexts  for  deff  ming  his  re- 

tii  A  GRIP  PA. 

tipon  vulgar  credulity,  must  not  pass  withcmt  censure.  HU 
occult  philosophy  is  rather  a  sketch  of  the  Alexandriani 
mixed  with  the  Cabbalistic  theology,  than  a  treatise  on 
tnagic.  It  explah)s  the  harmony  of  nature^  and  the  connec-^ 
tipa  of  the  elementary,  celestial,  and  intellectual  worlds,  ori 
the  principles  of  the  emanative  system.  His  treatise  on  the 
Vanity  of  the  Sciences  is  not  so  much  intended  to  traducW 
Ibcience  itself,  as  to  ridicule  the  follies  of  the  learned,  and 
expose  the  numerous  absurdities  of  the  established  modes 
of  education. 

His  attention  to  magical  studies  began  early,  according 
to  Meiners ;  in  youth  he  joined  a  secret  society  at  Pariis 
which  was  defended  against  the  profane  by  peculiar  ritesr 
pf  admission.  Ttie  separation  of  this  cabbalistical  brother- 
hood did  not  occasion  the  dissolution  of  their  lodge  ^  oa 
the  contrary,  each  of  the  members  endeavoured  to  found 
in  his  own  neighbourhood  corresponding  societies  for  si* 
milar  purposes.  In  1510  Agrippa  was  s^nt  to  England  on 
Ipome  commission,  relative,  probably,  to  the  treaty  be- 
tween Henry  VIII.  and  the  French  king ;  and  on  this  oc- 
casion,* as  appears  by  his  published  letters^  he  founded  in 
JLondon  one  of  these  secret  societies  for  magical  pursuits; 
The  same  biographer  remarks,  that  a  strange  mixture  of 
active  and  passive  dupery  characterises  Agrippa ;  an  aU 
temation  of  sceptical  contempt,  and  of  superstitious  cre- 
dulity respecting  the  occult  artSi  If  his  assertions  may  be 
credited,  he  had  attained  that  intercourse  with  demoniacal 
natures,  which  was  the  boast  of  Plotinus  and  Jamblicus  ; 
and  his  magical  pretensions  found  so  much  credit  with  his 
contemporaries,  that  they  describe  him  as  carrying  aboul 
with  him  sl  devil  in  the  form  of  a  black  dog. 

The  two  principal  works  of  Agrippa,  already  mentioned, 
were  printed  under  the  following  titles  :  1.  "  De  incerti- 
tudineetvanitate  Scieniiarum,  declamatio  invectiva,*'  with-: 
put  date,  8vo;  Cologn,  1527,  12moj  Paris,  1531,  &vbj 
J53i,  8vo;  1532,  8vo;  1537,  8vo ;  and  1539,  8vo.  Theso 
seven  editions  are  complete,  but  what  were  published  af- 
terwards were  castrated*  The  French  translation  by  Ijouis 
de  Mayenne  Turquet,  1582,  8vo,  is  complete;  but  that 
by  Gueudeville,  Leyden,  1726,  3  vols.  12mo,  with^e 
essay  on  Women,  is  mutilated.  This  work  has  also  been 
published  in  Italian,  English,  (by  James  Sandford,  15i69) 
German,  and  Dutch.  Mr.  Granger  thinks  it  has  been 
greatly  improved  upou  by  Mr.  Tbooias  Baker,  in  his^  a«U 

A  G  R  I  P  P  Ai  244 

mirable  '<  Reflections  upon  Learning.''  2«  '^DeOcctilta 
pbilosophia,  libri  tres,"  Antwerp  and  Paris,  1531;  Mecfa*- 
Uny  Basle,  Lyons,  and  an  edition  without  place,  1533,  foL 
Lyons,  8to,  translated  into  French  by  Le  Vasseur; 
Hague,  1737,2  vols.  8 vo.  3.  ^^  De  nobilitate et  praecellentia 
fa5niineisexu8,declamatio,"  Antwerp,  1529,  8vo.  4.  ^^Co1Il«^ 
mentariainartembrevemRaymundi  Lulli,"  Cologue,  1533^ 
Selingst^t,  1538,  8vo.  5.  <'  Orationes  decern:  de  du« 
}>lici  coronatione  Caroli  V.  apud  Bononiam ;  Ejusd,  Epi*' 
gram,  &c."  Cologne,  1535,  8yo.  His  entire  works  have 
been  often  published.  The  edition  of  Lyons  by  the  Be« 
riug%  Leyden,  1550,  8vo,  2  vols,  contains  a  fourth  book 
of  the  Occult  philosophy,  on  magical  ceremonies,  which 
is  not  by  Agrippa,  and  has  perhaps  contributed  most  to.  the 
opinion  of  his  being  a  magician.  ^  .     .        .    :  . 

•  AGUADO  (Francis),  a  Spanish  Jesuit^  and  voluminous 
writer,  was  born  1566,  at  Torrejon,  a  village  near  Ma- 
drid, and  ratered  the  society  of  Jesuits  at  Alcale,.  in  1588, 
beiug  then  M.  A.  He  was  governor  of  several  houses  of 
the  order  in  Spain,  twice  presided  over  the  province  of 
Toledo,. and  was  twice  sent  as  deputy  to  the  congregations 
at  Rome.  The  king,: Philip  I V*  chose  him  for  his  preacher^ 
and  the.coimt  Olivarez,  Philip's  prime  minister,  appointed 
him  his  confessor.  He  died  at  Madrid,  Jan..  15,  1654. 
His.  works  consist  of  six  folios,  in  Spanish,  printed  at 
Madrid  in  1629,  1638,  1640,  1641,.  1643,  1646,  ]653y 
on  various  /religious  topics  ;  and  a  life  of  father  Goudin, 
the  Jesuit,  8vo,  164.3.  He  left  also  many  treatises  which 
have  not  been  published.  * 

.  <  AGUQCHIO  (John  Baptista),  archbishop  of  Amasia  in 
Natolia,  was.bornrat  ^ologna,  Nov.  20,  1570.  He  had  the 
advantage  of  being  educated  under  the  care  of  Philip  Sega, 
his  uncle,^ .  who  was  raised  on  account  of  his  distinguished 
merits- to.  the  rank  of  cardinal,  by  pope  Innocent  IX ;  and  of 
Jerom  Agucchio^  his  brother,  who  was  made  cardinal  by 
pope  Cl^nent  1604.  Hi3  application  to  study, 
was  early,  rapid,  and  assiduous,  but  particularly  in  the 
study  of  polibe  literature.  This  recommended  him  so 
much  to  cardinal  Sega,  that  he  carried  him  with  him  to 
ixan^e,  when  he  went  thither  as  legate  from  the  pope. 

^  Gen;  Diet.— Moreri.— Biographie  UnivenelU.— Fopper  iBibl.  Ba].<^BrudLer. 
-^M«rtia't  Biog.  Phn«sophica.— >MeiDer's  Biographies,  in  Month.  Rev.  VoL 
X3CIV.— Saxii  Onomasticon.— Dibdin's  BibUodiania,  vol.  I.  p.  23-S4.«^raDg«r'» 
biographical  ilittorjr,  *  Moreri, 


14*  A  G  U  C  C  H  I  O. 

Aftrt  die  deAth.  of  Sega,  Aguccbio  was  appointed  s^crr-^ 
tafjr  to  catdifial  AldobnuKliQi,  nephevr  to  pope  Clemieiit 
VIII;  ind  attended  biin  when  he  went  legate  tt>  Henry  IV<^ 
pf  Fvanc^y  of  which  joumey  be  v^rote  a  very  eleganc  ac-* 
oount.     The  cardinal^  after  bis  return^   coitimitted  tb# 
masn^gement  of  hb  bouse  to  Agttcebioy  wbicb  pitmnoe  be 
^tecitted  till  the  death  of  pope  Clement  YUL  and  of  bia 
brother  the  cardinal  Agtcthio,    when,  waitt    of   heaHb 
obliged  him  to  retire  &6m  the  court.    But  after  he  ha^ 
xecovecedy  and  had  passed  some  time  at  Romef  in  teamed 
vetiremertt^  cardiaal  Alddbrandini  bitmgbt  hiai  agUin  ioto» 
bia  former  employment,  in  which  be  continued  tiU  the 
eardioaPa  dcatb.     He  then  becauie  secretary  to  Gregofy^ 
XV.  which  pbic6  he  held  nntii  tbe  death  of  that  pofYtifJt 
In   1624,    Urban  VIII.  sent  him  as  nondo  to  Yenicey 
where  he  became  generally  esteemed,  altboiigh  he  main* 
iainied  the  rights  of  the  see  of  Rome  with  the  utmost  ri-** 
gbnt    The  cotttagious  distemper  which  ravaged  Italy  ia 
16  30^  obliged  him  to  retire  to  Friuli,  where  he  died  im 
I63S.     He  was  a  man  of  very  extensive  learnu^,  but  ap*^ 
pears  is  bis  private  charactet  to  have  been  sooo^what 
austere  and  natrow*     His  wo#ks  are :  **  A  treatise  upon 
Comets  and  Meteors^'*  ^^The  Life  of  Cardinal  Sega,  and 
that  of  Jerom  Agucchio  bis  brother/'  and  a  letter  to  tbe 
eanon  Harthelemi  Dokini  on  the  origin  of  tbe  city  of  Bo-» 
logit^,    ^  L*Antica»  fondazione  e  dominio    deila  dtta  di 
Bdkrgna,^'  BoiOgtia,  1638,  4ta     i^e  left  sdso  various  let* 
tevs  aad  mdral  treatises,  not  published.  ■ 

AGUESSEAU  (Henry  Francis  d'),  a  French  statesman 
of  great  'w^th  aiid  talents,  was  bom  at  Lifridges,  Nov.  7, 
l66ft,  the  son  of  Henry  d^Aguesseau,  then  iatendant  of 
the  Limoisin,  and  afterwatdr)  dsunsellor  of  state.  The' 
fnniy  was  distingmsfa^d  for  having  produced  many  able 
itaagiatrates,  among  whom  waa  Anthony,  the  gitemdfather 
ef  the  obauceUor,  who  was  firgt  president  of  thepaiiiament 
of  Bourdeaux^  Hetiry'^Franci^,  the  subject  of  dxe  present 
article^  was  educated  under  bis  lather  in  every  species  of 
^knowledge  which  promised  to  qualiiy  him  'A^t  the  ofice  of 
jnagistrarte.  After  being  admitted,  in  1690,  an  advocate, 
be  became,  a  few  months  alter,  advocate«»general  of  tbe 
parliament  of  Paris,  at  the  age  of  only  twenty-two  years. 

'  Gen.  Di<!t.<^Eryth,  ^nacotIieca,-^Moreri.«— BiOg*  U9itrer6elb.«^SaxiLiXA0« 


A  G  U  E  8  S  £  A  U.  845 

The  Vmg,  in  appointing  one  so  young  to  «n  office  of  rery 
great  consequence,  was  guided  solely  by  the  recomineodi- 
ation  of  bis  father.  ^^  I  know  him/'  said  his  majesty,  ^  to 
be  incapable  of  deceiying  me,  even  in  the  C9$e  jof  bis  own 
son;"  and  the  young  advocate  completely  justified  the  con# 
fidence  reposed  in  him.  The  ctdebjcated  Denis  Talon,  ^vbo 
had  obtained  great  reputation  in  the  saji»e  office,  declared 
that  he  'should  bare  been  willing  to  conclude  his  caiscr  a^ 
that  young  man  had  begun  his.  After  liaving  performed 
the  functions  of  his  office  with  reputation  equal  to  his  com* 
mencement,  he  became  procurator-^genecal ;  and  the  nature 
of  his  new  office  furnished  him  with  occasion  to  display 
new  tale'nts  in  the  public  serviee.  In  particular,  be  in«- 
troduced  a  complete  system  x>f  reformation  in  the  ma* 
nagement  of  the  hospitals,  by  wfaidi  abuses  were  ptevmtti, 
or  corrected ;  and  he  restored  order  and  discipline  in  the 
tribunals,  by  which  the  criminal  code  was  greadyimpnoved. 
in  questions  respecting  elates,  he  discovered  much  acute* 
ness  and  knowledge  of  antiquities. 

In  1709,  the  war  and  famine,  and  public  distress  ren* 
idered  his  plaoe  of  much  importance,  and  called  ferth  tbe 
qualities  of  the  heart  as  well  as  the  head.     At  this  critical 
period,  Desmarets^  the  comptroller-general,  appointed  a 
committee  of  the  principal  magistrates,  anaoog  whom  was 
-D'Aguessean,   whose  zeal  and  knowledge  animated  the 
whole.     He  contrived  to  discover  jbhe  fosestallers  of  pro* 
Tisions ;    punished  the  most  guilty ;   and  re-established 
credit  and  confidence ;  and  from  this  time,  a  sense  of  the 
<raiue  of  his  public  services  made  him  be  often  consulted 
on  tlie  most  difficult  points  of  administration,  suid  employod 
to  drf  w  up  meoAoriak  fcMr  the  king?    Towards  tlw  end  of 
the  reign,  however,  of  Louis  XiV.  he  was  threatened  widbt 
disgtaoe  for  having  refused  to  register  the  fiunous  bull 
iJ  nigenitus.    0«  this  occasion  it  was  that  madame  D*  Agoi^«- 
seau,  whan  her  husband  was  about  to  set  out  £or  Ver«- 
saiUes,  said,  **  Go,  and  before  the  king,  forget  your  W]£b 
and  children,    and  lose  every  thing  but  your  honour.^ 
S^Aguesseaiji,  without  perhaps  understanding  the  whole 
of  the  doctrines  tcondemned  by  that  bull,  thought  be  per*- 
cei^f^d,  in  part  of  its  regulations,  something  that  threatened 
the  rights  of  monarchy,  which  he  therefore  had  the  cou- 
'vage  lo  defend  against  the  monarch  himself.     It  was  this 
sense  of  the  matter  wiiioh  piH>duoed  the  spirited  answer  he 
jg»ve  to  QMiviiiiy  the  pop^Ts  mmcio :  ^^  Is  it  thos/'  said 


Quirini,  '^  that  you  maouivLCture  arms  against  Rome?'*  **tJ6^ 
Monsieur,"  replied  D'Agoesseau,  ^^  these  are  not  ariiui» 
but  shields.'* 

f"-  Louis  XIV.  however,  died,  and  for  some  time  during 
the  regency,  D'Aguesseau  enjoyed  all  the  credit  which 
his  character  and  virtues  i!nerited.  In  17 1 7,  he  succeeded 
Voisin  as  chancellor  ;  but  before  a  year  expired,  the  re* 
gent  took  the  seals  from  him,  and  ordered  him  into  exile 
for  having  opposed  the  establishment  of  the  royal  bank, 
and  the  other  projects  contrived  by  Mr.  Law.  It  was  in 
Tain  that  he  endeavoured  to  expose  the  danger  of  issuing 
a  quantity  of  notes,  the  value  of  which  was  merely  imagi* 
nary ;  but  the  public  were  struck  with  the  novelty  of  the 
scheme,  and  charmed  with  its  delusive  plausibility,  and 
S' Aguesseau  was  ordered  to  retire  to  his  estate  at  Fresnes^ 
while  the  seals  were  given  to  D' Argenson.         . 

The  issue  of  Law's  project  is  well  known.  For  two 
years,  it  amused  the  French  public,  aud  then  the  Jbubble 
burst  Government  was  now  so  embarrassed,  and  the 
people  so  dissatisfied,  that  in  1720,  the  regent  thought 
proper  to  recall  the  dbcarded  chancellor,  and  restore  the 
seals  to  him.  Mr.  Law  himself,  and  the  chevalier  4e 
Conflans,,  first  gentleman  of  the  chamber  to  the  regent, 
were  dispatched  to  D'Aguesseau  at^Fresnes,  while  Dubois 
was  ordered  to  demand  the  seals  from  D'Argenson.  D'Agues^ 
seau's  return  was  blamed  by  a  party  composed  of  members 
of  the  parliament,  and  of  some  men  of  letters.  They  did 
not  relish  his  accepting  a  favour  conveyed  through  the 
haiids  of  Mr.  Law ;  but,  says  his  biographer,  he  would 
have  been  more  to  blame,'  had  he  refused  what  had  less 
the,  appearance  of  a  favour,  than  of  amends  for  injury  ten«  ■ 
dered  by  the  chief  minister  of  state. 

Aguesseau  himself  considered  it  as  an  honour  to  be  re* 
called  in  a  time  of  danger,  and  immediately  began  to 
repair  the  mischief  done  in  his  absence,  by  ordering  the  pay* 
ment  of  the  notes  issued  by  the  bank,  as  far  as  was  possible; 
and  although  the  loss  to  individuals  was  great,  this  mea« 
sure  was  less  odious  than  a  total  bankruptcy,  which  had 
•been  proposed.  But  a  new  storm  burst  forth  in  this  cor<^ 
rupt  court,  which  he  was  unable  to  oppose  with  his  usual 
firmness.  The  regent,  who  had  cajoled  the  parliament  to 
nullify  the  will  of  Louis  XIV.  now  solicited  him  to  register 
the  declaration  of  tkke  king  in  favour  of  the  bull  'Unigenitus» 
This  was  doae  in  compliance  with  Dubois,  now  become 

A  G  U  E  S  S  E  A  U.  247 

Urchbi'sh^  of  Cambray,  and  who,  expecting  sl  cardina^ff 
•6aty  liad  flattered  the  court  of  Rome  with  hopes  of  having 
«ibebull  registered.  D'Aguesseau  had  refused  this,  as  we 
have  seen,  in  the  reign  of  Louis  XIV«  without  being  in-^ 
fluenced  by  any  spirit  of  party,  but  purely  from  his  attach*^' 
m'ent  to  the  rights  of  the  crown«  But  now,  when  chan* 
cellor,  he  seemed  to  view  the  matter  in  another  light ;  he 
thought  it  bis  duty  to  negociate  with  the  parliament ;  and' 
the  parliament  rejected  his  propositions,  and  was  banished 
to  Pontoise.  The  regent  then  imagined  be  might  register 
the  declaration  in  the  grand  council.  In  this  solemn  as* 
'  sembly  D^Aguesseau  met  with  a  repartee  which  he  no  doubt 
felt  Perelle,  one  of  thie  members,  having  opposed  the 
registration  with  much  spirit,  D'Aguesseau  asked  him 
where  he  bad  found  all  his  arguments  against  it  i  '^  In  the 
•pleadings  of  the  deceased  M.  chancellor  D^Aguesseau,** 
answered  Perelle,  very  cooUy ;  nor  was  this  the  only 
instance .  in  which  he  was  treated  with  ridicule  on  this 
chai^ge  in  his  sentiments  and  conduct.  In  the  mean  time 
the  court  having  threatened  to  send  the  parliament  to  Blois^ 
the  chancellor  offered  to  resign  the  seals ;  but  the  regent 
requested  him  to  retain  them :  and  at  length  the  parliament 
consented  to  register  the  disputed  declaration  with  certaia 
modifications.  D'Aguesseau,  however,  did  not  enjoy  his 
honours  longr  In  1722,  he  refused  to  yield  precedence  to 
cardinal  Dubois,  the  first  minister;  and  this  statesman^ 
who  wished  to  keep  at  a  distance  from  court  every  <man  of 
virtue  and  dignity  of  character,  procured  the  chancellor  to 
be  again  banished,  and  he  was  not  recalled  until  1 727, 
but  without  having  the  seals  restored  to  him.  In  the  mean 
time  the  court  and  parliament  were  still  at  variance  on  ec- 
clesiastical affairsj  and  the  cardinal  Fleuri  wished  to  engage 
D'Aguesseau's  influence  in  favour  of  the  court ;  but  the 
latter  had  unfortunately  lost  his  credit  in  a  great  measure, 
and  was  considered  as  a  deserter  from  the  cause  which  he 
had  once  defended  with  so  much  spirit. 
-  In  1737,  the  seals  were  again  restored  to  him,  but  sick 
of  court  affairs  and  intrigues,  he  determined  to  confine 
himself  to  his  duties  as  a  minister  of  justice,  and  in  this 
edacity  he  performed  essential  service  to  his  coui>try  by 
restoring  the  true  spirit  of  the  laws,  and  rendering  the 
execution  of  them  uniform  throughout  France.  In  1730^ 
having  attained  bis  eighty^second  year>  he  felt  for  the  first 
time  Siat  his  infinuities  interrupted  kh  l^kbours^  and  did 


ii6t  wish  io  retain  %  situation  of  which  he  could  uo  longer 
perforin  the  duties^     The  king,  in  accepting  his  resigna'^  - 
tion,  continued  to  hloi  the  honours  of  the  q£^c^  of  cfaan-* 
cellor,  and  bestowed  on  him  a  pension  pf  100|0Q0  fraiil^s^ 
which  he  did  not  long  enjoy,  as  he  died  Feb.  9,  1751. 
•   In  1694,  he  married  Anne  le  Fevire  d'Ormesson^  a  lady 
Worthy  xsi  him,  and  with  whom  he  iired  happily  until  hev 
.death  at  the  tillage  of  Anteuil  in  1735,  when  she  was  in- 
tfcerred^  agreeably-  to  her  own  orders,  in  the  common  burial 
pfatce  of  the  parish ;  and  there  her  husband  desired  also  ta 
)be  interred,  and  for  some  time  a  simple  cross  only  pointed 
0Ut  the  remiatiis  of  the  chancellor  D^  A.guesseau,  Louis  XV, 
however,  caused  a  magnificent  monument,  in  the  form  of 
an  obriisk,  to  be  erected^  which  remained  until  destroyed 
fay  «the  ilevolutionary  rabble^     It  h^s  since  been  repair^  at 
jthe  public  expense;  and  in  1810  the  statue  of  D'Aguesseati 
was  placed  before  the  pericyte  of  the  legislative  palace, 

Barallel  to  that  of  the  famotis  L'HopitaU 
'  D' Aguesseati,  it  is  tinivetsally  acknowledged,  was  an  esc* 
jcelleilt  atid  nprigfat  magistrfiite,  and  of  sentimeats  more 
liberal  than  could  be  tolerated  in  a  corrupt  court.  His 
memory  was  surprising,  his  apptehension  quick,  and  his 
knowledge  of  the  law  extensive  and  profound.  He  unde^« 
stood  radically,  not  only  his  mother  tongue,  but  also 
English)  Italian,  Spanish,  Poortugutise,  Latin,  Greek,  and 
the  oriental  laxiguages;  Studying  langaages  he  called  $xi 
amusement ;  and  reading  the  ancseUt  poets,  the  only  pas^ 
sion  of  his  youth.  He  made  i^erses,  which  v^ere  approved 
by  Racitie  (and  Boileau,  who  were  almost  the  only 
compani<lns  of  his  leisure.  His  talents  he  exencised  in 
offices  of  virtue,  but  never  to  shew  his  superiority ;  and  h^ 
himself  appeared  to  be  the  last  man  who  was  acquainted 
with  the  advantages  he  conferred  on  society.  His  coun«- 
trymen  fondly  compare  him  to  our  illustrious  Bacon  ;  but 
although  we  are  not  disposed  to  rank  hi^  so  high,  it  may 
be  allowed  that  his  imagination  was  fertile,  his  ideas  cleaf^ 
his  images  striki^iig,  his  arguments  strong,  ^ud  his  language 
elegant.  He  was  indeed  a  prodigy  of  science  and  virtue^ 
and  a  model  of  true  elegance  and  taste  ;  and  the  i^eetness 
^£  hiis  tjemper,  with  the  gemle^ss  and  modesty  of  his  de-» 
-fatii'tment  and  m«itiaers>  cast  a  tndst  attractive  lustre  over 
hi^  gk-eat  intetl^tual  a^quiiriMnents.  He  was  a  stranger  to 
pO'^Vimstt\'k4i&n(S^i  Mdtnade  them  all  subservient  to  the 
T'tmem  it  ttidse  retigimg  and  moral  piinciples  iia\ 

A  G  U  E  S  S  E  A  U.  J4« 

Mnoble  faninan  nature.  He  was  one  of  the  first  men  of 
his  &ge,  and  that  was  the  age  of  Louis  XIV.  Anotber 
importaM  part  of  his  character  we  shall  give  in  the  wwda 
of  one  of  bis  editors  :  ^'  The  enemies,"  says  he,.  "  of  re^ 
vealed  religion,  are  perpetually  telling  us,  that  it  renders 
man  abject  and  pusillanimous  i  contracts  and  shackles  the 
understanding;  retards  the  progress  of  science,  and  iia 
only  fit  for  weak  and  vulgar  minds.  -If  there  were  net  a 
multitude  of  examples,  adapted  to  confound  the  abettors 
of  such  an  extravagant  notion,  that  of  the  chancellor 
D'Aguesseau  would  aloue  be  sufficient  for  that  purpose* 
This  illustrious  magistrate,  whose  sablime  genius,  and 
4aniversal  knowledge,  bis  country,  and  indeed  the  lear^ned 
vrorkl  in  general,  beheld  with  admiration ;  who  was  one  of 
the  brightest  ornaments  of  the  present  age;  and  who,  with 
unremittiug  activity,  consecrated  his  taknts,,and  his  whole 
)ife,  to  the  service  of  his  country,  wbs  an  humble  and 
zealous  disciple  of  the  Christian  religion,  which  be  con* 
sidered  as  the  true  philosophy  ;  because  it  was,  accordtog 
to  him,  the  only  guide  which  could  shew  man  what 
be  was,  what  he  Is,  and  can  render  him  what  he  ought 
Jo  be" 

i  The  works  of  D*Aguesseau  are  comprized  in  13  vols.  4<s^ 
Paris,  1759— 89.  The  edition  printed  at  Yverdun,  1772--* 
P5,  12  vols.  Bvo,  is  not  complete.  A  few  of  them  hav^beea 
published  siq>aratety.  ^ 

AGUILLONIUS,  or  AGUILON  (Francis),  was  a  Je* 
iniit  of  Brussels,  and  professor  of  philosophy  at  Idoway^ 
and  nf  theology  at  Antwerp.  He  was  one  of  the  first  that 
introduced  nsathenaaticai  studies  at  Antwerp.  He  wrote  a 
book  entitled  *^  Opticorum  lib.  VI.  Philosopfaicis  juxta 
ac  Matfaesnaticis  utiles,''  printed  at  Antwerp  by  Plantin  io 
i  61 3,  in  fol. ;  a»d  a  treatise  "Of  Projections  of  the  Sphere." 
He  was  ^anployed  in  finishing  his  ^^  Catoptrics  and  Diop^ 
tries,''  at  the  time  of  his  death,  which  happened  at  Sevilley 
in  16 17.  He  appears  to  have  been  a  man  of  great  learnings 
and  of  great  piety. " 

AGUIRRE  (Joseph  Saen2  de),  a  very  learned  man  of  the 
I7tb  century,  was  born  at  Logrogno,  a  city  of  Spaing 
Marcii  24,  1630,  and  took  the  degree  of  D.D.  in  the  uni-*' 
versity  of  Salajnanca  in  i66%  and  read  lectures  in  that 

1  Biographie  Universelle.— Moreri,  SuppUto  vol.  X.  p.  74. — Diet.  Historique, 
—Life  prefiixed  to  his  workSr-Crit.  Rev.  vol.  VI.  p.  75— Month.  Rev*  vol. 
LXX1|I.  ^  Gen.  Diet.— Siog.  tlniverseUe. 

wo  A  G  U  I  R  R  E. 

lacultjfor  xnanj'years.     He  was  c^sor  and  secretary  of 
tbe  sup-eme  council  of  the  inquisition  in  Spain,  ohief  in- 
-terpreter  of  the  scripttire^  in  the  university  of  Salamanca» 
and  bad  been  more  than  once  abbot  of  the  college  of  St. 
Vineent,  when  be  was  honoured  with  a  cardmaVs  bat  by 
liincMsent  XI.  in  1686.     He  died  at  Rome  Aug.  19,  1699. 
•His  life  was  very  exemplary ;  bs^A  the  jdignity  to  whicb  be 
was  raised  was  so  far  froco  making  any  cbahge  in  bim,  that 
be  shewed  an  instaiM:e  i^ry  miconunon,  by  retracting  in 
an  express  {»ece  the  doctrine  of  probability,  which  be  bad 
h^to^  maintained,  as  soon  as  be  found  it  was  inconsistent 
/miAi  the  pnrily  of  the  Christian  morality.     His  first  work 
iviis  ei^titled  ^*  Ludi  Saloianticense^  sive  Tbeologia  Floru- 
lerHa,''   printed  in   1668,    foi.      These  are  dissertations 
which  be  wrote,  according  to  the  custom  of  the  university 
of  Salamanca,  before  be  received  his  degree  of  D.D.  there; 
and  there  are  some  things  in  them  to  which  be  objected  in 
Ills  more  mature  years.     In  1671   be  published  three  vo-' 
iumes  in  folio  upon  philosophy,  and  in  1673  ^^  A  com-* 
mentary  upon  Aristotle^s  ten  books  of  Ethics.'*     In  1677 
lie  published  *^  A  treatise  upon  Viitues  and  Vices,  or  Dis^ 
pHtations  on  Aristotle's  Moral  Philosophy,"     He  then  ap- 
jltied  himself  to  the  study  of  St.  Auselm's  works,  upon 
whose  principles  ia  div]|iitr)r  he  published  ^<  The  Theology 
of  St:  Anselm,''  3  vols.  fol.  1690,     In  16&3  he  published 
a  large  work  against  the  declaration  of  the  assembly  of  the 
French  clergy  made  in  1682,  concerning  the  ecclesiastical 
and  civil  power,  under  the  title  of  ^'  A  defence  of  the  se^ 
of  St.  Peter.'* .   The  work  for  whicb  be  is  chiefly  celebrated 
is  his  *^  Collection  of  the  Councils  of  Spain"  with  an  intro* 
doctory  history.     This  was  published  in  1693-4,  in  4  vols, 
ibl. ;  and  in  1753  in  6  vds.  fol.     He  published  a  Prodro-* 
mus  of  this  work  in  1686,  8vo.     It  is  variously  spoken  of; 
Do  Pin  is  inclined  to  depreciate  its  merit.     Abstracts  froni 
it  may  be  seen  in  the  Acta  £ruditorum  of  Leipsic,  for  the 
month  of  February,  1688,  and  some  farther  particulars  iq 
the  General  Dictionary.  * 

AGYL^US  (Henry),  an  eminent  lawyer  and  law 
writer,  the  son  of  Anthony  Agylseus,  originally  of  aa 
Italian  family,  was  born  at  Bois-le-duc,  about  1533,  where 
he  was  educated,  and  became  a  distinguished  Greek 
acholiin     In  his  youth  be  carried  arms  against  the, king  of 

I  Qen.  Ptct.-— Moi^n«-'«-Saxii  Onomasticoiu 

A<JYLJEU«,  esi 

Spain,  was  appointed  a  deputy  to  the  States  Geoeral,  4 
member  of  the  supreme  council,  and  advocate  fiscal.     Bat 
he  is  less  known  by  his  share  in  the  defence  of  his  couptry^ 
than  by  his  learning  aiid  writings*   He  published ;   I.  ^*  No- 
vellas Justiniani  Imp.  Constitutiones,^'    with  Holoaader^s 
translation  icorrected,  Paris,   1560,   4to.     2.  "  Justiniaoi 
edicta :  Justini,  Tiberii,  Leanis  philosophi  €onstitutione% 
et  Zenoois  una,"' Paris,  1560,  Svo.     3.  A  Latin  transla- 
tion of  the  Nomo-Canon  of  Photius,  with  Balsamoq^s  com- 
mentary, a  better  translation,  and  from  a  more  complete 
copy  than  that  of  Gentian  Hervet^  Basil,  1561,  fol.    It 
has  been  reprinted  by  Christopher  Justel,  with  the  Greeks 
in  1615,  and  in  1661  by  Henry  Justel  in  his  Collection  of 
the  ancient  canon  lai¥.     4.  ^^  Inauguratio  Philippi  II.  flisp. 
^S^f  qua  se  juramento  ducditut  ArabantisB,  &a.  obligavit,"** 
Utrecht,  1620,  8vo.     He  died  April  1595.^ 

AHLWARDT  (Pete^r),    professor  of  logic  and  meta- 
physics at  Greifswald,  was  born  in  that  town,  Feb.  19,  lllO, 
and  died  there,  March  1,  1791,  after  having  enjoyed  con- 
siderable fame,  from  his  learning,  zeal,  benevolence,  and 
}ove  of  truth.     His  father  was  a  poor  shoe-maker,  but  bj 
extreme  ceconomy  his  son  was  enabled  to  pursue  his  stu- 
died at  Greifswald,  and  afterwards  at  the  university  of  Jena. 
He  became  the  founder  of  the  society  or  order  of  the  Abe* 
lites,  the  object  of  which  was  the  promotion  of  candoui: 
and  sincerity.     His  favourite  maxim  was,  *^  Give  every 
thing  on  which  you  are  immediately  engaged,  be  it  ever 
so  trifling,  all  the  attention  of  which  you  are  capable.V 
He  thought  he  had  discovered  that  want  of  attention .  is 
the  source  of  lukewarmness  in  the  cause  of  virtue,  andtbp 
great  promoter  of  vice ;  and  imputed  his  attachment  to  the 
duties  of  his  office  and  of  religion,   to  his  constant  ob- 
servance of  the  above  rule.     His  princip&I  works  are; 
J.  *^  Brontotheologie,"  or  pious  meditations  on  the  phe- 
nomena of  thunder  and  lightning,  Greifswald,  1745,  8vo; 
translated  into  Dutch  1747.     2.  *^  Reflexions  on  the  Augsr 
burgh  Confession,"  eight  parts  in  3  vols.  1742—50,  4 to, 
which  may  be  considered  as  a  continuation  of  Reinbeck^s  on  the  same  subject.     3,.  Some  '^  Sermons"  and 
f*  Philosophical  Dissertations."     In  those  whiclh  he  pub- 
lished in  1734  and  1740,  on  the  immortality  of  the  soul, 
lind  the  freedom  of  God,  he  introduced  some  opinions, 

J  Foppen  BiW.  Belg.— Biog.  Unirerselle.— Moreri.— Saxti  Onamattiooo, 

H2  A  ta  L  W  A  R  D  T. 



^btch  6n  more  imtt^re  cotisideratian  he  thought  incon* 
sis^^nt  with  the  truth,  aiul  published  a  ^confutation  of 
them.  * 

AHMED-BEN^FARES,  sumamed  EL.RAZY>  an  Ara^ 
bian  lexicographer  and  lawyer,  was  the  contemporary  of 
the  celebrated  Djewhary.  Besides  some  works  oti  th<$ 
fiubjeet  of  jurisprudence,  he  \m  the  author  of  an  >^  Arabic 
Dictionary,"  entitled  "  MoudjmiUAlloghat,'*  of  yhich 
there  is  a  manuscript  copy  in  the  Leyd^n  library,  and 
another  in  the  Bodleian.  Golius,  who  made  use^  of  it  ia 
his  Arabic  dictionary,  thinks  that  it  was  prior  «o  that  of 
Djewhary*  Ahmed  died  in  Hamdan^  about  the  year  99^ 
of  the  Christian  sera.  * 

native  of  Djaen,  was  the  first  Spanish  Arab  who  composed 
small  epic  poems  in  the  style  of  the  orientals.  The  frag^ 
ments  which  Dobi  has  preserved  in  his  B5bl.  Arab.*Es- 
pagnol.  prove  that  he  excelled  in  that  high  species,  ei 
poetry.  He  also  left  a  historical  work  on  ^^  the  Annals  of 
Spain."  He  died  of  the  gout,  brought  on  by  intemper- 
ance, in  the  year  970,* 

AlCHER  (Otho),  a  benedictine  father,  was  professor 
bf  grammar,  poetry,  rhetoric,  and  lastly  of  history,  at 
Sakburgh,  where  he  died  Jan.  17,  1705.  He  wrote  com* 
mentaries  on  Tacitus,  the  Philippics  of  Cicera,  and  the 
first  ten  books  of  Livy  ;  several  ti^eatises  on  the  legislation^ 
history,  and  manners  of  the  early  part  of  the  Roman  re** 
public,  and  dissertations  on  various  other  subjects.  The 
titles  of  his  principal  works,  all  printed  at  Sidzburgh,  are : 
1.  "  Theatriim  Funebre,  exhibens  epitaphla  nova,  antiqua, 
*eria,  jocosa,"  1675,  4  vols.4to.  2.  *^  Hortas  variarnm  In<- 
scriptionum  veterum  et  tiovanim,*'  1676,  8vo.  3.  "  DeCo« 
mitiis  veterum  Romanorum,"  1678,  ^vo.  4.  **  Iter  orato- 
rium,'*  1675.  5.  "  Iter  Poeticum,"  1674.  6.  "  De  prin- 
cipiis  Cosmographite,'*  1678.  7.  ^^  Ephemeridea  ^1>  anno 
1687  usque  ad  1699."* 

'  AIDAN,  bishop  of  Lindisfarne,  or  Holy  island,  in  the 
7th  century,  was  originally  a  monk  in  the  modasteiy  of 
lona,  one  of  the  islands  called  Hebrides.  In  die  3^ear  634» 
he  came  into  England,  at  the  request  of  Oswald  king  of 
Northumberland,  to  instruct  that  prince's  subjects  in  the 

^  Biographic    Universelle.— Necrolog.    de  Schlichtegroll,    1791,    vol.  I*  p« 
367-75.  «  D»flerbeiot.-^Biogra|iliie  pHYivwIkt 

3  Biog.  Universelle. — Casjri  Bibl.  Arab.  Hisp. 
*  Biog.  Universelle— Konigii  Bibl.  Vet.  ei  Not, 

A  1  D  A  N,  fiSS 


kfiowi»%e  at  the  Christian  rdigimi.     At  hts  first  conkig 
to  Oswald's  court,  he  preiratted  upoa  the  king  to  remove 
the  episeopal  see  from  York,  n^faere  it  had  been  settled  by 
Gregory  the  gt^at,  to  LiDdisfarne,  or  Holy-island ;  a  peuin* 
iiiAa  joitiod  lio  the  coasts  of  Northumberland  by  a  very  nar« 
tow  neck  of  land,  and  called  Holy  island  from  its  being  in-* 
kabitedchi<^fly  by  monks ;  the  beautiful  ruins  of  its  mo^ 
nastery  are  stitt  extant*     Iti  this  place  Aidan  was  very  suc-» 
ccssfiit  in  hia  preachings  in  which  he  was  not  a  little  as« 
ttSled  by  ehc  piou» sseal  of  the  king;  who,  having  lived  a 
eoostderable  ticne  in  Scotland,  and  acquired-  a  sufficient 
knowledge  of  the  language,  was  himself  Aidants  interpre- 
tor  $  and  explained  his  discourses  to  the  nobility,  and  the 
vest  of  bis  oouit.     After  the  death  of  Oswald,  who  was 
k^led  in  battle^  Aid^in  continued  to  govern  the  church  of 
Niwchntnberland)  under  his  successors  Oswin  and  Oswi^ 
who  reignad  jointly  ;  the  former  in  the  province  of  Deira^ 
.  the  latter  in  that  of  Bernicia;  but  having  foretold  the  un« 
timciy  deadk  of  Oswin,  he  was  so  afflict3ed  for  his  loss,  t^at 
ke  survived  him.  but  twelve  days^  and  died  in  August  651^ 
after  hcntig  sat'  sixteen  years.     Bede  gives  him  an  extra-» 
ordinary  character;  but  at  the  satne  time  takes  notice  thai? 
hewais  not  alt^ether  orthodox  in  keeping  of  Easter,  inf 
which  he  followed  the  custom  of  the  Scots,   Picts,  and* 
Brifioti&    The  san^  historian  ascribes  three  miracles  to 
bishop  Aidan ;  two  of  them  performed  in  his  lifetime,    and 
tiie  other  after  hia  death.     He  was  buried  in  his  church  of 
LindiB&Aie ;  and  part  of  his  relics  were  carried  into  Scot«> 
kad  by  his  Accessor  Colman  in  664^ 

With  I6«pect  to  the  mfracles  ascribed  to  Aidan,  thejr' 
witi4io|;  now  bear  ^  serious  discussion.  It  is  said  that  he  pre- 
aonbed  oil  to  cala:!  a  turbulent  sea ;  and  Dr.  Kippis,  in  the 
aewedkition  of  the  Biographta  Britannica,  supposes  from 
tkin  tbM  tibe  good  bishop  might  have  some  acquaintance 
withibe  ptfeperty  (lately  brought  to  light  by  Dr.  Franklin) 
wbidi  oil  ha8>  of  stilling  waves.  But  in  the  bishop's  case, 
we  mui^t  have  a  mimcle  or  nothing;  for  the  quantity  he 
prescribed  was  contained  in  a  phial,  which  Could  not  have 
cahoed  tile  sea;  and  Dr.  Franklin's  discovery  has  never 
been  roi  the  smallest  use  iu  any  respect.  — •  Of  the  escel* 
lence*  ^^  hFia  ^haradter,  as  an  ecclesiastic,  much  may  be 
believ«d4  liia  apeech  to  a  priesrt;  who  employed  harsh, 
measures  in  converting  the  English,  is  a  great  proof  of  his 
'good  sense.     "  Yw^  w^nt  of^success,  brother,"  said  he^ 

$H  A  I  D  A  N. 

^^  «Mms  to  me  to  be  owing  to  your  want  of  condescetision  td 
the  weakness  of  your  unlearned  hearers ;  whom,  according 
DO  the  apostolid  rule,  you  skould  first  have  fed  with  the 
milk  of  a  milder  and  less  rigid  doctrine,  tilly  being  nou«-- 
fished  by  degrees  with  the  word  of  God,  they  were  become 
capable  of  relishing  the  more  perfect  and  wblime  preceptai 
of  the  Gospel.^'  The  reason  he  gave  for  foretelling  Oswin'a 
death  is  also  very  striking,  ^  I  forsaw  that  Oswin^s  life 
was  but  shorty  for  in  my  life,  I  nerersaw  so  bumblea 
prince  before.  His  temper  is  too  heavenly  to  dwell  long 
among  us;  and  indeed  the  nation  does  not  deserve  the^ 
blessing  of  such  a  governor."  ^  , 

AIGNEAUX  {Robert  and  Anthony  le  CHfiVALiER, 
Sieur&d')^  two  brothers^  whose  history  cannot  be  separated^: 
as  they  were  connected  in  all  their  pursuits^  and  shared 
f  like  in  their  success.     They  were  bom  at  Vire^  in  No^- 
ssandy,  about  the  middle  of  the  sixteenth,  century ;  and 
were  among  the  number  of  those  who  were  encoiuraged  by 
the  patronage  of  Francis  I.  to  cultivate  pidite  learning. 
^fter  having  studied  law  and  medicine,  for  some  time  at 
Paris  and  Poitiers^  they  retired  to  Noimandy^  ^md  dedi- 
cated themselves  to  poetry  onlyv     Long,  and  painful  sick* 
Bess,  however,  interrupted  their  joint  labottrs*  ^d  f^hon- 
ened  both  their  lives.     Robert  died  at  the  age  of  forty** 
ttine^  and  Anthony  two  or  three  years  after.     Their-  repu-* 
tation  rests  principally  on  their  translations  o£  Vixgil  and. 
Horace  into  French  verse    The  former^  which  is  most 
praised  by  French  critics,  was  published  in  1582,  4to;  and 
reprinted  the  following  year  in  8vo^  with  the  I^n  ^  and  a 
iramlation  of  the  Moretum  and  some  other  |iiecea  attributed 
to  Virgil.     In  their  translation  of  Horace,  which  appeared 
in  1588^  they  failed  totally  in  conveying  the  spirit,  graixssL 
and  elegance  of  the  favourite  of   Msecenas.      There    is; 
slso  some  original  poetry  of  theirs  at  the  conclusion  of.  a. 
collection  of  verses  in  their  praise,  published  by  tbei]^ 
countryman,  Pierre  Lucas  Salliere,.  under  the  title  of  *^Le 
Tombeau  de  Robert  et  Antoine  le  chevalier,  freres,  sieoi» 
d'Aigneaux,*'  Caen,  12mo,  1591.* 

AIGREFEUILLE  (Charles  d'),  a  French  antiquary, 
and  canon  of  the  cathedral  of  Montpelier,  lived  in  the 
middle  of  the  eighteenth  century ;  but  we  have  no  parti- 
culars of  his  birth  or  death.    The  family  of  AigrefeuUleia 

*  Mackenzie's  Scotch  Writers,  rol.  I.— ^en.  Diet— -Biog.  Brit  new  edit— 
Milner^s  Church  History,  veL  UL  116*.  «  Biog.  UahrerseUe— 0ict.  Hist. 

A  t  G  R  E  F  £  U  I  JL  L  £.  ftSl 

Languedoc,  has  produced  many  distinguished  ecclesiastics 
and  magistr^uies.  Our  author  published  ^^  Histoire  de  la 
irille  de  MontpelUery  depuis  son  origine,'*  i7S7,  foL  a( 
valuable  work,  although  little  known  except  in  the  placd 
it  describes ;  and  a  second  volume  also  in  fol.  '<  Histoird 
Ecclesiastique  de  Montpellier/'  1739;  in  which  are  coa-« 
taiired,  accounts  of  the  bishops,  the  history  of  the  churches^: 
diotiasteries,  hospitals,  colleges,  and  university.  ^ 
-  AIKMAN  (WiLUiUML),  a  Scotch  painter  of  considerable 
eminence,  was  the  son  of  Wiliiam  Aikman,  of  Cairney^ 
e$q*  and. bora  Oct  24,  1682.  His  father  intended  that  he 
should  follow  the  law,  and  gave  him  an  education  suitable 
to  these  views ;  but  the  strong  predilection  of  the  son  to 
the  fine  arts  induced  hioi  to  attach  himself  to  pointing 
alone.  Poetry,  painting,,  and  music  have,  with  justice^ 
been  called  sister  arts.  Mr,  Aikman  was  fond  of  poetry  { 
and  was  particularly  delighted  with  those  unforced  strains 
which,  proceeding  from  the  heart,  are  calculated  to  touch 
the  congenial  feelings  of  sympathetic  minds.  It  was  this 
propensity  which  attached  him  so  warmly  to  Allan  Rami* 
$ay,  the  Doric  bard  of  Scotland.  Though  younger  than 
Ramsay,  Mr.  Aikman,  while  at  collegCy  formed  an  iuti«- 
mate  acquaintance  with  faimt  whicb  constituted  a  principal 
part  of  lus  happiness  at  that  time,  and  of  which  he  always 
bcHre  the  tenderest  recollection^  It  was  the  same  delicate 
bias  of  mind  which  at  a  future  period  of  his  life  attached 
him  so  warmly  to  Thomson,  who  then  unknown,  and  na« 
protected,  stood  in  need  of,  and  obtained  the  warmest  pa-* 
tronage  of  Aikman ;  who  perhaps  considered  it  as  one:  of 
the  most  fortunate  occurrences,  in  his  life  that  he  had  it  in 
his  power  to  introduce  this  young  poet  of  nature  to  sir  Ro*«' 
bert  Walpole,  who  wished  to  be  reckoned  the  patroit 
of  genius,  and  to  Arbuthnot,  Swift,  Pope,  Gay,  and  the 
other^  beauK  esprits  of  that  brilliant  period.  Thomsoa 
could  never  forget  this  kindness ;  and  when  he  had  tha^ 
misfortune,  too  soon,  to  lose  this  warm  friend  and  kind 
protector,  he  bewailed  the  loss  in  strains  distinguished 
by  justness  of  thought,,  and  genuine  pathos  of  expression. 

Mr.  Aikman,  having  prosecuted  his  studies  for  some  time 
in  Britain,  found  that  tp  complete  them  it  would  be  ner 
cessaiy  to  go  into  It^ly,  p9  form  his. taste  on  the  fine 
9iodels  of  antiquity,  which  there  alone  can  be  found  in 
fltbundance.     And  as  he  perceived  that  the  profession ^be 

*  *    1        •         .  *  Biographie  Uniyeneile. 

«5«  A  I  K  M  A  KT. 

'  was  to  follow^  could  not  permit  him  to  oiatiage  pfopevly 
his  paternal  estate^  situated  in  a  remote  place  near  Air«* 
broath  in  the  county  of  Forfar  to  Scotland^  he  thought 
proper  to  sell  it,  and  settle  all  family  claiins  tipon  him^ 
.that  he  might  beat  full  liberty  to  pursue  hb  studies.  Ifi 
the  year  1707  he  went  to  Italy,  and  having  resided  chiefly 
at  Rome  for  three  years,  and  taken  instructions  from,  and 
formed  an  acquaintance  wiih  the  principal  artists  of  thai 
period)  he  chose  to  gratify  his  curiosity  by  travellmg  into 
Turkey.  He  went  first  to  Constantinople^  and  from  tbencier 
to  Smyrna^  There  he  became  acquainted  with  alt  th^ 
British  gentlemen  6f  the  factory ;  who  wished  him  to  for-^- 
sake  the  pencil,  and  to  join  them  in  the  Turkey  trader 
but,  that  scheme  not  taking  piaoej  he  went  oitce  more  to 
Rome,  and  pursued  his  former  studies  there,  till  the  yeai? 
1712,  when  he  returned  to  Jiis  native  country:  he  now 
followed  bis  profession  of  painting  for  sometime,  applauded 
by  the  discerning  few ;  though  the  public,  too  poor  at  that 
period  to  be  able  to  purchase  valuable' pictures,  were  un-^ 
able  to  give  adequate  encouragement  to  his  superior  merit* 
John  duke  of  Argyll,  who  equally  admired  tfakef  artist  and 
esteemed  the  man,  regretting  that  such  talents  should  be 
lost,  at  length  prevailed  on  Mr.  Aikman  to  move  with  all 
his  family  to  London,  in  the  yeai?  1729,  thinking  this  thd< 
only  theatre  in  Britain  where  his  talents  could  be  properly 
displayed.  Under  the  auspices  Of  this  ^nobleman,  he 
fbfmed  habits  of  intimacy  with  the  first  artists,  partieularly 
with  sii"  Godfrey  Kneller,  whose  studies  and  dispodition^ 
of  mind  were  very  congenial  to  bis  own*  . 

In  this  society  he  sooii  became  known  to  and  patronised 
by  people  of  the  first  rank,  and  was  in  habits  of  intimacy 
with  many  of  them  ;  particularly  the  eaii  <if  Buriington,  9^ 
well  known  for  his  taste  in  Hhe  fine  arts,  especially  itrchi-' 
lecture.  For  him  h^  painted,  among  others,  a  large  pic^^' 
ture  of  the  royal  family  of  England :  in  the  middle  compart-^ 
jnent  are  all  the  younger  branches  ef  the  family  on  a  very 
large  eanvas,  and  <m  one  hand  above  the  door  a  half  let^ftii 
of  her  majesty  queen  Caroline  $  the  picture  of  the  king 
was  intended  to  fill  the  niche  opposite  to  it,  but  Mr.  Aik- 
man's  death  happening  before  it  was  began,  the  place  feif 
it  is  lefi:  blank.  This  picture  came  kitx^  the  possession  of 
the  duke  of  Devonshire,  whose  father  mariied  lady  Mary 
Boy4e,  daughter  and  only  child  to  the  earl  of  Bbriingteiir 
T<)wards  the  close  of  hia  JUfe  he  paiuted  many  other  pic*^ 

A  I  K  M  A  N.  257 

teres  of  people  of  the  first  rank  and  fashion  in  England. 
At  Blickling  in  Norfolk,  the  seat  of  Hobart  earl  of  Buck- 
inghamshire, are  a  great  many  full  length  pictures  by  Mr. 
Aikroan,  of  noblemen,  gentlemen,  and  ladies,  relations 
^nd  friends  oC  the  earl.  These,  with  the  royal  family 
above  named,  were  his  last  works ;  and  but  a  few  of  the 
•number  he  painted  in  London.  He  died  June  7,  1731. 
i  In  bis  style  of  painting  Mr.  Aikman  seems  to  have  aimed 
at  imitating  nature  in  her  pleasing  simplicity :  his  lights 
are.  soft,  his  shades  mellow,  and  his  colouring  mild  and 
harmonious.  His  touches  have  neitlier  the  force  nor  harsh- 
ness of  Rubens ;  nor  does  he  seem,  like  Reynolds,  ever  to 
have  aimed  at  adorning  his  portraits  with  the  elegance  of 
adventitious  graces.  His  mind,  tranquil  and  serene,  de^ 
lighted  rather  to  wander  with  Thomson  in  the  enchanting 
fields  of  Tempe,  than  to  burst,  with  Michael  Angelo,  into 
the  ruder  scenes  of  the  terrible  and  =  the  sublime.  His  com- 
positions are  distinguished  by  a  placid  tranquillity  and  ease 
rather  than  a  striking  brilliancy  of  effect :  and  his  portraits 
may  be  more  readily  mistaken  for  those  of  Kneller  than 
any  other  eminent  artist ;  not  only  because  of  the  general 
resemblance  in  the  dresses,  which  were  those  of  the  times, 
they  being  contemporaries,  but  also  for  the  manner  of 
working,  and  the  similaiity  and  bland  mellowness  of  their 

.  There  are  several  portraits  painted  by  Mr.  Aikman  in 
Scotland  in  the  possession  of  the  duke  of  Argyll,  the  duke 
of  Hamilton,  and  others.  There  is  also  a  portrait  of 
Aikman  in  the  gallery  of  the  grand  duke  of  Tuscany, 
painted  by  himself;  and  another  of  the  same  in  the  pos- 
session ol'  his  daughter,  Mrs.  Forbes,  in  Edinburgh,  whose 
only  son  now  represents  the  family  of  Aikman.  * 

AILLI  (Peter  d'),  or  ALLIACUS,  an  eminent  Ronjish 
ecclesiastic,  and  cardinal,  wasbornatCompiegnein  1350,  of 
an  obscure  family.  He  eaine  very  young  to  study  kt  Paris, 
and  was  admitted  into  the  college  of  Navarre  in  1372.  From 
this  time  he  began  to  distinguish  himself  by  his  writings  in 
philosophy,  in  which  he  followed  the  principles  of  Occham, 
aiid.  the  Nominalists;  and  his  reputation  made  him  be 
chosen  to  assist  at  the  synod  of  Amiens,  in  which  he  made 
a  discourse  to  the  priest,  although  he  was  then  only  asub- 
deacon«     He  received  the  doctor's  degree  at  Paris,  Api-il 

»  From  Dr.  Jamci  Anderson's  Bee,  published  at  Edinburgh,  1 792-3,-^ WaU 
pullc's  Anecdbtes. 

Vol-.  1.  § 

»54  A  I.  L  L  I, 

11, 1330)  and  ne^t  year  be  made  a  discoifne  in  tbe  prc^ 
atence  of  the  duke  of  Anjou,  in  the  name  of  tbe  university^ 
to  show  that  it  was  necessary  to  assemble  a  general  council 
in  order  to  put  an  end  to  schism^  That  same  year  be  was 
made  canon  of  Noyon,  and  continued  there  ^o  the  year  1 384^ 
when  he  was  recalled  to  Paris,  to  be  superior  of  the  college 
of  Navarre.  Here  he  taught  divinity,  and  acquired  in- 
creased  reputation  by  bis  lectures  and  sermons.  From  his 
school  came  Gerson,  Clemangis,  and  Giles  D'Eschamps^ 
the  most  ifamous  divines  of  that  time.  The  university  of 
Paris  could  not  find  any  person  more  capable  of  maintain- 
ing her  cause  against  Monteson,  at  pope  Clement  VII/s 
tribunal,  than  this  learned  doctor.  She  accordingly  de^ 
puted  him  to  Avignon,  where  he  pleaded  the  cause  of  tbe. 
university  with  so  much  force,  that  the  pope  and  cardinals 
confirmed  the  judgment  passed  by  that  seminary.  Having 
returned  from  this  mission,  he  was  honoured,  in  1389,  with 
three  considerable  dignities, .  that  of  chancellor  of  the 
church  and  university,  and  almoner  and  confessor  to  king 
Charles  VI.  In  1394  he  was  appointed  treasurer  of  the 
holy  chapel  at  Paris,  and  was  sent  by  the  king  to  Benedict 
XIII.  to  treat  with  him  about  the  peace  of  the  church.  He 
was  afterwards  successively  elected  to  two  bishoprics :  that 
ofPuy,  in  Velay,  in  1395,  and  that  of  Cambray  next  year. 
He  took  possession  of  the  latter,  and  laid  down  his  charge 
Qf  chancellor  of  the  university  in  favour  of. John  Gerson, 
After  this  he  employed  his  time  in  extinguishing  schism^ 
as  it  was  called,  and  assisted  at  the  council  of  Pisa.  At 
length  pope  John  XXIII.  made  him  cardinal  of  Chryso- 
gonus  in  1411.  He  assisted  in  that  quaUty  at  the  general 
council  of  Constance,  and  was  one  of  those  who  took  the 
greatest  share  in  its  transactions,  and  composed  several 
sermons  upon  subjects  handled  there.  He  then  returned 
to  'Cambray,  where  he  died  in  1425.  He  wrote  many 
works,  isome  of  which  were  published  after  the  invention 
of  printing;  as  his  ^^  Commentaries  on  the  Master  of  Sen- 
tences," which  are  inserted  in  the  appendix  to  the  "  Fas«» 
ciculus  rerum  expetendarum,"  1490  ;  a  volume  "of  Tract* 
and  Sermons,''  about  the  same  time.  He  wrote  also  on 
Astrology,  in  which  be  was  a  believer.  His  principal 
works,  however,  confirm  the  opinion  which  the  Roman 
Catholic  writers  give  of  liis  learning  and  talents;  and 
learning  so  extraordinary  is  to  be  venerated  in  an  age  of 
comparative  darkness :  but  it  is  a  great  deduction  from 

kis  ch'ai^t^f  that;  ialthough  he  p6sdess€fd  9uperiof  under- 
standing and  liberality  to  many  of  his  contemporaries,  ^nd 
even  is  supposed  td  hare  leaned  a  little  towards  freedoia 
of  opinkm,  he  was  an  implacable  persecutor  of  schism^ 
that  is,  the  iirst  beginnings  of  the  Reformation ;  and  was  a 
principal  agent  in  bringing  John  Huss  to  the  stake,  and  ia 
disturbing  the  ashes  of  WicklifFe. » 

of  Revesby  in  Lincolnshire  in  the  reigns  of  king  Steph'ea 
and  king  Henry  II.  was  born  of  noble  parents,  in  1 109, 
and  educated  in  Scotland,  together  with  Henry,  son  of 
David,  king  of  Scots.  '  Upon  his  return  into  England,  he 
took  the  habit  in  the  Cistertian  monastery  of  Revesby, 
where  his  extraordinary  piety  and  learning  soon  raised  hioi 
to  the  dignity  of  abbot.  Lelahd  gays  he  outshone  his- 
brethren  as  the  sun  eclipses  the  brightness  of  the  inferior 
luminaries:  and  endeared  himself  no  less  to  the  great 
men  of  the  kingdom  than  to  the  monks  of  his  own  house* 
His  grieat  love  of  retirement,  and  a  life  of  contemplation 
and  study,  induced  him  to  decline  all  offers  of  ecclesiasti-* 
cal  preferment,  and  even  to  refuse  a  bishopric.  He  was 
particularly  attached  to  St.  Austin's  works,  especially  his 
?*  Confessions;"  and  was  a  strict  imitator  of  St.  Bernard 
in  his  writings,  words,  ^nd  actions.  He  left  behind  him 
several  monuments  of  his  learning ;  in  the  composition  of 
which  he  was  assisted  by  Walter  Daniel^  a  monk  of^  the 
same  convent.  This  abbot  died  January  12,  1166,  aged 
fifty-seven  years,  and  was  buried  in  the  monastery  of 
Kevesby,  under  a  tomb  adorned  with  gold  and  silver ;  and, 
we  are  told,  he  was  canonized  on  account  of  some  miracles 
saii  to  have  been  wrought  by  him  after  his  death. 

Of  his  works,  the  following  have  been  printed  in  the 
**  Collection  of  ten  English  Writers"  by  Roger  Twisden, 
Lond.  1652:  "  De  BeMo  Standardii  tempore  Stephaui 
fegis,  anno  1138;^*  "  Genealogia  Regum  Anglorum;" 
**  Historia  de  Vita  et  M iraculis  S.  Edwardi  Regis  et  Con- 
fessoris ;"  "  Histori£i  de  Sanctimoniali  de  Watthun.*^  Ail- 
red  wrote  another  "  Life  of  St.  Edward"  in  elegiac  verse, 
which  is  extant  in  manuscript  in  the  library  of  Gonvil  and 
Caius  college  in  Ciambridge.  The  following  were  published 
by  Richard  Gibbons,  a  Jesuit,  at  Doway,  in  1631,  and 

I  Dupin,  in  D'AUly.— Gen.  Dict,--Moreri.-.Cavc,  Foppen,  and  Saxiua  in 

S  2 

i60  A  I  L  R  E  D. 

afterwards  in  the  *^  Bibliotheca  Cistertiensis,^'  and  in  the 
^*  Bibliotheca  Patrum  ;"  namely,  **  Sennones  de  Tempore 
et  de  Sanctis  ;"  *^  In  Isaiam  Prophetam  Sermones  XXXI ;" 
**  Speculum  Charitatis  libris  III.'*  **  Tractatus  de  puero 
Jesu  dnodecenni  in  illud  Luc.  ii.  cum  factus  esset  Jesus, 
&c."  "  De  spirituali  Amicitia."  He  wrote  abo  "  Regular 
ad  Inclusas,  seu  Moniales,"  which  is  erroneously  ascribed 
to  St.  Augustin,  and  usually  printed  with  his  works ;  and 
among  the  works  of  St.  Bernard  is  *^  Tractatus  de  Dominica 
infra  octavas  Epiphaniae,  et  Sermones  XI.  de  oneribua 
IsaisB)'*  which  was  written  by  Ailred.  Leland,  Bale,  and 
Pits,  have  enumerated  his  unpublished  writings,  as  has 
Tanner  under  the  article  Ealredus. '  . 

AINSWORTH  (Henry),  an  eminent  English  noncon- 
formist divine,  who  flourished  in  the  latter  end  of  the  six- 
teenth, and  beginning  of  the  seventeenth  centary,  but  it 
is  not  known  when  or  where  he  was  born.     In    1590  he 
joined  the  Brownists,  and  by  his  adherence  to  that  sect 
shared  in  their  persecutions.     He  was  well  versed  in  the 
Hebrew  language,  and  wrote  many  excellent  commentaries 
oathe  holy  scriptures  which  gained  him  great  reputatioti.' 
The  Brownists  having  fallen  into  greiat  discredit  in  Eng- 
land, they  were  involved  in  many  fresh  troubles  and  dif- 
ficulties ;  so  that  Ainsworth  at  length  quitted  his  cou^try^ 
and  fled  to  Holland,  whither  most  of  the  nonconformtsts^ 
who  had  incurred  tlie  displeasure  of  queen  Elizabeth^s 
goveniment,  bad  taken  refuge.     At  Amsterdam  Mr.  John- 
sou  and  he  erected  a  church,  of  which  Ainsworth  was  the 
minister.     In  conjunction  with  Jobn^ion  he  published,  in 
,1 602,  '^A  confession  of  faithof  the  peoplecalied  Brownists  ;^ 
«but  being  men  of  violent  spirits,  they  split  into  parties 
about  certain  points  of  discipline,  and  Johnson  excom* 
tinunicated  his  own  father  and  brother  :  the  presbytery  of 
.Amsterdam  offered  their  mediation,   but  he  refused  it. 
This  divided  the  congregation,  half  of  which  joining.  Aina-> 
worth,  they  excommunicated  Johnson,  who  made: the  lika 
•return  to  that  party.    The  contest  grew  at  length  so  vio« 
lent,  that  Johnson  and  bis  followers  removed  to  Embdeiv 
.where  he  died  soon  after,  and  his  congregation  dissolved. 
Nor  did  Mr.  Ainsworth  and  his  adherents  live  long  in  bar* 
mony ,  for  in  a  short  time  he  left  them,  and  retired  to  Ireland  ^ 
but  when  Xhe  heat  and  violence  of  his  party  subsided,  he 
returned  to  Amsterdam,  and  continued  with  them  until  his 

}  Biog,  BriU 


A  I  N  S  W  O  R  T  H.  261 

deathk  Dr.  Heylyn's  account  of  their  contendoi^s  at  Am* 
dterdam,  sufficiently  shows  what  impUcit  obedience  some 
men  expect  who  are  liot  muchiucUned  to  pay  it,  either  to 
the  church  or  the  state. 

Ainsworth's  learned  writings,  however,  were  esteemed 
even  by  his  adversaries,  who,  while  they  refuted  his  ex^ 
travagant  tenets,  yet  paid  a  proper  deference  to  his  abilities; 
particularly  Dr.  Hall,  bishop  of  Exeter,  who  wrote  with 
great  strength  of  argument  against  the  Brownists.  But 
nothing  coul^  have  effect  upon  him,  or  make  him  re- 
turu  home :  so  he  died  in  exile.  His  death  was  sudden, 
and  not  without  suspicion  of  violence  :  for  it  is  reported, 
that  having  found  a  diamond  of  great  value,,  he  advertised 
it ;  and  when  the  owner,  who  was  a  Jew,  came  to  demand 
it,  he  offered  him  any  gratuity  he  would  desire.  Ainsworth^ 
though  poor,  requested  only  of  the  Jew,  that  he  would 
procure  him  a  conference  with  some  of  his  rabbis,  upon 
the  prophecies  of  the  Old  Testament  relating  to  the  Mes^ 
fiiah,.  which'  the  Jew  promised  ;  but  not  having  interest  to 
obtain  such  a  conference,  it  was  thought  that  he  contrived 
to  get  Ainsworth  poisoned.  This  is  said  to  have  happened 
in  1622.  He  was  undoubtedly  a  person  of  profound  learn- 
ing, and  deeply  read  in  the  works  of  the  rabbis.  He  had 
a  strong  understanding,  quick  penetration,  and  wonderful 

His  most  esteemed  works  are  bis  annotations  on  some 
hooks  of  the  Bible.  Those  on  the  Psalms  were  printed 
1612,  4to;  on  the  Pentateuch,  2  vols.  4to,  1621,  and  again 
in  1627,  fol.  and  i639;  which  last  edition  Wendler  and 
"Vogt  have  inserted  among  scarce  books.  The  Song  of 
Scdomon,  which  makes  part  of  this  volume,  was  printed 
separately  in  1623,  4to.  He  published  also  several  trea-» 
tises  of  the  controversial  kind,  as,  1.  '^  A  Counter-poison 
against  Bernard'  and  Crashaw,^'  1608,  4to,  and  1612, 
which  Anthony  Wood  improperly  attributes  to  Henry  Jacob. 
Bishop  Hall  answered  this  tract ;  yet,  whenever  he  men* 
tions  Ainsworth,  it  is  with  the  highest  praise  as  a  man  of 
learning.  2.  "  An  Animadversion  on  Mr.  Richard  Clyfton's 
Advertisement,  who,  under  pretence  of  answering  Charles 
Lawne's  book,  hath  published  another  man's  private  letter, 
with  Mr.  Francis  Johnson's  answer  thereto;  which  letter  is 
here  justified,  the  answer  hereto  jrefuted,  and  the  true 
causes  of  the  lamentable  breach  that  has  lately  fallen  out 
in  the  English  cjuled  church  at  Amsterdam,  manifested : 

262  A  I  N  S  W  O  R  T  H, 

printed  at  Amsterdam,  by  Giles  Thorp,  A.D.  1613,"  4tof 
3.  "A  treatise  of  the  Communion  of  Saints;"  4.  "A  treatise 
of  the  'Fellowship  that  the   Faithful  have  with  God,  his 
Angels,  and  one  with  another,  in  this  present  life,  16 1 5,'* 
8vo;  5.  "The  trying  out  of  the  Truth  between  John  Ains-^ 
worth  and  Henry  Ainsworth,  the  one  pleading  for,  and  the 
pther  against  popery,"  4toj    6.  **An  Arrow' against  Idola« 
try;"  7.  *'  Certain  Notes  of  Mr.  Ainsworth's  l^^lt  Sermon 
on  1  Pet.  ii.  4,  5,  printed  in  1630,-'  8vo.  * 
'    AINSWORTH  (Rotbert),  an  eminent  Grammarian  and 
Lexicographer,  was  born  at  Woodyale,  in  the  parish  of  £c« 
cles,  in  Lancashire,  four  miles  from  Manchester,  in  Septem- 
ber 1660,  and  was  educated  at  Bolton  in  that  county,  where 
he  afterwards  taught  school.     On.  coming  to  London,  he 
opened  a  considerable  boarding-school  at  Bethnal-^green, 
.  Itnd  in  1698  published  a  short  treatise  on  grammatical  insti^r 
tution^  inscribed  to  sir  William  Hustler,  and  reprinted  iq 
1736,  8vo,  under  the  title  of  "The  most  natural  and  easy 
way  of  Institution,  &c.V     He  soon  after  removed  to  .Hack-»> 
Hey,  and  successively  toother  villages  near  London,  where 
he  taught  with  good  reputation  many  years,  and  at  length 
having  acquired  a  moderate  fortune,  he  left  off  teaching  &a4 
lived  privately.     He  had  a  turn  both  for. Latin  and  English 
poetry,  some  single  poems  of  his  having  been  printed  ii^ 
each  of  these  languages,  but  are  not  now  known.     He  ifcw 
remarkably  near-sighted,  'but  wrote  a  beautiful  hand.     Ta 
the  latter  part  of  his  life,  he  employed  himself  in  searching 
the  sbops  of  obscure  brokers  in  every  quarter  of  the  town, 
by  which  means  he  often  recovered  old  coips  ahd  other  va^ 
luable  curiosities  at  a  small  expence,  and  became  possessecl 
of  a  very  fine  collection  of  English  corns,  which  he  sold 
singly  to  several  gentlemen  a  short  time  before  his  death* 
This  happened  at  London,.  April  4,  1743,  at  the  age  of 
eighty -three.     He  tvas  buried,  according  to  his  own  desirej 
in  the  pemetery  of  Pdplai*,  tinder  the  following'  monu* 
mental  inscription,  compofsed  by  himself : 

"  Rob.  Ainsworth  et  uxor  ^juis,  admodum  seties 
Dormiluri,  vesten  dqtritanii  hie  exuernnk,  . 
Nov^m  prirao  mane  ^urgentes  inOuturi.  , 

Dum  fas,  mortalis,  sapias,  &  respice  finetii  i 
Hoc  suadent  Manes,  hoc  canit  'Amramides. 

•To  thy  Inflection,  mortii}  friend,  .  . 

Th'  advice  of  Moses  I  commend : 
Be  wise  and  meditate  thy  end." 

.  >  Biog.  Brit— Hey!yu»sHiit.ofaie.PrfMbytcriJmi,  P.S74,  375.— Neal'iHJit, 
of  the  PuriUos. 

AINSWORTrt.  263 

Of  his  private  life,  little  else  is  known,  c!fecept  that  ih 
1721  or  1724,  he  was  elected  a  fellow  of  the  society  of  An- 
tiquaries; and  honourable  notice  is  taken  of  him  in  the  his- 
tory of  the  society  prefixed  to   the  first  volume  of  the 
Archeeologia.     He  published,   1.  "  Monumenta  Vetustatis 
Kempiana,  &c."  1 720,  8vo.     The  greatest  part  of  this  col- 
lection was  originally  made  by  Mr.  John  Gailhard,  who  had 
been  governor  to  George,  first  lord  Carteret,  and  sold  to 
his  lordship  for  an  annuity  of  200/.     After  lord  Carteret's 
death  in  1695,  Mr.  John  Kemp  bought  a  considerable  part 
of  the  collection  during  the  minority  of  John  lord  Carteret, 
afterwards  earl  Granville,  and  more  after  his  death.     Some 
years  after  Kemp's  death,  the  collection  was  Sold  by  auc- 
tion,     fl.    "  I(7f»v,  sive  ex  veteris  monumenti  Isiaci  de- 
scriptione  Tsidis  Delubrum  reseratum,*'  1729,  4to.    3.  "  De 
Clypeo  Camilli  antiquo,'*  1734,  which  had  before  appear- 
ed at  the  end  of  "  Museum  Woodwardianum,'*'  the  latter 
part  of  which  Was  drawn  up  by  Ainsworth,  though  Dr.  Wood- 
ward himself  had  described  most  of  the  statues,  tables,  and 
Vases,  and  written  lar^e  notes  upon  most  of  them.    But  the 
-work  which  has  contributed  most  to  Mr.  Ainsworth*s  name 
is  his  well-known  Latin  Dictionary.     About  the  year  1714, 
it  having  been  suggested  to  some  principal  booksellers, 
•that  a  new  compendious  English  aiid  Latin  Dictionary,  upon 
a  plan  somewhat  similar  to  Faber's  'Thesaurus,  was  much 
•wanted,  Mr.  Ainsworth  was  considered  as  a  proper  person 
•to  execute  what  proved  to  be  a  long  and  troublesome  un- 
dertaking :  and  how  well  he  completed  it  has  been  suffi- 
*ciently  shewn  by  the  approbation  bestowed  on  it  by  a  suc- 
cession of  the  ablest  teachers  and  scholars.    The  first  edi-» 
tion  appeared  in  1736,  4to,  in  which  Dr.  Patrick  appears 
to  have  assisted  Ainsworth  ;  and  the  second  edition  in  1746 
was  entirely  entrusted  to  Patrick's  care,  who  introduced 
*inany  additions  and  improvements.     Dr.  Ward  also  con- 
tributed to  this  edition.     The  third  edition  in  1751  wUs 
'Superintended  by  Mr.Kimber,  but  with  little  or  no  variation. 
In  1752  another  appeared,  greatly  improved  by  Mr.  Wil- 
liam Young  (the  parson  Adams  of  Fielding),  and  an  editor 
far  superior  to  either  of  the  preceding.     An  abridgment  in 
2  vols.  Svo,  1758,  by  Mr.  Nathan ael  Thomas,  is  chiefly  va-» 
}uable  for  the  clearness  of  the  print,  and  the  facility  of  re- 
ference.     In   1773,  Di:.  Morell  corrected,   for  the  third 
time,  the  quarto  edition,  and  continued  to  improve  it  as 
jg^  ^  the  edition  of  1780  ^  the  last  edition  of  1808  was  re* 


vised  by  a  gentleman,  whose  name  we  are  not  at  liberty  to 
mention,  amply  qualified  for  the  task.  By  a  curious  Kst 
of-the  sums  given  to  the  various  editors  of  this  work,  pub- 
lished by  Mr.  Nichols,  we  learn  that  Ainsworth  received 
for  the  first  edition,  666 L  lis.  6d.y  and  for  what  he  had 
contributed  to  the  second,  his  executors  were  paid  250L 

Mr.  Watson,  in  his  history  of  Halifax,  notices  a  WiLLlA^f 
Ainsworth,  curate  of  LightcHfFe,  and  some  time  lecturer 
of  St.  Peter's,  Chester,  who,  in  1630  published  *'  Triplex 
Aiemoriale,  or  the  Substance  of  three  commemoration  Ser- 
mons, preached  at  Halifax  in  remembrance  of  Mr.  Natha- 
nael  Wattehouse  deceased."  This  gentleman  taught  school 
in  aid  of  his  maintenance,  which  appears  to  hav^e  been  very 
scanty,  but  whether  related  to  our  Lexicographer,  cannot 
now  be  ascertained.  • 


AIRAY  (Christopher),  vicar  of  Milford  in  Hampshire, 
was  born  at  Clifton  in  Westmoreland,  and  admitted  a  stu- 
dent in  Queeifs  college,  Oxford,  in  1621  ;  where  having 
passed  the  servile  offices,  and  taken  the  degree  of  M.  A. 
he  was  elected  a  fellow.  Soon  after  he  went  into  holy  or- 
ders, and  in  1642  took  the  degree  of  B.  D.  He  wrote 
•*  Fasciculus  pr8eceptorum  logicalium  in  gratiam  Juventutiis 
Academicse  compositus ;"  besides  a  few  other  small  pieces, 
the  titles  of  which  Wood  has  not  recovered.  He  died  the 
18th  of  October,  1670,  aged  69,  and  was  buried  in  the 
chancel  of  his  church  of  Milford,  with  an  epitaph,  wbicb 
praises  him  as  a  vigilant  vicar  of  that  church,  a  gentlenrno 
of  the  greatest  integrity,  judgment,  and  learning,  and  who 
in  the  most  difficult  and  troublesome  times,  adhered  faith- 
fully to  bis  principles.  Wood  speaks  of  a  Christopher 
Airay,  nephew  to  Dr.  Adam  Airay,  principal  of  Edmun^l 
ball,  whoia  1660  contributed  to  enlarge  the  buildings  of 
old  Queen's  college.  They  were  probably  both  related  to 
the  subject  of  the  following  article, « 

AIRAY  (Henry),  provost  of  Queen's  college,  Oxford, 
was  born  in  Westmoreland  in  1559,  educated  in  grammati- 
cal learning  under  the  care  of  Bernard  Qilpin,  usually  call- 
ed the  Northern  Apostle,  and  by  him  sent  to  St.  Edmund's 
ball,  Oxford,  in  1579.  He  was  then  19  years  of  age,  and 
was  maintained  at  the  university  by  Gilpin,  who  afterwards 
left  him  a  handsome  legacy  by  his  last  wilK     Mr.  Airay 

^  Nicholses  Life  of  Bowyer,  vol.  V. — ^Bioj.  Brit— PcpuWic  of  Letters,  toI. 
XVU.  p.  460.«.WaUoa's  iiaiifax,  p.  453.  %  Biog.  Brit— Wood's  Athene* 

A  I  R  A  Y.  S65 

soon  removed  from  St.  Edmund^s  ball  to  Queen^s  college^ 
and  in  1 683,  took  his  bacbeloi'^s  degree,  was  made  iabarder, 
and  in  1586  be  commenced  master  of  arts  and  was  chosea 
fellow.  About  this  time  be  went  into  orders,  and  became  a 
constant  preacher  in  the  university,  particularly  in  the 
diurch  of  St.  Peter  in  the  east.  In  1594,  be  took  the  de« 
gree  of  B,  D.  and  Mairch  9,  1598-9,  was  elected  provost  of 
his- college  ;  and  in  1606  he  was  appointed  vice-chancellon 
He  wrote  the  folio  wiug  pieces :  1.  ^'Lectures  upon  tb« 
whole  £pistle  of  St.  Paul  to  the  Philippians,"  London,  1618, 
4to.  2.  '<  The  just  and  necessary  Apology  touchipg  his 
i)uit  in  Law^  for  the  Rector  of  Charlton  on  Otmore,  in  Ox» 
fordshire,"  London,  1621,  8vo.  3.  "A  Treatise  against 
bowing  at  the  Name  of  Jesus."'  The  lectures  were  preached 
in  the  church  of  St.  Pet^  in  the  east,  and  were  published 
by  Christophe.  Potter,  fellow,  and  afterwards  provost  of 
Qtieen's  college,  with  an  epistle  of  his  o^n  composition 
prefixed  to  them.  Airay  ranks  among  tli^  zealpus  Puritans^ 
wbo  wer^;  mostly  Calvinists,  and  was  a  gi^at  supporter  of 
•his  party,  io  the  unii^ersity,  wb^re  he  was  consid^ed  asai 
man  of  sincere  piety,  integrity,  and  learning*  In  1602  wheo 
Dr.  Dovvson^  then  vice*chancellor,  wished  to. jrepress  the 
practice  of  sQme  Puritan  divines  of  Oxford  w^o  preached 
against  the  ceremoiiies  and  discipline  of  the  chorcb,  Dr^ 
Airay  ^d  one  or  two  others  were  ordered  to  makeaubmis- 
sion  by  the  queen's  conamissioners  who  had  investigated  the 
matter ;  apd  this  the  others  did,  bu|  Dr.  Airay,  according 
to  Ant.  Wood,  iippears  to  have  been  excused.  In  1604» 
when  king  James,  in  commemoration  of  his  escape  from  the 
Gowrie  conspiracy,  not  only  appointed  an  anniversary,  but 
that  there  should  always  be  a  sermon  and  service  on  Tues- 
days throughout  the  year.  Dr.  Airay  introduced,  this  last 
custom  into  Oxford,  first  at  All  Saints  church,  and  then  at 
St.  Mary's,  with  a  rule  that  the  sermons  should  be  preached 
by  the  divines  of  the  colleges  in  thair  respective: turns^  In 
16Q6,  whei^  vice-^ibancelior,  be  was  one  of  the  first  to  call 
JMr.  Laud,  afterwards  the  celebrated  archbishop,  to  task  for 
preaching  sentiments  which  were  supposed  to  favour  popery. 
He  died  ifi  Queen's  college,  Oct.  10,  1616,  aged  fifty- 
seven,  and  was  buried  in  the  chapel.  He  bequeathed  to 
the  coUegpe.  aom.e  lands  lying  in  Garsington,  near  Oxford. ' ' 

A  Wood'!  iVUiens.— Anaals  &t  CoUegci  and  Halls,--Biog,  Brits. 

866  A  1  T  O  N. 

AlTON  (William),  an  eiKlinent  bbtanist,  was  born  ift 
2731,  at  a  small  village  near  Hamilton,  in  Lanarkt^bire. 
He  had  been  early  initiated  in  horticulture;  and  in  1754, 
coming  for  employment  to  the  southern  parts  of  the  king- 
dom,  be  attmcted,  in  the  following  year,  the  notice  of  Mr. 
Philip  Miller,  author  of  the  Gardener's  Dictionary,  who  was 
at  that  time  superintendant  of  the  botanioal  gardeti  at 
Chelsea.  The  instructions  which  he  received  from  that 
eminent  gardener,  it  is  said,  laid  the  foundation  of  his  fu* 
ttire  fortune.^^His  attention  to  his  profession  procured  for 
bim  a  recommendation  to  the  late-  princess  dOwager  of 
Wales^  and -his  present  majesty.  In  1759,  he  conse- 
^ently  was  appoifnted- to  superintend  the  botanical  garden 
irt.  Kew,  an  opportunity  for  the  exertion  of  his  talenta 
which  was  not  neglected.  The  tnost  curious  plants  Were 
collected  from  every  part  of  the  world,  and  his  skill  in 
the  cultivati^Tl  of  them  was  evinced  by  his  attention 
lo»  the  various  soils  and  degrees  of  warmth  or  eold  whieii 
were  necessary  for  their  growth.  The  borderain  tJi^  gar- 
den  were  enlarged  for  t^e  more  free  circulation  of  the  air 
where  it  was  required^  and  the  stoves  wete  improved  for 
th^  ret;eptk)n  of  plants,  and,  as  near  as  it  was  thought  pos^ 
Ml>le,  adapted  to  the  climates  froiri  which  they  were  pro*- 
daced»  His  professional  -abilities  were  not  unnoticed  by 
the  most  eminent  botanists  of  the  time;  and  in  1764  be 
became  acquainted  with  sir  Joseph  Banks,  wjhcm,  (equally 
honourable  to  both,  a  friendship  commenced  which  sub* 
•isted  for  life.  In  1783,  Mr.  Haverfield,  having  been  ad- 
iranced  to  a  higher  station,  was  snceeeded  by  Mr.  Aiton,  iik 
the  more  lucrative  office  of  superSnteiiding  the  pleasure 
and  kitchen  gardens  at  Kew,  wkh  which  he  was  permitted 
tivretain  his  former  post.  His  labours  proved  that  his  ma-^ 
jesty's  favours  were  not  injudiciously  bestowed;,  for  in  17R^ 
he  published  an  ample  catalogue  of  the  plants  d^t  'Kew^ 
with  the  title  of  "  Hortus  Kewensis,**  3  vols.  8vo.  In  this 
eatalogue  was  given  an  account  of  the  several  foreign  plants 
Which  had  been  introduced  into  the  Ef^glish  gardens  at 
different  times.  The  whole  impression  of  -tMs  elaborate 
performance  was  ^Id  within  two  years,-  ^s^nd  a-  second 
and  improveA  edition  was  published  by- his 's^mWilHaift 
Townsend  Alton  in  1810.  'Though  active^nd  temper-*- 
ate,  Mr.  Aiton  bad  for  some .  time  been  afSictfed  with  a 
complaint  which  is  thought  by  the  faculty  to  be  incur- 

A  I  T  O  N.  267 

«Me,  It  was  that  of  a  'scirrhous  liver,  tior  was  it  to  be 
tsurmonnted  by  the  aid  of  medicine,  though  every  possible 
assistance  was  liberally  bestowed.  He  died  on  February 
ist,17^3,  in  the  63d  year  of  his  age,  having  left  behind 
him  a  wife,  two  sons,  and  three  daughters.  He  had  been 
distinguished  by  the  friendship  of  those  who  were  moiA 
4ieiebj£ated  for  their  botanical  science.  The  late  earl  of 
£ute,  sir  Joseph  Banks,  the  late  Dr.  Solander,  and 'Mr. 
Dryander,  were  the  friends  to  whom  he  always  was  inclined 
to  declare  his  laeknowledgements  for  their  kindness,  and  tt» 
|;he  three  latter  for  die  assistance  whidh  they  afforded  hiflk 
in  completing  the  *^  Hortus  Kewensis."  He  was  a^sidil- 
10US  in  his  employment,  easy  in  his  temper,  and  faithful  t^ 
his  duty.  As  a  friend,  a  husband,  and  a  father,  his  cha- 
racter was  exemplary.  On  his  burial  in  the  chufch-yard 
at  Kew,  his  pall  wsts  supported  by  those  who  knew  and 
esteemed,  him ;  by^ir  Joseph  Banks,  the  Rev.  Dr.  Good- 
enough,  Mr.  Dryander,  Dr.  Piftcairh,  Mr.  Dundas  of  Rich* 
^ond,  and  Mr.  Zoffanij.  The  king,  attentive  to  his  faith- 
/ul  servants^  demotistrxned  his  kindness  to  Mr.  Aiton,  by 
appointing  his  eldest  son  to  his  fatiier's  places*  There  is  a 
|>ortrait  of  our  author  in  the  library  at  sir  Joseph  Bahks^s, 
.Soho  s(i[uare,  which  is  thought  a  good  likeness.  He  holds 
ixr  his  hand  a  plant  called,  in  compfliment  to  him,  Aitoniay 
by  the  celebratsed  Thunberg.  • 

AITZEMA  (Leo  d'),  a  gentleman  of  Frizeland,  w4i^ 
born  at  Doccum  in  1600,  of  a  considerable  family.  His 
father,  Menard  Aitzema,  was  burgomaster  and  secretary  to 
the  admiralty^  and  his  uncle  Foppius  was^  resident  for  the 
states-genefai  at  Hitmbtirgb,  and  often  employed  in  nego- 
ciadotis  of  the  first  importance.  '  Leo  had  scarcely  reached 
iiifi  sixteenth  year,  before  he  published  liis  Poetnfuta  Jn- 
cvenilia,  but  was  soon  engaged  in  ihore  serious  studies,  'his 
uncle  having  procured  him  to  be  appointed  councilor  of 
the  Hanse  towns,  ah d  their  resident  at  the  Hague.  He  is 
likewise  said  to  have;  been  twice  in  Ei^gVand  on  public  afr- 
iairs*  The  work  for  whi^h  he  is  best  known  is  a  compila^ 
tion  on  the  history  of  the  United  Provinces,  ^vritten  iti 
JDutch,  under  the  title  of  "  Zaken  van  Staat  en  Oorlog.'* 
-Of  this  thfere  have  Keen  two  editions,  the  first  in  1-6  vdk. 
4to,  1657 — 1671,  including  the  period  between  1621  and 
J668.     The  second,  edition  is  in7  vols.  fol.  1669 — 1671, 

'  Gent.  Mag.  1793.— Lysons's  Environs,  Tol  lY, 

3«S  A  I  T  Z  E  M  A. 

with  an  account  of  the  peace  of  Munster,  slbd  a  treatise  en* 
titled  the  "  Lion  restored/*  or  an  account  of  Dutch  af- 
fairs in  1650  and  165],  which  had  been  separately 
published  in  1652,  4to.  The  first  edition  is  most 
esteemed  by  collectors  of  history,  as  in  the  second  there 
iwere  several  omissions,  although  not  of  great  importance  ; 
on  the  other  hand  thisi  second  is  more  correct,  and  the  ar« 
tides  better  arranged.  It  consists  of  an  immense  collec- 
tion of  original  acts,  instructions,  memorials,  letters,  cor- 
respondence of  crowned  heads,  &c.  taken  from  the  most 
authentic  and  often  most  secret  sources.  He  is  said  to 
have  employed  much  address  in  procuring  the  documents 
which  he  wanted.  His  connection  with  men  in  office  srave 
him  considerable  advantages,  but  he  often  used  means  not 
quite  so  ingenuous  and  delicate.  The  Dutch  reproach 
him  with  having  divulged  their  secret  correspondence  with 
foreign  courts,  and  particularly  with.  England,  and  he  is 
also  ^.ccused  of  irreligious  principles.  Wicquefort,  in  his 
.Ambassador,  speaks  slightingly  of  the  original  part  of  this 
great  work,  in  which  Bayle  says  he  cannot  agree  with  him. 
Voluminous,  however,  as  it  is,  and  in  many  parts  uninte- 
resting, it  throws  great  light  on  the  history  of  the  times^ 
and  from  it  the  "  Histoire  des  Provinces  Unies,"  S  vols. 
4to,  Paris,  1757- — 1771,  is  principally  taken.  A  continua- 
tion of  it,  eiLtending  to  the  year  1697,  was  published  by 
Lambert  Bos,  4  vols.  tbl.  Aitzema  died  in  1669  at  the 
Hague,  his  usual  resideiice '. 

AKAKIA  (Martin),  professor  of  medicine  in  the  uni- 
versity of  Paris,  and  created  doctor  in  1526,  was  a. native 
of  Chalons  in  Champagne,  and  according  to  the  custom  of 
the  time,  changed  his  name  from  "  SansMqlicey'*  or  Harm- 
less, to  that  of  Akakia,  a  Greek  word  of  the  same  import. 
He .  translated  Galen  "  De  ratione  Curandi,'*  and  "  Ars 
Medica  qute  est  ars  parva.''  He  also  published  ^^  Consilia 
Medica,^'  and  two  volumes  on  Female  Diseases.  He  was  a 
man  of  high  reputation  in  his  time,  physician  to  Francis  I. 
and  one  of  the  principal  deputies  from  the  university  to  the 
council  of  Trent,  in  1545.     He  died  in  155l.« 

AKENSID£  (Mark),  an  English  poet  and  physician, 
was  born  at  Newcastle-upon-Tyne,  Nov.  9,  1721.     His  fa- 

1  Gen.  Diet.— iBiog.  UniverecUe.*— Morcri.— Saxii  Onomasticon. 

s  Gen.  Dict.»— Moreri— Manget.  Biblioth.  But  it  seems  doubtAihwhether  tbts 
Akakia,  or  his  son,  a  physician  who  died  ia  1588,  was  the  auUior  of  Uie  two  lasft 
mentioned  work«. 

A  K  E  N  S  1  D  E.  2£9 

ifcer  was  a  reputable  butcher  of  that  place.  Of  this  cir* 
cumstance^  which  he  is  said  to  have  concealed  from  his 
friends^  he  had  a  perpetual  remembrance  in  a  halt  iu  his 
gait,  occasioned  by  the  falling  of  a  cleaver  from  his  father's 
stall.  He  received  the  first  rudiments  of  his  education  at 
the  gramjnar-school  of  Newcastle,  and  was  afterwards 
placed  under  the  tuition  of  Mr.  Wilson,  who  kept  a  pri- 
vate acadelny.  At  the  age  of  eighteen  he  went  to  Edin- 
burgh to  qualify  himself  for  the  office  of  a  dissenting 
minister,  and  obtained  some  assistance  from  the  fund  of  the 
dissenters,  which  is  established  for  such  purposes.  Having, 
however,  relinquished  his  original  intention,  he  resolved  to 
study  physic,  and  honourably  repaid  that  contribution, 
which,  being  intended  for  the  promotion  of  the  ministry,  he 
could  not  conscientiously  retain. 

In  1741  he  went  to  Ley  den,  to  complete  bis  medical 
studies;  and  May  16,  1744,  he  took  his  doctor's  degree  in 
, physic.  On  this  occasion,  he,  according  to  the  custom  of 
the  university,  published  a  dissertation  on  the  Origin  and 
Growth  of  the  Human  Foetus.  In  this  his  first  medical 
production  he  is  said  to  have  displayed  much  sagacity  and 
judgment,  by  attacking  some  opinions  which  were  then  ge- 
nerally adopted,  and  by  proposing  others,  which  have  been 
since  cotifirmed  and  received. 

Akenside  gave  early  indications  of  genius. — Several  of 
his  poems  were  the  produce  of  his  youth.  His  capital  per- 
formance. The  Pleasures  of  Imagination,  was  first  pub- 
lished in  1744;  and,  like  most  extraordinary  productions, 
it  was  not  properly  appreciated  till  time  had  matured  the 
public  judgment.  I  have,  says  our  late  eminent  biogra- 
pher, heard  Dodsley,  by  whom  it  was  published,  say,  that 
when  the  copy  was  offered  him,  the  price  demanded  for  it 
being  such  as  he  was  not  inclined  to  give  precipitately,  he 
carried  the  work  to  Pope,  who  having  looked  over  it,  ad- 
vised him  not  to  make  a  niggardly  offer,  for  this  was  no 
every-day  writer. 

Upon  the  publication  of  his  ^^  Pleasures  of  Imagination,'* 
he  gave  offence  to  Warburton,  by  a  note  in  the  third  book, 
in  which  he  revived  and  maintained  the  notion  of  Shaftes-' 
bury,  that  ridicule  is  the  test  of  truth.  Warburton  attacked 
him  with  severity  in  a  preface;  and  Akenside  was  warmly 
defended  in  "  An  Epistle  to  the  rev.  Mr.  VV^arburton.'* 
Though  the  pamphlet  was  anonymous,  it  was  known  to  be 
the  production  <jf  his  friend  Jeremiah  Dyson.     In  the  re- 

fl7a  A  KEN  S  1  D  E» 


visal  of  bis  pdems,  which  he  left  unfiiiisbed>  he  ot^itted  th^ 
lines  and  the  note  to  which  Warburton  had  objected.  lit) 
1745  he  published  a  collection  of  his  Odes;  and  wrote  a 
vehement  invective  against  Pulteney,  earl  of  Bath,  whoixi 
he  stigmatizes,  under  the  name  of  Curio,  as  the  betrayer  or 
his  country.  He  seems  to  have  afterwards  been  dissatisfied* 
with  his  epistle  to  Curio ;  for  he  expunged  about  half  the 
lines,  and  changed  it  to  the  form  pf  an  ode.  At  different; 
and  long  intervals  some  other  poems  of  his  appeared^' 
which  were,  together  with  the  rest,  published  after  his  de-* 

As  a  physician,  he  commenced  practice  at  Northampton^ 
soon  after  his  return  from  Ley  den.  But  not  finding  the 
success  which  he  expected,  or  being  desirous  of  moving  in 
a  more  extensive  sphere,  he  removed  to  Hampstead,  where 
be  resided  more  than  two  j^ears,  and  then  pettled  in 
London.  That  he  might  be  enabled  to  support^  the  figure 
which  was  necessary  for  his  introduction  to  practice  in  town, 
his  generous  friend  Mr.  D)  son  allowed  him  300/.  ^  year/ 
Whether  any  bond  or  acknowledgment  was  taken  is  uncer- 
tain ;  but  it  is  known  that  after  his  d^ath  Mr.  Dyson  pos- 
sessed  his  effects,  particularly  his  books  and  prints,  of  which 
he  was  an  assiduous  collector. 

Having  commenced  his  career  in  medicine,  our  author 
distinguished  himself  by  various  publications  in  his  pro- 
fession ;  and  having  read  the  Gulstonian  lectures  on  ana- 
tomy, he  began  the  Cronian  lecture,  in  which  he  intended 
to  give  a  history  of  the  revival  of  learning,  but  soon  desist-* 
ed.  He  was  admitted  to  a  doctor's  degree  at  Cambridge, 
after  having  taken  it  at  Edinburgh  and  Leyden ;  was  elected 
a  fellow  of  the  College  of  Physicians,  and  one  of  the  phy- 
sicians at  St.  Thomas's  Hospital ;  and,  upon  the  establish-* 
ment  of  the  queen's  household,  appointed  one  of  the 
physicians  to  her  majesty.  His  discourse  on  the  Dysen- 
tery, 1764,  was  admired  for  its  pure  and  elegant  Latinity; 
and  he  might  probably  have  attained  a  still  greater  emi^ 
nence  in  his  profession  if  his  life  had  been  longer.  He 
died  of  a  putrid  fever,  June  23,  1770,  in  the  59th  year 
of  his  age ;  and  is  buried  in  the  parish  church  of  St.  James, 

His  poems,  published  soon  after  his  death  in  4to  and  SvOf 
consist  of  the   ^'  Pleasures  of  Imagination,"  two  books  t^* 
**  Odes,"  a  Hymn  to  the  Naiads,  and  some  Inscriptions. 
*^  The  Pleasures  of  Imagination,"  as  before  observed,  wa$ 


fiirat  puUtsbed  in  1744;  and  a  yary  extraordinairy  product 
tion  it  Was,  from  a  man  who  had  not  reached  his  2Sd  year. 
He  was  afterwards  sensible,  however,  that  it  wanted  revisioa 
and  correction,  and  he  went  on  revising  and  correcting  it 
for: several  years;  but  finding  this  task  to  grow  upon  his 
bands,  and  despairing  of  ever  executing  it  to  his  own  satis- 
faction,  be  abandoned  the  purpose  of  correcting,  and  re- 
solved to  write  the  poem  over  anew  upon  a  somewhat  dif* 
ferent  and  enlarged  plan.  He  finished  two  books  of  his 
new  poem,  a  few  copies  of  which  were  printed  for  the  usi6 
t>f  the  author  and  certain  friends ;  of  the  first  book  in  1757, 
of  the  second  in  1765.  He  finislied  also  a  good  part  of  a 
third  book,  and  an  introduction  to  a  fourth;  but  his  most 
munificent  and  excellent  friend,  conceiving  all  that  is  ex- 
ecuted of  the  new  work,  too  inconsiderable  to  supply  the 
place,  and  supersede  the  republication  of  the  original 
poem,  and  yet  too  valuable  to  be  withheld  from  the  public, 
has  caused  them  both  to  be  inserted  in  the  collection  of  his 
poems.  Dr.  Akenside,  in  this  work,  it  has  been  said,  has 
done  for  the  noble  author  of  the  "  Characteristics,**  what 
Lucretius  did  for  Epicurus  formerly;  that  is, .  he  has  dis« 
played  and  embellished  his  philosophic  system,  that  system 
which  has  the  first-beautiful  and  the  first-good  for  its  foun- 
dation, with  all  the  force  of  poetic  colouring ;  but,  on  the 
other  hand,  it  has  been  justly  objected  that  his  picture  of 
man  is  unfinished.  The  immortality  of  the  soul  is  not  once 
tinted  throughout  the  poem.  With  regard  to  its  merit  as 
a  poem,  Dr.  Johnson  has  done  ample  justice  to  it,  while 
be  speaks  with  more  severity  of  his  other  poems*  It  is 
not  easy  to  guess,  says  that  eminent  critic,  why  he  ad- 
dicted himself  so  diligently  to  lyric  poetry,  having  neither 
the  ease  and  airiness  of  the  lighter,  nor  the  vehemence  and 
elevation  of  the  grander  ode.  We  may  also  refer  tlte 
reader  to  an  elegant  criticism  prefixed  by  Mrs.  Barbauld  to 
an  ornamented  edition  of  the  *^  Pleasures  of  Imagination/* 
12mo,  1795. 

His  medical  writings  require  some  notice.  Besides  his 
**  Dissertatio  de  Dysenteria,"  which  has  been  twice  trans- 
lated into  English,  he  wrote  in  the  Philosophical  Transac- 
tions, K  ^^Observations  on  the  Origin  and  Use  of  the 
Lymphatic  vessels,"-  part  of  his  Gulstonian  lectures,  1755 
and  1757.  Dr.  Alexander  Monro,  the  second  of  that  name 
at  Edinburgh,  having  taken  notice  of  some  inaccuracies  in 
this  paperi  in  his  ^^  Observations  Anatomical  and  Physical,'* 

«718  A  K  E  N  S  I  D  E. 

Ih.  Akenside  published  a  sman  paqaphlet,  1756,  in  his  own 
vindication.  2.  ^^  An  account  of  a  Blow  on  the  Heart  and  its 
cfFects,"  1763.  He  published  also,  3.  "  Oratio  Harvei- 
ana,"  4to,  1760;  and  three  papers  in  the  first  volume  of  the 
Medical  Transactions.  Being  appointed  Krohnian  lecta- 
rer,  he  chose  for  his  subject  "  The  history  of  the  Revival 
of  Learning,"  and  read  three  lectures  on  it  before  the  col- 
it'ge.  But  this  he  gave  up,  as  was  supposed,  in  disgust ; 
some  one  of  the  college  having  objected  that  he  had  chosen 
a  subjecyt  foreign  to  the  institution.  He  wrote  also,  in 
Dodsley's  Museum,  vol.  I,  on  "  Correctness,"  "  Table  of 
Modern  Fame;"  and  in  vol.  II,  "A  Letter  from  a  Swiss 
Gentleman."  ^ 

AKIBA,  a  famous  Rabbin,  who  flourished  a  little  after 
the  destruction  of  Jerusalem  by  Titus,  was  a  Jew  only  by 
the  mother's  side,  and  it  is  pretended  tliat  his  father  was 
descended  from  Sisera,  general  of  the  army  of  Jabin  king 
of  Tyre.  Akiba,  for  the  first  forty  years  of  his  life,  kept 
the  flocks  of  Calba  Schwa,  a  rich  citizen  of  Jerusalem/ whose 
daughter  is  said  to  have  iuduced  him  to  study  in  hopes  of 
gaining  her  band,  if  he  should  make  any  considerable  pro* 
gress.  He  applied  himself  accordingly  to  his  studies  with 
so  much  assiduity  and  success,  for  upwards  of  twenty  years, 
that  he  was  considered  as  one  of  the  most  able  teachei^  in 
Israel,  and  was  foUowcHl  by  a  prodigious  number  of  scho« 
lars.  He  declared  himself  for  the  impostor  Barchochebas^ 
and  asserted  that  he  was  the  true  Messiah ;  but  the  troops 
which  the  emperor  Hadrian  sent  against  the  Jews,  who  un* 
der  the  conduct  of  tbis^  false  Messiah  had  committed  horrid 
massacres,  exterminated  this  faction,  and  Akiba  was  taken 
and  put  to  death  with  great  cruelty.  He  lived  an  hundred 
and  twenty  years,  and  was  buried  with  his  wife  in  a  cave 
upon  a  mountain  not  far  from  Tiberias.  The  Jewish  wTiters 
enlarge  much  upon  his  praises,  and  hU  sayings  ate  often 
mentioned  in  the  Mishua  and  Talmud.  When  he  died, 
they  say,  the  glory  of  the  law  vanished  away.  This  hap- 
pened in  the  :year  135,  He  was  in  truth  a  gross  impostor^ 
and  the  accounts  banded  down  ta  us  of  him  are  entitled  to 
very  little  credit.  He  is  isaid  to  have  forged  a  work  under 
the  name  of  the  patriarch  Abraham,  entitled  <^  Sepher  Je* 

zirah,"  or,  ^^  The  3ook  of  tbef  Creation,"  which  was  tran^ 

^  ..  • 

*  l&iog.  Brit.-— Jolinyon's  Poets.— Pope's  Workd,  Bowles's  edition  j  see  Iw1eK« 
»*-V3atr*t  Lectures.-^MasoQ's  Life  of  G/ay.-— Gent.  Mag,  i^dtx,  and  vo!.  LXIIf. 
9^5,  LXIV,  J2,  115,  «(Ku 

A  k  t  ft  A. 


llAted  into  Latin  by  Postel,  and  pnblisfaed  atP^risin  ti52y 
8vo,  at  Mantua  in  4to,  and  at  Basil  in  folio,  1587.  Scnne 
charge  bim  also  with  having  altered  the  Hebrew  text  of  the 
Bible,  in  order  to  contei^  with  the  ChristiaDs  on  certain 
points  of  chronology.  *  ♦ 

ALABASTER  (Wiluam),  an  EngKsb  divine^  was  bom 
in  Suffolk,  and  educated  in  Trinity  college,  Cambridge, 
where  he  took  the  degree  of  M.  A.  and  was  afterwards  in- 
corporated of  the  university  of  Oxford,  Jnn^  7,  I592r. 
Wood  says,  he  was  the  rarest  poet  and  Grecian  that  any  qn^ 
age  or  nation  produced.  He  attended  the  unfortunate  earl 
of  Essex  in  his  voyage  to  Cadiz,  as  his  chaplain ;  and  en- 
tertaining some  doubts  on  religion,  he  was  prevailed  upon 
to  declare  himself  a  Roman  Catholic,  and  published  ^^  Seven 
Motives  for  his  Conversion,"  but  he  soon  discovered  many 
more  for  returning  to  the  church  of  England.  He  applied 
himself  much  tp  caballistic  learning,  the  student^  of  which 
consider  principally  the  eombination  of  particular  words, 
letters,  and  numbers,  and  by  this,  th^y  pretend  to  see  clearly 
into  the  sense  of  scripture.  In  their  opinion  there  is  not 
a  word,  letter,^  number,  or  accent,  in  the  law,  without  some 
mystery  in  it,  and  they  even  venture  to  Ibok  into  futurity 
by  this  study.  Alabaster  made  great  proficiency  in  it,  and 
obtained  considerable  promotion  in  the  church.  He  was 
Blade,  prebendary  of  St.  PauPs,  doctor  of  divinity,  and  rec- 
tor of  Tharfield  in  Hertfordshire.  The  text  of  the  sermon 
which  he  preached  for  his  doctor's  degree,  was  the  first 
verse  of  the  first  chapter  of  the  first  book  of  ChronicleS)^ 
namely  'f  Adam,  Seth,  Enoch,''  which  be  explained  in  the 
mystical  sense,  Adam  mgnifying, misery y  &c.  He  died  April 
1&40.  His  principal  work  was  ^^  Lexicon  Pentaglotton, 
Hebraicum,  Chaldaicum,  Syriacum,  &c."  Lond.  163.7^ 
fql.  He  published  also,  in  1621,  ^^  Commentarius  de  bes^ 
tia  Apocalyptica,'*  and  other  works  of  that  stamp.  As  a 
poet  he  has  been  more  highly  applauded.  He  wrote  the 
Latin  tragedy  of  ^'  Roxana,"  which  bears  date  1632^  and 
WHS  acted,  according  to  the  custom  of  the  times,  in  Trinity 
college  hall,  Cambridge*  "  If,"  says  Dr.  Johnson,  in  his 
life  of  Milton,  **  we  produced  any  thing  worthy  of  notice 
before  the  elegies  of  Milton,  it  was  perhaps  Alabaster's 
Koxana.''  He  also  beganr  to  describe,  in  a  Latin  poon  en^ 
titled  **  Elisceis,"  the  chief  transactions  of  queen  EMto^ 

•»  Gen.  Diet;— Iiardaert  Works,  vol.  ITIl.  pp.  W,  145,  t4«. 

Vol.  L  T 


beth^s  reign,  but  left  it  unfinished  at  the  time  of  his  deaths 
The  manuscript  was  for  some  time  in  the  possession  of 
Theodore  Haak,  and  some  manuscript  verses  of  his  are  in 
the  library  of  Gonvil  and  Caius  college,  Cambridge^  and 
the  Elisceis  is  in  that  of  Emmanuel/ 

ALAIN  (Chartier).     See  CHARTIER. 

A4.AIN.     SeeALANUS. 

ALAMANNI  (Luigi,  or  Lewis),  an  eminent  Italian 
poet,  was  bom  of  a  noble  family  at  Florence,  in  1475,  and 
passed  the  early  part  of  his  life  in  habits  of  friendship  with 
Bernardo  and  Cosimo  Rucellai,  Trissino,  and  other  scholar* 
who  had  devoted  themselves  more  particularly  to  the  study 
of  classical  literature.  .  Of  the  satires  and  lyric  poems  of 
Alamanni,  several  were  produced  under  the  pontificate  of 
Leo  X.  In  the  year  1516,  he  married  Alessandra  Serristori, 
a  lady  of  great  beauty,  by  whom  he  had  a  numerous  off- 
spring. The  rank  and  talents  of  Alamanni  recommended 
him  to  the  notice  and  friendship  of  the  cardinal  Julio  de 
Medici,  who,  during  the  latter  part  of  the  pontificate  of 
Leo  X.  governed  on  the  behalf  of  that  pontiff  the  city  of 
f  lorence.  The  rigid  restrictions  imposed  by  the  cardinal 
on  the  inhabitants,  by  which  they  were,  among  other  marks 
of  subordination,  prohibited  from  carrying  arms  under  se- 
vere penalties,  excited  the  indignation  of  many  of  the 
younger  citizens  of  noble  families,  who  could  ill  brook  the 
loss  of  their  independence;  and  among  the  rest,  of  Ala- 
manni, who,  forgetting  the  friend  in  the  patriot,  not  only 
joined  in  a  conspiracy  against  the  cardinal,  immediately 
after  the  death  of  Leo  X.  but  is  said  to  have  undertaken 
to  assassinate  him  with  his  own  hand.  His  associates  were 
Zanobio  Buondelmonti,  Jacopa  da  Diaceto,  Antonio  Bru- 
cioli,  and  several  other  persons,  of  distinguished  talents, 
who  appear  to  have  been  desirous  of  restoring  the  ancient 
liberty  of  the  republic,  without  sufficiently  reflecting  on 
the  mode  by  which  it  was  to  be  accomplished.  The  de« 
signs  of  the  conspirators,  however,  were  discovered,  and 
Alamanni  was  under  the  necessity  of  saving  himself  by 
flight.  After  many  adventures  and  vicissiti^des,  in  the 
course  of  which  he  returned  to  Florence,  and  took  an 
active  part  in  the  commotions  that  agitated  his  country, 
he  finally  withdrew  to  France,  where  he  met  with  a  kind 
and  honourable  reception  from  Francis  I.  who  was  a  great 

1  Gen.  nkt— Wood's  Athen».-*FBUer'i  Woiihie8.-^T«Ud*i  «datioa  of  SipcB* 
-fcr,n»l.  T.  p.  100.  VIII.  p.  34, 

A  L  A  M  AN  N  1  Hi 

admirer  of  Italian  poetry,  and  not  only  conferred  on  him 
the  order  of  St.  Michael,  but  employed  him  in  niany  im- 
portant missions. 

On  an  embassy  from  Francis  I.  to  the  emperor  Charles 
v.  Alamanni  gave  a  singular  instance  of  his  talents  and 
promptitude.  Among  the  several  poems  which  he  had 
composed  in  the  praise  of  Francis  I.  there  was  one  pretty 
severe  upon  the  emperor,  wherein,  amongst  several  other 
satirical  strokes,  there  is  the  following,  where  the  cock  says 
to  the  eagle, 

L*  Aquila  gri&gna 
Che  per  piu  divorar  due  beechi  porta. 

Two  crooked  bills  the  ravenous  eagle  bears^ 
The  belter  to  devour. 

The  emperor  had  read  this  piece;  and  when  Alamanni  now 
appeared  before  hit%  and  pronounced  a  fine  speech  in 
his  praise,  beginning  every  period  with  the  word  Aquila, 
he  heard  him  with  great  attention,  and  at  the  conclusion 
thereof  made  no  reply,  but  repeated 

L'Aquila  gri&gna 
Che  per  piu  divorar  due  beechi  porta. 

This,  however,  did  not  disconcert  Alamanni,  who  imme* 
diately  made  the  following  answer :  "  Sir,  yrheti  I  com- 
posed these  lines,  it  was  as  a  poet,  who  is  permitted  to  use 
fictions ;  but  now  I  speak  as  an  ambassador,  who  is  boui^d 
in  honour  to' tell  the  truth.  I  spoke  then  as  a  youth,  I 
speak  now  as  a  man  advanced  in  years :  I  was  then  swayed 
by  rage  and  passion^  arising  from  the  desolate  condition 
of  my  country;  but  now  I  am  calm  and  free  from  passion.** 
Charles,  rising  from  his  seat,  and  laying  his  hand  on  the 
shoulder  of  the  ambassador,  told  him  with  great  kindness 
that  he  had  no  cause  to  regret  the  loss  of  his  country,  hav« 
ing  found  such  a  patron  as  Francis  I.  adding,  that  to  a 
virtuous  man  every  place  is  his  country. 

On  the  marriage  of  Henry  duke  of  Orleans,  afterwards 
Henry  11.  with  Catherine  de  Medici,  Alamanni  was  ap- 
pointed her  maitre  d'hotel ;  and  the  reward  of  his  services 
enabled  him  to  secure  to  himself  great  emoluments,  and  to 
establish  his  family  in  an  honourable  situation  in  France, 
where  he  died  at  Amboise,  of  a  dysentery,  April  18,  1556. 
His  principal  works  are,  1.  **  Opere.Toscane,'*  a  collec- 
tion of  poems  on  different  subjects,  and  ^^  Antigone,*'  A 
tragedy,  Lyons,  1532  and  1533,  8vo,  2  vols.;  Florence, voU 

T  a 

ITl  A  t  A  M  A  N  N  t. 

I.  llfl^a;  VftiieCySvohL  1533^1542.  Notwithstanding tiie(9# 
Cre^ueol  editionsi  ifaey  were  prohibited  in  the  pontificate  of 
Clement  VII.  both  at  Florence  and  Ronie,  in  the  latter  of 
wbicb  plac«»  tiney  were  publicly  byurnt.  2.  **  La  Coltiva- 
Kioiie^"  Piiri$9  1 64€,  a  beautiful  edition  corrected  by  the 
Ibutbof  and  dedid^ted  to  Fraiicis  1.  again  reprinted  the  si^ne 
year  at  Florence ;  and  frequently  reprinted,  particularly  a 
fiQtrect  a&d  fineediilion^  in  large  410^  by  Comino,^  at  Paduaj 
1718^  with  tl»e  Api  of  Rucellai^  and  the  epigrams  of  Ala<* 
manni;  and  at  Bologne  in  1746.  This  work,  whi^h  Ala* 
manni  conapleted  in  six  books,  and  which  he  appears  to 
have  undertaken  rather  in  competition  with,  than  in  imita- 
tion of,  the  Georgics,  is  written  not  only  with  great  ele-» 
gance  and  correctness  of  style,  but  with  a  very  extensive 
knowledge  of  the  subject  on  which  he  professea  to  treat, 
apd  contains  naany  passages  which  mf^y  bear  a  comparison 
with  the  most  celebrated  parts  of  his  immortal  predecessor. 
3.  "  Girone  ij  Cortese,"  an  heroic  poem  in  24  cantos, 
Paris,  1548,  4to;  Venice,  1549.  This  work  is  little  more 
than  a  transposition  into  the  Italian  ottava  i^ma,  of  a  French 
romance  entitled  Gyron  Courtois,  which  Alaomnni  under- 
took ^t  the  request  of  Francis- 1,  a  short  time  before  .the 
death  of  that  monarch,  as  appears  from  the  information  of 
the  author  himself  in  his  dedication  to  Henry  IL  in  which 
he  has  described  the  origin  and  laws  of  the  British  knights 
errant,  or  hnights  of  the  round  table.  4,  "  La  Avarchide,'* 
or  tbe^iege  of  Bourges,  the  Avaricum  of  Csesat,  an  epfcj 
»ko  in  24  cantos,  Florence,  1170,  4to.  The  plan  and  con - 
diiot  of  it  is  so  closely  founded  on  that  of  the  Iliad,  that  if 
we  excej^  only  the  alteration  of  the  names,  it  appears  ra- 
ther to  be  a  translation  than  an  original  work.  Neither  of 
these  have  contributed  much  to  the  author^s  fame,  which 
nsts  chiefly  on  *«  La  Coltivazione.'*  5.  "  Flora,"  a  co- 
medy in  five  acts^  and  in  that  verse  which  the  Italians  call 
Saruccwli,  Florence,  1556  and  1601,  8vo. 

Alamanni  left  two  sons,  who  shared  in  the  goOd  fortune 
due  to  his  talents  and  reputation.  Baptist  was  almoner  ta 
queen  Catherine  de  Medicis,  afterwards  king*s  counsellor, 
ftbbot  of  Belle-ville,  bishop  of  Bazas,  and  afterwards  of 
Macon;  he  died  in  1581.  Nicholas,  the  other  son;  was  a 
knight  of  St.  Michael,  captain  of  the  royal  guards,  and 
Bdaster  of  the  palace.  Two  other  persons  of  the  name  of 
Xouia  Alamanni,  likewise  natives  of  Florence,  were  dis^* 

A  L  A  M  A.  N  N  I.  871 

tiftguisbed  in  the  republic  of  letters.  One  was  a  colonel  in 
tbe  French  service,  and  in  1^91  consul  of  the  atoademy  df 
Florence.  Salvino  Salvini  speaks  of  him  in  ^^  Pastes  CoiH 
sulaires."  The  otlier  lived  about  the  same  time,  and  wm 
n  member  of  the  same  academy.  He  wrote  three  tst\n 
eclogues  in  the  ^^  Carmina  illustrium  Poetarum  Italoruoiy*' 
and  a  funeral  oration  in  the  collection  of  ^^  Floi^entiii^ 
PrQse,^'  vol.  IV.  He  was  the  grandson  of  Lndovico  AIobmb^ 
pi,  one  of  the  6ve  brothers  of  the  celebrated  poet«  * 
ALAMOS  (Balthazer),  a  Spanish  writer,  born  at  Me* 
dina  del  Campo,  in  Castile,  about  the  end  of  the  sixteenth 
century.  After  having  studied  the  law  at  Salamanc»)  h0 
entered  into  the  service  of  Anthony  Perez,  oecret^y  0f 
state  under  Philip  II.  He  was  in  high  esteem  and  confU 
deuce  with  his  master,  upon  which  account  be  was  im« 
prisoned  after  the  disgrace  of  this  minister,  And  kept  ia 
confinement  eleven  years,  when  Philjp  UI«  coming  to  tbd 
throne,  set  him  at  liberty,  acc(Mrdiog  to  the  oi'ders  given  by 
his  father  in  his  will.  Alamos  continued  in  a  pr^^e  ea** 
pacity,  till  the  duke  of  Olivare^^  the  favourite  of  PhiHp  IV« 
called  him  to  public  employments*  He  was  apppiotedad* 
vocate-^geueral  in  the  court  of  criminal  caused,  and  i^  ihft 
council  of  war.  He  was  afterwards  chosen  oiember  of  th# 
council  of  the  Indies,  and  then  of  t|ie  counoil  of  the  king^i 
patrimony^  and  a  knight  of  the  order  of  St.  Jamea^  He  was  % 
man  of  wit  as  well  as  judgment|  but  his  writings  wer^  su*  his  conversation.  He  died  in  tjbe  88th  ye^r  of  hi^ 
age.  His  Spanish  translation  of  Tacitus,  and  the  apherismfl 
which  he  added  in  the  margin,  gained  him  great  reputiH 
tion ;  the  aphorisms^  however,  have  been  censured  ^y  §0|n9t 
authors,  particularly  by  Mr.  Amelot,  who  says,  <<  tb^^t  ifi-^ 
stead,  of  being  more  concise  and  sententious  than  th^  teicV 
the  words  of  the  text  are  always  more  so  than  the  aphon. 
rism."  This  work  was  published  at  Madrid  in  1614i,and 
was  to  have  been  followed,  as  mentiofied  in  the  king's  pri^ 
vilege^  with  a  commentary^  which,  however,  has  never  yet 
appeared.  The  author  composed  the  whole  during  his  im-* 
prisonment  .  He  left  several  other  works  which  have  neyer 
yet  been  printed.  * 

1  Principally  from  |loseoe>s  Le#,  asd  Pii]i|;aepe's  lifo  of  Alama^ni,  i|»  ^Ipp 
UniverseUe. — (Sen.  Ditt. — Monri^ 
$  Gen.  Pictrf-Morejj^ 

878  ALA  N. 

ALAN  (op  Lynn),  in  Latin  Alanus  de  Lynna,  a  famous 
divine  of  the  fifteenth  cenitufy,  was  born  at  Lynn,  in  the 
county  of  Norfolk,  and  educated  in  the  university  of  Cam* 
bridge;  where  he  applied  himself  diligently  to  the  study 
of  philosophy  and  divinity,  and,  having  taken  the  degree  of 
doctor,  became  an  eminent  preacher.  Bale,  who  giveft 
Alan  an  advantageous  character,  yet  blames  him  for  using 
allegorical  and  moral  eicpositions  of  scripture ;  while  Pits 
commends  the  method  he  took  to  explain  the  holy  scrip* 
tures,  which  was  by  comparing  them  with  themselves,  and 
having  recourse  to  the  ancient  fathers  of  the  church.  But 
he  is^more  generally  celebrated  for  the  useful  pains  he  took 
in  making  indexes  to  most  of  the  books  he  read.  Of  these 
Bale  saw  a  prodigious  quantity  in  the  library  of  the  Carme* 
lites  at  Norwich.  Alan  flourished  about  the  year  1420, 
and  wrote  several  pieces,  particularly  **  De  vario  Scrip* 
tura  sensu  ;**  **  Moralia  Bibliorum ;"  "  Sermones  notabi- 
Ics  ;'•  "  Elucidarium  Scripturae ;"  "  Prelectiones  Theolo- 
giC3B  ;^*  *^  Elucidationes  Aristotelis.^'  At  length  he  be-* 
came  a  Carmelite,  in  the  town  of  his  nativity,  and  was  bu^ 
ried  in  the  convent  of  his  order. ' 

ALAN,  of  Te)Vkesbury,  another  English  writer,  who 
flourished  about  the  year  1177,  and  died  in  1201.  He 
wrote  *♦  De  vita  et  exilio  Thomae  ^antuarensis,'*  of  the 
Efe  and  banishment  of  Thomas  a  Becket,  archbishop  of 

ALAN,  or  ALLEN,  or  ALLYN  (William),  cardinal 

{>riest  of  the  Roman  church,  and  styled  Cardinal  of  £ng-» 
and,  was  the  son  of  John  Allen,  by  Jennet  Lyster,  sister 
to  Thomas  Lyster,  of  Westby,  in  Yorkshire,  and  was  born 
at  Rossal  in  Lancashire,  in  1532.  His  father,  according  to 
Camden,  was  a  gentleman  of  a  reputable  family,  and  had 
him  educated  at  home  until  his  fifteenth  year,  1347,  when 
he  was  entered  of  Oriel  college,  Oxford,  and  had  £Dr  his 
tutor  Morgan  Philips,  or  Philip  Morgan,  a  zealous  Roman 
Catholic,  and  usually  called  the  Sophister,  which  was  a 
title,  in  the  learning  of  those  times,  highly  honourable. 
Young  Alan  made  a  rapid  progress  both  in  logic  and  phi- 
losophy, and  was  elected  a  fellow  of  his  college,  and  took 
his  bachelor's  degree  in  1550.  In  the  Act  celebrated  July 
16,  he  went  out  junior  of  the  act,  having  completed  hit 
degree  of  M.  A.  with   the  distinguished    reputation  of 

1  Biog.  Brit.— Tanner.— rFaller'f  Wort]M6f.«-Balt  i|nd  Piti, 
t  Ibid,  and  Care  Td.  11, 


ALAN.  fi7d 

great  parts,  learning,  and  eloquence.  Of  this  we  have  a 
proof  in  his  being  chosen  principal  of  St.  Mary  hall,  in 
1556,  when  only  twenty-four  years  of  age,  and  the  saoie^ 
year  he  served  the  office  of  proctor.  In  1558,  he  was  made 
canon  of  York ;  but  on  the  accession  of  queen  Elizabeth^ . 
when  the  reformed  religion  was  again  established,  although 
he  remained  for  a  short  time  at  Oxford,  yet,  as  be  refused 
to  comply  with  the  queen's  visitors  in  taking  the  oaths,  &c. 
his  fellowship  was  declared  void;  and  in  1560  he  found  it 
necessary  to  leave  England,  and  retire  to  Louvain,  then  a  ^ 
general  receptacle  of  the  expatriated  English  Catholics,  and 
where  they  had  erected  a  college.  Here  his  talents  and 
zeal  recommended  him  to  his  countrymen,  who  looked  up 
.to  him  as  their  supporter,  while  they  were  charmed  with 
his  personal  appearance,  and  easy  address,  chastened  by  a 
.dignified  gravity  of  manners. 

He  now  began  to  write  in  support  of  the  cause  for  which 
Jie  had  left  bis  country;,  and  bis  first  piece,  published  in 
.1565,  was  entitled  ^^  A  defence  of  the  doctrine  of  Catho- 
lics, concerning  Purgatory  and  Prayers  for  the  Dead,"  8vo. 
This  was  intended  as  an  answer  to  the  celebrated  bishop 
Jewell's  work  on  the  same  subject;  and  if  elegance  of  style, 
and  somewhat  of  plausibility  of  matter,  could  have  pre- 
vailed, it  would  have  served  his  cause  very  essentially  ;  but, 
unluckily,  of  all  the  subjects  which  Jewell  had  handled, 
there  was  none  in  which  he  reasoned  with  such  irresistible 
force.  Alan's  work  vrss  at  the  same  time  answered  by  Dr. 
William  Fxilke;  but  whatever  its  fate  in  England,  it  pro- 
cured him  the  highest  reputation  abroad,  among  the  chiefis 
of  .his  party,  who,  as  a  mark  of  their  confidence,  put  under 
his  care  a  young  man,  afterwards  sir  Christopher  Blount, 
and  who  was  concerned  in  the  earl  of  Essex's  insurrection. 

.The  care  of  this  pupil,  and  hi«.  constant  application  to 
stud}^,  having  injured  his  health,  his  physicians  recom- 
mended him  to  try  his  native  air;  and  with  this  advice,  aU 
though  it  subjected  him  to  personal  danger,  he  complied^ 
and  arrived  in  Lancashire  sometime  in  1565.  He  had 
scarcely  reached  this  place,  before  he  began  to  exert  his 
-powers  of  persuasion  in  the  making  of  converts ;  and  in  or*; 
der  to  promote  this  object,  wrote  and  circulated  little  trea^ 
tises  wherever  they  were  likely  to  be  successful.  This 
open  hostility  to  the  church  alarmed  the  magistrates,  and 
they  were  in  search  of  him,  when  he  retired  to  the  neigh- 
bourhood of  Oxford,  »nd  wrote  a  kind  of  apology  for  bia 


:?«Q  ALAN. 

psurty,  under  &e  title  of  ^'-Biief  Reasons  concerning  tto 
Catholic  Faith.''  Some,-  however,  think  that  this  was  writr 
ten  at  the  duke  of  Norfolk's  house^  in  Norfolk,  where  it  iis 
certain  be  was  for  some  time  concealed.  It  appears  like- 
wise, that  he  returned  to  the  neighbourhood  of  Oxford, 
find  distributed  his  pamphlet  with  much  boldness ;  and  was 
so  fearless  in  bis  zeal,  that  he  refused  a  convenient  oppor» 
tunity  of  a  ship  going  to  the  Nedierlands.  He  now  ven^ 
tured  to  establish  ^  correspondence  with  his  old  friends  in 
the  university,  who  were  considerably  numerous,  and  suc«- 
ceeded  in  bringing  over  one  who  had  formerly  been  a  Pa- 
pist, but  was  now  of  the  establishment  This^so  exasperated 
the  reratioQs  of  this  person,  thkt  they  forced  Alan  to  fly  to 
Loudon,  whence  in  1 568  he  made  his  escape  into  Flanders. 
It  has  been  supposed  that  some  friends  in  power,  who 
knew  him  formerly,  connived  at  his  easy  departure^  It  is 
<sven  said  that  sir  Christopher  Hatton  bore  a  regard  for 
)iim,  in  consequence  of  having  received  part  of  bis  educa^ 
tion  in  Sl  Mary's  hall,  while  Alan  was  principal;  and 
that  Alan  repaid  this  kindness  with  such  honourable  men* 
lion  of  sir  Christopher  abroad,  as  occasioned  some  very  in- 
vidious r<^flectious  against  the  latter  at  home. 

Be  this  as  it  ms^y,  Alan,  having  arrived  safely  in  the  Ne- 
therlands, went  to  MecUiii^  in  the  duchy  of  Brabant,  where 
)ie  read  a  divinity  lecture  in  one  of  the  monasteries  with 
great  applause.  Thence  be  went  to  Doway,  where  he  he- 
came  Doctor  in  Divinity,  and  laboured  very  assiduously  in 
founding  a  seminary  for  the  support  of  English  scholars ; 
and,  knowing  how  obnoxious  such  institutions  were  in  Eng- 
land, wrote  a  book  in  defence  of  them.  While  thus  em- 
ployed^ a  ci^onry  of  Caoibray  was  conferred  pn  him,  as  a 
reward  for  his  zeal.  ErythraeiiB  (Jean  Vincent  Le  Roux) 
in  bis  Pinacotheca,  giresus  some  reason  to  thtok  that  a  pre- 
tended miracle  contributed  to  this  promotion,  byinspiring  his 
patrons  with  an  idea  of  the  sacredoess  of  his  person.  The 
miracle  io,  than  when  in  England,  a  person  who  knew  him 
well  was  employed  to  apprehend  him,  but  had  such  a  mist  be- 
fore his  eyes  when  he  came  for  that  purpose,  as  to  pass  him 
without  knowing  him.  Such  miracles,  however,  are  capa- 
}>le  of  a  very  easy  explaaattion. 

In  this  seminary  of  Doway,  many  books  were  composed 
to  justify  the  Popish  reUgioii,  avud  to  answer  the  books 
written  in  defence  of  the  chwrch  of  EnglaiKi,  which  occa- 
fipned  a  proclamaiioa  £roa  the  queen,  {qrbidding '  the 

-  -  >--^ 

ALAN.  S81 

Doway  Tiooks  to  be  either  sold  or  read ;  and  we  sball  soon 
jee  that  they  were  not  merely  books  of  religious  contro*- 
versy.  In  1569,  Alan  appointed  one  BrUtovr  to  be  mode^ 
rator  of  studies  at  EKowsiy,  the  same,  it  is  supposed,  whom 
be  gained  over  when  in  the  neighboudiood  of  Oxford. 
Not  kmg  ofter^  Alan  was  appoitlted  canon  of  Rheinis, 
tbroogh  die  interest  of  the  Guises,  and  to  this  city  be  trans* 
ferred  the  seminary  which  bad  been  settled  at  Doway;  a 
matter,  however,  not  of  choice,  as  the  then  governor  of 
die  Netherlands,  Don  Lewis  de  Kequesensi  had  x>bliged 
the  English  fugitives  to  withdraw  out  of  his  government. 
In  the  mean  time,  AJan  labom*ed  incessantly  in  the  ser«- 
lice  of  his  party,  by  writing  various  treatises  in  defence  of 
the  doctrines  or  practices  of  the  Papists,  by  licensing  and 
recommeading  many  books  written  by  others,  and  by  many^ 
jouf ileys  into  Spain  and  Italy.  He  also  procured  a  semi^ 
nary  W  be  established,  in  Rome,  and  two  in  Spain,  for  the 
edueadon  and  support  of  the  English  youth. 

Ill  England,  be  was  justly  reputed  an  enemy  to  the  state^ 
And  ail  coniespondence  with  him  was  considered  as  aspe** 
cies  of  high  treason ;  and  Thomas  Alfield,  a  Jesuit,  was 
exeeuted  for  bringing  some  of  his  writings  into  England, 
and 'particularly  bis  ^*  Defence  of  the  Twelve  Martyrs  ia 
mie  Year.^'  In  this  work  he  insinuates,  in  language  which, 
til  those  days,  mnst  have  been  very  well  understood,  that 
queen  Elizaibeth,  by  reason  of  her  heresy,  had  fallen  from 
her  sovereignty.  The  indictment  of  Ai5eld,  taken  fpom 
tiie  treasonable  expressions  in  these  writings,  was  among 
the  papers  of  the  loid  treasurer  Burleigh. 

Alan  therefore,  having  overstepped  the  bounds  of  re- 
ligious controversy,  was  now  determined  to  mesesures  of 
more  open  hostility.  The  celebrated  Parsons,  the  Jesuit, 
who  was  his  great  friend  and  counsellor,  is  supposed  to 
have  suggested  to  him  the  project  of  invading  England^ 
For  many  years  there  had  been  differences,  discontents, 
and  even  injuries  committed  between  the  Englitvh  and 
Spaniards;  and  now  Al^rn,  and  some  fugitive  English  no* 
blemen,  persuaded  Philip  IL  to  undertake  the  conquest  of 
England.  To  &DiUtate  this,  die  pope,  Stxtus  V.  renewed 
the  excommunication  thundered  against  queen  Elizabeth 
by  his  predecessor  Pius  V.  While  this  was  in  agitation, 
sir  William  Stanley,  oommander  of  the  English  and  Irish 
garrison  at  Daventer,>  betrayed  it  to  the  Spaniards,  and 
went  into  th^r  service  ivith  i  200  men ;  and  Rowland  York^ 

a«2      '    .  ALA  N. 

who  bad  been  intrasted  with  a  strong  fort  in  ^e  trnms 
country,  performed  the  same  act  of  treachery.  Akm,  no 
longer  the  conscientious  controversialist)  wrote  a  defence 
of  this  base  proceeding,  and  sent  sieveral  priests  to  Stanley, 
in  order  to  instruct  those  he  had  drawn  over  to  the  king  of 
Spain's  service.  Alan's  defence,  which  appeared  the  year 
•after  these  transactions,  1588,  was  first  printed  in  English 
in  the  form  of  a  letter,  and  afterwards  in  Latin,  under  the 
title  of  "  Epistola  de  Daventriae  ditione,"  Cracov.  His 
only  argument,  if  it  deserve  the  name,  was,  that  sir  WiU 
liam  Stanley  was  no  traitor,  because  he  had  only  delivered 
to  the  king  of  Spain  a.  city  which  was  his  own  before;  and 
he  exhorts  all  Englishmen,  in  the  service  of  the  states,  to 
'follow  his  example. 

Such  writings,  however,  were  too  valuable  to  the  popish 
cause,  to  go  unrewarded.  Accordingly  on  July  28,  1587| 
Alan  was  created  cardinal  by  the  title  of  St*  Martin  in 
Montibus ;  and  soon  after,  the  king  of  Spain  gave  him  an 
abbey  of  great  value  in  the  kingdom  of  Naples,  with  assur-^ 
ances  of  greater  pretferment.  In  April  1588,  he  composed 
that  work,  entitled  The  Admonition,  which  rendered  him 
most  famous  abroad,  and  infamous  at  home.  It  consisted 
of  two  parts;  the  first  explaining  the  pope's  bull  for  the 
excommunication  and  deprivation  of  queen  Elizabeth;-  the 
second,  exhorl|ng  the  nobility  and  people  of  England  to 
desert  her,  and  take  up  arms  in  favour  of  the  Spaniards^ 
It  contains  the  grossest  abuse  of  the  queen,  and  threatens 
the  nobility  with  judgments  from  heaven,  and  devastation 
by  the  Spaniards,  unless  they  joined  the  forces  of  Philip; 
it  boasts  of  the  vast  strength  of  these  forces,  and  asserts 
that  th^y  had  more  good  captains  than  Elizabeth  had  sol- 
diers ;  that  the  saints  in  heaven  all  prayed  for  victory,  and 
that  the  holy  angels  guarded  them.  Of  this  libel,  well  cal- 
culated at  that  time  to  effect  its  purpose,  many  thousand 
copies  were  printed  at  Antwerp,  in  order  to  have  been  put 
on  board  the  Arniada,  and  circulated  in  England.  But  the 
Armada,  it  is  well  known,  completely  failed,  and  covered 
its  projectors  with  di^race  and  destructioii ;  and  these 
books  were  so  carefully  destroyed,  that  a  genuine  copy  was 
scarcely  to  be  found. 

No  part  of  the  failure  of  this  vast  enterprise,  however, 
was  attributed  to  Alan,  to  whom  the  king  of  Spain  now, 
gave  the  archbishopric  of  Mecklin,  and  would  have  had 
him  reside  there,  as  a  place  where  he  might  more  e&cta>» 

ALAN.  28S 

ally  promote  the  popish  and  Spanish  interests  in  England ; 
but  the  pope  had  too  high  an  opinion  of  his  merit  to  suffer 
him  to  leave  Rome,  where,  therefore,  he  continued  to  ia« . 
hour  in  the  service  of  his  countrymen,  and  in  promoting  the 
Catholic  faith.    Some  have  asserted,  that  be  and  sir  Francis 
Inglefield  assisted  Parsons,  the  Jesuit,  in  composing  hi^ 
treasonable  work  concerning  the  succession,  which  he  pub- 
lished under  the  name  of  Doleman,  in  1593,  and  which  was 
reckoned  of  such  dangerous  consequence,  that  it  was  made 
capital  by  law  for  any  person  to  have  it  in  his  custody. 
Others,  however,  maintain  that  he  had  no  hand  in  it,  and 
that  he  even  objected  to  it,  because  of  its  tendency  to  pro*, 
mote  those  dissentions  which  had  for  so  many  years  dis- 
tracted his  native  country ;  and  this  last  opinion  is  proba- 
ble, if  what  we  have  been  told  be  true,  that  towards  the 
close  of  his  life  he  had  changed  his  sentiments,  as  to 
government,  and  professed  his  sorrow  for  the  pains  he 
had  taken  in  promoting  the  invasion  of  England.    It  is 
even  asserted,  by  a  very  eminent  popish  writer  (Watson)^ 
that  when  he  perceived  that  the  Jesuits  intended  nothing 
but  desolating  and  destroying  his  native  land,  he  wept  bit- 
terly, not  knowing  how  to  remedy  it,  much  less  how  to 
curb  their  insolence.     Such  conduct,  it  is  added,  drew 
upon  him  the  ill-will  of  that  powerful  society,  who  chose 
now  to  represent  him  as  a  man  of  slender  abilities,  and  of 
little  political  consequence.     On  his  death- bed,  he  was 
very  desirous  of  speaking  to  the  English  students  then  at 
Rome,  which  the  Jesuits  prevented,  lest  he  should  have 
persuaded  them  to  a  loyal  respect  for  their  prince,  and  a 
tender  regard  for  their  country.     He  is  generally  said'  to 
have  died  of  a  retention  of  urine;  but,  as  the  Jesuits  had 
shown  so  much  dislike,  they  have  been  accused  of  poison- 
ing him.     Of  this,  however,  there  is  no  proof.    He  died 
Oct.  6,  1594,  in  the  sixty-third  year  of  his  age;  and  was 
buried  with  great  pomp  in  the  chapel  of  the  English  col- 
lege at  Rome,  where  a  monument  was  erected  to  his  me- 
Vkory,  with  an  inscription  setting  forth  his  titles  and  merits. 
What  these  merits  were,  the  reader  has  been  told.     We 
have  seen  cardinal  Aian  in  three  characters:    that  of  a 
zealous  propagandist;  of  apolitical  traitor  to  his  country; 
and  lastly,  repenting  the  violence  of  his  endeavours  to  ruia 
his  country  on  pretence  of  bringing  her  back  to  popery.  In 
die  first  of  these  characters  he  seems  to  have  acted  from 
the  impulse  of  a  mind  firmly  persuaded  that  every  devia-» 

i»M  ALAN. 


tion  from  popery  was  dangarois  heresy;  aQ4  tbeemly  wetr 
pons  he  employed  were  those  of  controversy.  As  a  writer^ 
the  popish  party  jus^tly  considered  biiyi  as  the  fijrslt  cbam*- 
))ioQ  of  his  ^ge;  and  both  his  learning  and  eloquence  wer<$ 
certainly  of  a  superior  stamp.  But  in  his  wQrst  character, 
as  a  traitor^  there  is  every  reason  to  think  him  ii)flue<)ce4 
by  the  Jesuits,  who  at  that  time,  and  ever  wliile  a  society^ 
had  little  scruple  as  to  the  means  by  which  they  effected 
their  purposes.  Yet  even  their  persuasions  weire  not  Mif* 
ficient  to  inspire  him  with  permanent  hostility  toward^  the 
political  existence  of  his  country.  Some  writers,  not  suf? 
ficiently  attending  to  his  history,  b^ve  called  him  a  Jesuit; 
but  in  all  controversies  between  the  Jesuits  and  the  ^cviW 
priests,  the  latter  always  gloried  in  cardinal  Alan,  as  a  man 
to  whom  no  Jesuit  could  be  compared,  in  any  respects 

At  Rome,  and  every  where  abroad,  he  was  styled  Cardi** 
Dal  of  England,  and  regarded  a^  the  protector  of  the  fia«> 
tion.  After  his  death,  however,  and  when  all  bopies  of 
conquering  England  had  vanished,  less  notice  was  tak^n,  pf 
English  priests^  and  few  of  them  were  made  bishops ;  nof 
was  it  until  the  reign  of  Charles  11.  when  the  popish  jnte^ 
rest  was  supposed  likely  to  gain  the  ascendancy  in  £ng^ 
land,  that  Philip  Thomas  Howard,  younger  brother  to  ^b^ 
duke  of  Norfolk,  was  created  cardinal^  and  sometimes  called 
the  Cardinal  of  England. 

Of  his  works,  besides-  those  already  mentioned,  thero 
are  extant,  1.  ^^  A  defence  of  the  lawful  power  and  au- 
thority of  the  Priesthood  to  remit  Sins,"'  with  two  other 
tracts  on  Confession  and  Indulgences,  Louvain,  1567,  8vq« 
^.  ^  De  Sacramentis  in  genere,  de  sacramento  EucbaristieB, 
et  de  MisssB  Sacrificio,  libri  tres/'  Antwerp^  157^,  4tp^ 
and  Doway,  1605.  3.  ^^  A  true,  sincere,  and  modest  de*> 
fence  of  English  Catholics,^'  without  place,  1583.  This 
wa3  an  answer  to  the  ^^  Executioji  of  Justice  in  England^^ 
written  by  lord  Burleigh,  the  original  of  which,  Strype  s^yst 
is  yet  preserved.  It  is  esteemed  the  best  of  Alan's  work% 
4.  ^^  An  apology  and  true  declaration  of  the  institution 
and  endeavours  of  the  two  English  colleges,  the  one  ijn 
Rome,  the  other  now  resident  in  Rheims,  against  certain 
sinister  insinuations  given  up  s^gainst  thfi  same,'*  lV}ons» 
1581.  Besides  these,  he  wrote  some  other  smsiill  treatises* 
without  his  name,  of  which  we  have  nowhere  seen  acofrcet 
account.  That  in  the  Atbenae  is  perhaps  the  bes^.  Fufi* 
pen,   on  the  authprity  of  Posseviu  in  his  <^  App^ratiif 

ALAN.  98Jf 

Sac.**  says,  that  he  translated  the  English  Bi^le  printed  at 
Ithetitis,  in  conjunction  with  Gregory  Martin  and  Richard 
Bristow,  two  English  divines ;  and  that  he  wrote  a  letter  td 
the  bishop  of  Liege,  "  de  miserabili  5tata  et  calamitatd 
regni  AngliaE?,-  fervente  schismate,*^  which  is  printed  in  the 
^^  Gesta  Episcoporum  Leodiensium,**  vol.  IIL  p,  588.  Le 
Long,  who  also  mentions  his  translation  of  the  Bible,  adds, 
that  he  was  employed  by  pope  Gregory  XIV.  in  reforming 
the  Vulgate.  ^ 

ALAND  (Sm  John  Fortesct;e),  lord  Foitescue  of  the 
kingdom  of  Ireland,  a  baron  of  the  exchequer,  and  puisne 
Judge  of  the  king's  bench  and  Common  pleas  in  the  reigns 
4of  George  I.  and  IL  was  born  March  7^  1670,  being  the 
•ecqnd  son  of  Edmund  Fortescue,  of  London,  esq.  and 
Sarah^  daughter  of  Henry  Aland,  of  Waterford,  esq.  in 
honour  of  whom  he  added  Aland  to  his  name.  He  was 
descended  from  sir  John  FortesCue,  lord  chief  justice  and 
totd  high  chancellor  of  England  under  king  Henry  VI. 
He  was  educated  probably  at  Oxford,  as  that  university, 
in  complimenting  him  with  a  doctor's  degree,  by  diploma, 
in  1733,  alluded  to  his  having^tudied  there.  On  leaving 
the  university  he  became  a  member  of  the  Inner  Temple, 
where  he  was  chosen  reader  in  i7l6,  2  Geo.  I.  as  appears 
by  a  subscription  to  bis  arms,  and  was  called  to  the  bar 
about  the  time  of  the  Revolution.  For  his  argruments  as 
pleader  in  the  courts  of  justice,  the  reader  is  referred  to  the 
following  authorities;  viz.  the  Reports  of  Mr.  justice 
Fortescue  Aland ;  Mr.  serjeant  Carthew ;  Mr.  recorder 
Comberbach ;  lord  chancellor  (of  Ireland)  Freeman ;  lord 
chief  baroti  Gilbert's  Cases;  Mr.  justice  Levintz  ;  Mr, 
justice  Lutwyche ;  lord  chief  justice  Raymond;  Mr.  Ser- 
jeant Salkeld;  Mr.  Serjeant  Skinner;  and  Mr.  justice 

We  may  presume  our  barrister  shone  as  an  advocate 
^ith  naeridian  lustre,  since  the  celebrated  Pope  has  recorded 
His  name,  by  prefixing  ft  to  his  Itnitation  of  Horace,  Sat  II. 
1.  add  distinguished  his  legal  abilities,  by  asking  his  opi? 
Dion,  as  to  libels,  in  the  foliomiig  lines  : 

*'  Hm'rous  by  nature^  of  the  rich  in  awe, 
I  come  to  counsel  learned  in  the  law ; 
Youli  give  mo,  like  a  Mend  both  sage  and  free^ 
Advice,  and  (as  you  use)  without  a  fee." 

^  Biqf .  Br)t:M-Gen.  Pict.  art»  AUa.— ^Strype's  AiiDftl8*--9Wood*»  Atfi6iue.<«» 
Ifiumei^t  BlM.-^£ryChriei  ruiacotheca,  I.  90.— ^oppen  Bibi.  Beig,  I.  :^SSr 


286  ALAND. 

The  reader  is  informed  in  a  note  on  the  first  line,  that  the 
delicacy  of  the  address  does  not  so  much  lie  in  the  ironical 
application  to  himself,  as  in  seriously  characterising  tha 
person  for  whose  advice  the  poet  applies. 

On  Friday,  October  22, 1 7 1 4,  he  was  appointed  solicitor* 
general  to  his  royal  hij^hness  the  prince  of  Wales,  after- 
wards king  George  the  Second;  and  on  December  21^ 
1715,  he  was  constituted  solicitor-general  to  the  king» 
in  the  room  of  Nicholas  Lechmere,  resigned ;  which  ar^- 
<luous  and  important  oflEice  he  executed  so  much  to  the 
satisfaction  of  his  majesty  and  the  people,  that  he  wad 
thought  deserving  of  a  higher  post;  and  accordingly, 
24th  January,  1716-7,  Hilary  term,  the  king  appointed 
him  one  of  the  barons  of  the  exchequer,  in  which 
court  he  succeeded  sir  Samuel  Dodd,  the  late  lord  chief 
baron,  deceased.  In  the  office  of  solicitor-general  he  was 
himself  succeeded  by  sir  William  Thompson  the  recorder 
of  London.  The  reader  is  referred  to  the  reports  of  the 
lord  chief  baron  Comyns,  and  of  the  lord  chief  baron  Gil- 
bert, sir  John  Strange  and  Bunbury,  for  our  baron's  re- 
solutions and  opinions  while  he  sat  in  this  court. 

In  May  1718,  he  was  constituted  one  of  the  justices  of 
the  court  of  king^s  bench ;  but  after  the  slccession  of  king 
George  II.  all  the  judges  had  new  patents,  except  Mr. 
justice  Aland,  whose  commission  was  superseded,  for  rea- 
sons which  have  not  transpired*  It  appears,  however^ 
that  he  regained  his  majesty's  favour,  as  in  January  1728 
be  was  appointed  one  of  the  justices  of  the  court  of  com- 
mon pleas.  He  continued  on  this  bench  from  Michaelmas 
vacation,  2  Geo.  II.  1728,  until  Trinity  term  IS  and  20, 
A.  D.  1746,  when  he  resigned  the  same,  having  sat  in  the 
superior  courts  of  Westminster  for  the  long  period  of  thirty 
years,  and  "eighteen  of  them  in  the  court  alluded  to.  His 
majesty,  in  further  testimony  of  his  judicial  integrity  and 
abilities,  was  'pleased  to  create  him  a  peer  of  Ireland,  by 
the  style  and  title  of  John  lord  Fortescue  Aland,  baron 
Fortescue  of  Credan,  in  the  kingdom  of  Ireland,  by  privy 
seal,  dated  at  Kensington,  June  26,  1746^  19  Geo.  11.  and 
by  patent  dated  at  Dublin,  August  1 5.  But  he  did  not 
enjoy  this  honour  long,  dying  Dec.  19  of  the  same  year, 
in  the  seventy-seventh  year  of  his  age*  The  family  is 
now  extinct. 

The  juridical  writings  of  sir  John  Fortescue  Aland  are  : 
4V  <<  The  Diiference  between  an  absolute  and  limited  Mo« 

ALAND.  86V 

harchy,  as  it  more  particularly  regards  the  English  consti* 
tution ;  being  a  treatise  written  by  sir  John  Fortescue, 
knight,  lord  chief  justice,  and  lord  high  chancellor  of 
£ngland,  under  king  Henry  VI.  faithfully  transcribed . , 
from  the  MS  copy  in  the  Bodleian  library,  and  collated 
with  three  other  MSS.  published  with  some  remarks  by 
John  Fortescue  Aland,  of  the  Inner  Temple,  esq.  F.  R.  S." 
Lond.  1714:  reprinted,  1719.  2.  "  Reports  of  Select 
Cases  in  all  the  courts  of  Westminster  hall,  tempore  Wil- 
liam the  Third  and  queen  Anne ;  also  the  opinion  of  all 
the  judges  of  England  relating  to  the  grandest  prerogative 
of  the  royal  family,  and  some  observations  relating  to  the 
prerogatives  of  a  queen-consort,"  London,  1748,  fol.  This 
is  a  posthumous  publication. 

Sir  John,  in  his  preliminary  remarks  to  the  work  of  hig 
great  ancestor,  proves  himself  to  be  a  distinguished  pro- 
ficient in  Saxon  literature.  He  lived  also  in  habits  of 
intimacy  with  Pope  and  his  associates ;  and  many  of  Pope^s 
letters  to  him  are  published  in  Mr.  Bowles's  edition  of  the 
works  of  that  Poet.  Mr.  Fortescue  also  furnished  Pope 
with  the  admirable  burlesque  of  "  Stradling  versus  Styles" 
in  vol.  VI. » 

ALANUSdeInsuus,  or  ALAINde  L'Isle  or  De  Lille^ 
is  the  name  under  which  two  persons,  who  were  Qoutem- 
poraries,  have  been  confounded  by  most  biographers.  Th^ 
subject  of  the  present  article,  usually  termed  Alanus  senior^ 
or  major,  was  born  at  Lille  in  Flanders,  about  the  begin? 
ning  of  the  twelfth  century;  and  his  parents  having  devoted 
him  from  his  birth  to  the  service  of  religion,  be  received  a 
suitable  education.  When  the  fame  of  St  Becnard  began 
to  spread  abroad,  Alanus  was  sent,  in  1128,  to  study  at 
Clairvaux,  under  that  celebrated  ecclesiastic,  and  very 
tOon  acquired  a  distinction  above  his  companions.  St.  Ber^ 
nard  afterwards  placed  him  at  the  bead  of  the  abbey  of 
RivQur,  in  the  diocese  of  Troyes  in  Champagne ;  and  iu 
1151^  procured  him  the  bishopric  of  Auxerre,  over  which 
he  presided  until  1167,  when  he  resigned  it,  and  returned  . 
to  Clairvaux,  where  he  remained  until  his  death  in  October 
1181.  His  works,  still  in  existence,  are,  1.  ^^  Vita  sancti 
Bernardi,'^  printed  in  the  second  volume  of  St.  Bernard'^ 
works,  1690,  foi.  2.  "  Testamentum  suum,"  orhisTes* 
tsuneut,  made  in  1181,  printed  in  Nicholas  Camusat^s  col- 

>  Abridged  from  a  desultory  account  id  the  preceding  edition  of  this  Die* 
l|onary,<— Park's  editign  of  Lord  Orfbrd's  Royal  and  Noblt  Authors,  vol.  V. 

288  Aa  A  k  U  S. 

lection.  3.  '*  Expknationes  in  Proph^tia*  Meriirii  Angli,** 
in  seven  books,  Francfoit,  1608,  Sro,  Alarms  coinposed 
this  treatise  under  the  reign  pf  Lottis*the- Young,  about 
1 171,  on  account  of  the  noise  which  these  pretended  pro- 
phecies made.  The  subject  is  curiously  illustrated  by  quo- 
tations from  the  English,  Norman,  and  French  historians^ 
and  even  from  the  Latin  poets.  In  the  chapter-house  of 
Auxerre  is  a  manuscript  life  of  Alanus,  compiled  in  1182 
by  one  of  the  canons. »       ' 

ALANUS  DE  Insulis,  or  ALAIN  de  L'Isle,  sdrnamed 
the  Universal  Doctor,  from  his  extensive  knowledge,  wa» 
born  about  the  middTte  of  the  twelfth  century,  not  at  Lille 
in  Flanders,  as  most  biographers  have  asserted,  but  either 
at  L'Isle,  in  the  Coiiitat-Venaissain,  according  to  the  abb6 
Le  Beuf,  or  in  the  island  or  peninsula  of  Madoc  ii>  the  Bor- 
delais.  In  all  the  accounts  we  have  of  him,  he  seems  to  be 
mistaken  for  the  preceding.  He  appears  to  have  taught 
theology  in  the  university  of  Paris  ;  but  it  is  not  true  that 
he  ever  was  a  lay-brother  of  the  Cistertians,  or  fed  the 
sheep  belonging  to  that  abbey,  or  that  he  was  called  to 
Rome  to  assist  at  a  general  council.  He  died  in  the  early 
part  of  the  thirteenth  century,  in  the  abbey  of  the  Cister- 
tians, whither,  after  the  example  of  many  distinguished 
persons  of  his  time,  he  retired  to  pass  the  remainder  of  his 
days.  He  was  buried  in  the  abbey  with  an  inscription  of 
•even  lines,  the  last  four  of  which  Casimir  Oudin,  the  ec^ 
clesiastical  biographer  and  historian,  discovered  to  have 
been  added  long  after  his  death,  and  with  a  view  to  authen- 
ticate the  stories  that  he  had  been  a  lay-brother,  &c.  But 
although  our  accounts  of  him  are  imperfect  and  confused^ 
it  appears  that  he  enjoyed  the  esteem  and  admiration  t>f 
his  contemporaries,  and  that  it  was  usual  to  say,  "  To  hav6 
•een  Alanus  is  enough." — Sufficiat  vohis  vidisse  Alanum* 
Among  his  works  are,  1.  **  Anti-Claudianus,  sen  de  viro 
Optimo,  et  in  omni  virtute  perfecto,  lib.  ix.  Carmine,**  Ba- 
sil, 1536,  and  Antwerp,  16^1.  2.  **De  planctu  naturae 
•contra^  Sodomiae  vitium,"  published  with  notes  by  Led 
Allatius.  3.  "  Contra  Albigenses,  Waldenses,  Judaeos,  ct 
Paganos,*'  Paris,  1618,  8vo.  4.  "  Dicta  de  Lapide  philo- 
tophico,"  Leyden,  1600,  8vo.  All  his  works,  both  prose 
and  verse,  were  collected  by  Charles  de  Visch,  and  pub- 
lished at  Antwerp,  1654,  foL  but  some  of  them  have  been 
attributed  to  the  preceding  Alanus.    His  ^^  Parables"  bare 

1  Biographic  Uaivene]le,««Jtforeri« 

A  L  A  N  IJ  S*  2«& 

he^n   trtin^lated  into  French,   Paris,    1492,  foL  and  by 
D^iys  Janot)  8vo,  without  a  date.  ^ 

"  ALARD  (Francis),  of  a  noble  family  at  Brussels,  was 
born  about  the  beginning  of  the  sixteenth  century.  His 
father  William  Aiard  de  Centier,  a  zealous  convert  to 
popery,  obliged  him  to  enter  the  order  of  Dominican  friars^ 
where  he  wa$  much  admired  for  his  talents  as  a  preacher. 
While  thus  employed,  a  Hamburgh  merchant,  who  was 
pleased  with  his  preaching,  procured  him  privately  the 
works  of  Luther,  which  Alard  read  with  conviction,  and 
the  same  merchant  having  assisted  him  in  escaping  from 
his  convent,  he  studied  divinity  at  Jena  and  Wittemberg; 
But  the  death  of 'this  faithful  friend  having  deprived  him  of 
resources,  h6  ventured  to  return  to  Brussels  and  solicit  as- 
sistance from  his  father.  Before,  however,  he  could  obtain 
a  private  interview  with  him,  he  was  discovered  in  one  of 
the  streets  of  Brussels  by  his  mother,  a  violent  bigot,  who, 
after  some  reproaches,  denounced  him  to  the  Inquisition  ; 
and  when  no  persuasions  could  induce  him  to  return  into 
the  bosom  of  the  church  which  he  had  left,  his  mother  was 
so  irritated,  as  to  call  forth  the  rigour  of  the  law,  and  even 
offered  to  furnish  the  wood  to  burn  him.  Sentence  of  death 
being  pronounced,  be  was  conducted  to  prison,  but  on  the 
night  previous  to  the  appointed  execution,  he  is  said  to 
have  heard  a  voice  saying,  *^  Francis,  arise  and  depart  :'• 
how  far  this  and  other  particulars  of  his  escape  are  true,  we 
know  not;  but  it  is  certain  he  cleared  the  prison,  and  after 
some  hardships  and  difGculties,  arrived  in  safety  at  Olden- 
burgh,  where  he  became  almoner  to  the  prince.  Here  he 
remained  until  hearing  that  freedom  of  religion  was  granted 
Bt  Antwerp,  his  affection  for  his  native  country  induced 
him  to  return,  which  he  did  twice,  notwithstanding  the 
^persecutions  of  the  duke  of  Alba  and  the  dangers  to  which 
he  was  exposed  ;  and  when  his  father  came  to  see  him  at 
Antwerp,  in  hopes  of  bringing  him  back  to  popery,  he  ar- 
gued with  so  much  power,  as  to  make  a  sincere  convert  of 
tois  bigotted  parent.  At  length,  when  it  was  not  longer 
safe  for  him  to  remain  in  the  Netheriands,  Christian  IV. 
king  of. Denmark,  gave  him  the  curacy  of  Wilster  in  Hol- 
stein^  at  which  asylum  he  died  July  10,  1578.  His  works, 

>  Care,  vo!.  IT.— Fo^pcn  Bibl.  Belg.—Moreri.— Tanner,  who  is  inclined 
IroBi  Deinpster^s  autbority  to  pUce  hjm  among  British  writers. — Biographic 
Ujiit^rselle,  which. we  have  principally  followed*— Saxii  Onumasticon. 

Vol,  I.  U 


t^  ALAR  IX^ 

^kicti  %re  in  Flemish  or  German,  eon^t  ofj  1.  "  The  Con^ 
fession  of  Antwerp."  2.  "Exhortation  of  the  Ministers 
of  Antwerp.**  3.  *^  Agenda,  or  Discipline  of  Antwerp." 
4.  "  Catechism."     5.  "  Treatise  on  original  Sin,"  &c.* 

ALARD  (Wiluam),  son  of  the  preceding,  was.  born 
]Mov.  22,  1572.  After  having  received  the  principles  of 
education  in  the  college  of  Itzehoe,  which  be  left  at  the  age 
of  sixteen,  he  passed  five  years  in  the  coUego  of  Luiie^ 
burgh,  and  went  from  that  to  Wittenftberg,  where  he  disr 
tioguished  biiQself  by  the  able  d^ence  of  bis  theses.  In 
1595,  he  was  called  home,  and  made  joint  rector  of  the 
college  of  Krempen,  and  afterwards  chosen  pastor  of  the 
church  of  that  place.  He  died  May  9,  1644,  aged  72 
years  and  six  months.  His  works,  ia  Latin,  are,  1.  ^'  Chris*- 
tianus,  hoc  est,  de  nomine,  ortu,  &c.  Christiaaorum," 
Leipsic,  1637,  1640.  ^^  Perioopa  pentateuchi  biblica,  tri- 
glossometriqa,^*  &c.  1618,  4to.  3.  *^  De  diversia  minis-  , 
trorum  gradibus  cotiti*a  Sezaoa."'  4.  "  Defensiotractationis,*' 
&c.  a  defence  of  the  preceding  against  Beza^s  answer, 
Francfort,  1600.* 

ALARD  (Lambert),  son  of  the  preceding,  was  born  at 
Krempen  in  1600,  au4  hrst  studied  there  and  at  Hamburgh. 
At  the  age  of  nineteen,  he  went  to  the  academy  of  Leipsic, 
where  1^  entered  on  a  course  of  theology  and  political 
science.     In  1624,  he  had  acquired  much  reputation  both 
as  a  philosopher  and  a  poet.     When  he  returned  to  Krem* 
pen,  he  was  made  dean  of  the  college,  and  held  that  sta- 
tion during  five  years.     After  this,  the  king  of  Denmark 
,  appointed  hin»  inspector  of  the  schools  at  Brunscwick,  and 
assessor  of  the  council  of  Meldorf.     In  1643,  by  order  of 
the  emperor,  he  was  created  mmster  of  arts,  and  not  being 
able,  on  account  of  the  war,  to  go  into  Saxony,  be  was 
jnade  a  licentiate  in  divinity  by  diploma,  or  bull,  which  was 
sent  to  him.     He  died  May  29,   1672.     His  works  arev 
I.  <<  Deliciae  Attica},"  Leips.    1624,    12mo.     2.  ^  Hera^ 
chus  Saxonicus,  &c."  ibid.  162^^   12mo.     S.  '^Gnectaia 
nuce,  seu  lexicon  novum  omnium  GrascsB  lingusprimog^** 
niarum,"  Leips.  1628,  1632,   12mo.     4.  ^^PromptuariiiaL 
pathologicum  Novi  Testamenti,'*  Letps.  1635^  1636, 12moL 
^,  Laurifolia,  sive  ppematum  juveailium  apparatus,^'  16S7t 

t  M«rerK-p-Biosra|kbie  UDivcrieUe.i-*i>ecv8  •  Alardonua  icriptis  «l«r«nuBr 
Hamb.  1'721,  2  ▼ott.  written  by  b^s  KceM-gcaadgon^  MicboUi  Alaffd^  wb»dia# 
there  in  1756.  ^  e  1^14, 

A  L  A  R  &/  S9l 

T2til^,  and  iotfie  other  worts  both  i»  fi^t^  attd  Vefse,  par- 
ticularfy  a  commentary  on  the  ArgonauticOn  of  VaWiwl 
Flaccus,  which  i*  very  little  esteemed.  * 

A  LA8CO,  or  LAS€0,  or  LASKI  (John)^  iimisIOf 
styled  the  PoKsb  reformer,  a-tnan  of  high  rpinb,  talent?^  anJd 
jyioiw  zeal,  is  said  by  Fox,  the  mertyrologist^  vfrho  was  hi» 
contemporary,  to  have  been  uncle  to  iSigisiifiOdd,  kiog  of 
Poland.  He  certainly  was  of  a  noble  family  in  Pdlanrf^ 
whieh  took  its  nai^e  from  Lasco,  Latzki,  or  Latzeo,  and  ' 
subsisted  under  one  of  those  titles  long  after  his  tioie.  H« 
was  born,  according  to  Siaxius,  in  1499,  but  we  have  n6 
particulars  respecting  his  family,  unless  that  feis  bi?othet 
Jerome  was  an  able  politician,  and'  employed  by  the  em* 
peror  Ferdinand,  as  his  ambassador  to  the  Turkish  govefnt- 
ment.  He  had  also  an  unc(e,  of  the  s^me  n»i»e,  who  was 
archbishop  of  Gne^ia,  to  whom  Erasmias*  dedicated  bis  edi- 
tion of  the  works' of  St.  Ambrose,  afid*  whomf  Le  Clere  mis- 
takes for  our  John  Alasco.  Erasmists  in  one  of  his  epistles 
(ep.  &62)  mentions  two  others  of  the  same  illustrious  family, 
Hieroslaus,  and  Stanbiaus  Al^asco  (usually  written  h  Lasco) ; 
and  in  ep.  1167,  he  speaks  of  a  John  a  Lasco  (Joannes 
Lascanus),  a  young  man,  who  died  in  Germany. 

,After  receiving:  an  education  suitable  to  his  birth  iand 
talents,  his  thirst  for  knowledge  iiidaced  hirti  tx>  travel  into 
various  countries,  where  be  acquired  considerable  distinc- 
tion. In  1 525  he  was  at  Basil,  lodging  and  boarding  witfc 
Erasmus,  and  ajt  the  same  tiifie,  which  proves  his  high  rank, 
he  was  the  correspondent  of  Margaret,  sister  to  Francis  h 
and  queen  of  Navarre.  Erasmus  highly  commends  him 
wherever  he  has  occasion  to  introduce  his  name,  as  we 
shall  notice  hereafter.  Alasco  probably  chose  to  dwell 
with  Erasmus,  that  he  might  improve  in  literature  by  hav- 
ing free  access  to  him ;  and  the  biographer  of  Erasmus  re- 
marks that  many  of  his  friends  were  led  by  his  conversa- 
tion and  writings  to  embratjc  the  principles  of  Luther  and 
the  other  reformers,  although  he  himseW  did  not  go  so  far. 
While  under  the  roof  of  this  eminent  scholar,  Alasco  ap^ 
pears  to  have  contributed  to  keep  up  a  liberal  domsestic 
establishment,  which  occasioned  Erasmus  to  obswve  to 
him  in  a  letter,  that  "  his  departure  was  unfortuna4j©  ia 
many  respects;  ^or,  omitting  other  ftiatteiis,  it-  costf  him 
some  months  labour  to  reduce  the^  {fatld  esiablishmeH«i 

U  2 

«#?  A  L  A  S  C  0. 

Alasco  had  introduced,  to  the  former  frugal  system. pur« 

It  appears  by  another  letter  from  Erasmus  to  Pole,  af- 
terwards the  celebrated  cardinal,  that  Alasco  left  him  to 
fo  to  the  university  of  Padua.  "  You  will  love  him,"  saya 
Irasmus,  ^^  because  he  has  all  those  qualities  which  make 
you  amiable  :  noble  extraction,  high  posts  of  honour^  and 
^till  greater  expectations,  a  wonderful  genius,  uncommon 
erudition,  and  all  this  without  any  pride.  I  have  hitherto 
been  happy  in  his  company,  and  now  lose  it  with  great 
regret"  This  letter  is  dated  Basil,  Oct.  4,  1525.  His' 
stay  at  Padua  was  probably  short,  as  he  went  afterwards  to 
Home,  and  thence  into  Switzerland,  where  he  became  ac- 
quainted with  Zuinglius,  who,  struck  with  his  talents  and 
amiable  character,  prevailed  on  him  to  examine  more  se- 
riously the  controversies  of  the  times  respecting  religion. 
The  result  of  this  was  his  embracing  Protestantism  accord- 
ing to  the  tenets  of  the  Geneva  reformers,  and  with  respect 
to  the  sacrament,  he  zealously  adopted  the  opinion  of  Zuin- 
glius. In  1526,  he  returned  to  Poland,  where  he  was  made 
provost  of  Gnesna  arid  Lencziez,  and  was  nominated  bishop 
of  Vesprim  in  Hungary.  His  family  and  connections  would 
have  added  to  these,  but  prefeiment  in  the  popish  church 
was  no  longer  consistent  with  his  principles ;  and  after 
struggling  with  much  opposition,  he  quitted  the  kingdom, 
with  the  knowledge  and  consent  of  the  king,  by  whom.  La- 
yater  the  historian  says,  he  was  much  respected  and  fre- 
quently consulted. 

:  He  left  Poland  in  1540,  fourteen  years  after  he  had  re- 
turned from  his  travels,  and  during  this  long  period  we 
have  very  few  particulars  of  his  history,  except  that  on  the 
death  of  Erasmus  in  1536,  he  generously  offered  an  hun- 
dred pieces  of  gold  to  Froben  and  Episcopius,  to  assist  therai 
in  publishing  his  .works,  and  at  this  time  he  completed  his 
purchase  of  Erasmus's  library,  which  he  had  contracted  for 
in  1525,  while  under  his  roof.  The  agreement  between 
them  stated  that,  during  Erasmuses  life,  both  should  have 
the  use  of  the  books,  but  the  property  should  be  in  Alasco 
and  bis  heirs.  The  price  was  three  hundred  crowns  of 

.  About  the  latter  end  of  the  year  1542,  we  find  Alasco 
at  Embden,  where  he  took  upon  him  the  office  of  pastor, 
and  preached  constantly  at  a  church  in  that  town.  In  the 
following  year  he  was  e^igaged  by  Anne,  countess  dowager 

A  L  A  S  C  O.  495 

of  Oldenburg,  in  East  Friesland,  to  introduce  and  esta-^ 
blish  the  reformed  religion  in  that  territory.  This  he  was 
pursuing  with  great  success,  when  he  was  invited  by  Al<* 
bert,  duke  of  Prussia,  to  a  similar  undertaking;  but  as 
that  prince  was  a  zealous  Lutheran  in  the  article  of  the 
sacrament,  and  Alasco  had  candidly  informed  him  of  his 
strict  adherence  to  the  Zuinglian  doctrine  on  the  same 
subject,  the  engagement  did  not  take  place,  and  Alasco  con* 
tinued  for  some  years,  nearly  in  the  same  quarter,  labour* 
ing  to  promote  the  reformation  by  assiduous  preaching,  lec<»* 
turing,  and  exhortation. 

When  Germany  became  an  unsafe  residence  for  the 
friends  of  the  reformation,  and  the  contest  respecting  the 
interim    was  eagerly  pursued,    Alasco,   whose  fame  had 
leached  England,  was  invited  thither  by  archbishop  Cran«* 
men     This  illustrious  founder  of  the  English  church  had 
for  some  time  afforded  a  quiet .  asylum  to  such  learned 
foreigners  a^^  had  been  expatriated  on  account  of  their  re*^ 
ligion;  and  had  at  one  time  residing  at  Lambeth  palace^ 
those  celebrated  reformers  Bucer,.  Martyr,  Fagius,  Ochin, 
and  others  of  inferior  note.     Al^isco  arrived  accordingly 
about  the  year  154S,  and  was  introduced  not  only  to  the 
archbishop,  but  by  his  means  to  sir  John  Cheke,  sir  Wil-* 
liam  Cecil,  and  to  the  duke  of  Somerset,  the  protector* 
In  a  conference  with  the  latter,  he  was  encouraged  to  re? 
quest  that  he  and  his  congregation  ^light  have  leave  t(^ 
come  over  to  London,  and  be  protected  in  the  exercise 
of  their  religion ;  and  he  urged  that  such  a  favour  would 
be  a  matter  of  policy  as  well  as  charity,  as  by  this  step 
many  useful  manufactures  might  be  introduced  into  Eng- 
land.    He  requested  also  that  they  might  be  incorporated 
by  the  king's  letters  patent ;  and  some  old  dissolved  church* 
or  monastery,  given  them  as  a  place  of  worship.     Having 
proposed  these  measures,  and  obtained  the  assistance  of 
the  archbishop  and  other  iriends  of  rank  and  power,  to 
assist  in  forwarding  them,  he  returned  again  to  Embden, 
where  be  corresponded  with  the  archbishop  and  Cecil.     As 
;soon  as  they  informed  him  that  his  request  comr 
plied  with,  he  again  came  to  England,  and  brought  with 
him  a  considerable  number. of  German  Protestants,  who 
found  an  asylum  for  their  persons,  and  toleratioi^  for  their 
priucciples,   under   the  mil^  reign  of  Edward  Vi.,    Thr^^e 
h^pdred.  and  eighty  of  these  refugees  were  natqralisj^d, 
;^4  er^cti^d  jnto js^  sp^0es  of.ecclesiyas4ca]i..cQrporsMLi9nf 

*0*  A  L  A  S  C  O. 

yAneh  w^«  govei^n^d  by  its  own  laws,  and  enjoyed  ks  own 
ferm  rf  ^fship,  although  dot  exactly  agreerog  with  that 
of  the  ehureh  of  Englaml.  —  A  place  ef  worship  in  London, 
f«rt  ^  file  once  splendid  priory  of  the  Augwstine  friars, 
pi  th^  trai^d  of  Broad-street,  which  is  still  standing,  was 
grdnfeed  4o  them  July  24,  1549,  with  the  rerenues  belong- 
iwg  to  it,  for  the  subsistence  of  thdr  ministers,  who  were 
ekber  expi^ssly  noinfnated,  or  at  least  approved  of  by  the 
kiftg.  Hk  majesty  also  fixed  the  precise  Humber  of  them, 
namely,  fo&r  OHnistevs  and  a  sttperintendant.  This  last 
office  was  conferred  on  Alasco,  who,  in  the  letters  patent, 
ps  called  a  person  of  singinlar  probity,  and  great  learning ; 
amd  it  was  an  office  which  comprehended  many  important 
dUilies.  it  appears  that  as  among  the  refugees  from  the 
(ccmtinetit  there  were  sometimes  concealed  papists,  or  tlan-^ 
gei^ns  eftthusia^ts,  a  power  was  given  to  Alasco  to  exa« 
inaine  intd  their  c^haracters,  and' none  were  tolerated  in  the 
exercise  of  their  religion  but  sucrh  as  were  protected  by 
kkfii.  liis  ei£ee  Dketinse  extended  not  only  over  this  par-' 
l^ular  cMgregatioti  of  Germans,  but  over  all  the  other 
fDve^  churches  in  JLondon,  of  which  we  find  there  was  a* 
iPr^nch,  ^  Spanish,  and  an  Italian  church  t>r  congregation ;' 
and  oV^  their  schools  and  seminaries,  all  ^faich  were  sub-r 
j6ct  to  his  inspection,  and  declared  to  be  within  his  juris-' 
didtion.  In  1552*,  we  find  him  »sing  his  iivfluence  to  pro- 
e«re  for  a  member  of  the  l>each  church  the  king's  Kcence 
to  ^t  Hp  a  printing-house  for  printing  the  liturgy,  &c  in 
French,  ^for  the  use  of  the  French  iskiiids  (Jersey  and 
©uernsey)  under;  the  English  government. 

It  is  to  be  regretted  that  a  teception  so  hospitable,  an 
(bstablisJiH^nt  so  munificent,  and  a  toler-ation  so  complete, 
•honid  not  'have  induced  tdiis  leartied  reformer  to  abate  the 
ikeai  ei  ccmtroversy.  But  be  bad  not  engoyed  his  new 
e&ee  lohg  before  he  p^bHshed-  a  book  against  the  church 
(rf  England,  her  ritual,  ecclesiastical  habits,  and  the  ges- 
teire  of  kneeling  at  the  mcrament.  It  is  an  excuse,  indeed, 
that  be  was  requested  by  Edward  VI:  to  write  an  some  of 
these  Subjects-;  ^nd  k  was  probably  owing  to  this  circum« 
Stance,  that  ne  cfeHswre  was  passed  on  kis  book. ' 

The  reigtt  of  Edward  VI.  was  short ;  and  on  the  acces-* 
«toh  df  bis  bigotted  and  remiorseless'sisterj  the  reformation 
was  overthrown  ;  and  those  who  chos^  to-  adhere 'to  it  sooa 
*m\f  that  they  must  be.  consiMseitt'  art'  the  ex^eneie  of  their 
Jives.    At  the  coflMBenoemctot,  •  hoit etefj  *  ^f *  the 

A  L  A  S  C  O.  StD$ 

tynmny,  whether  from  -a  respect  for  Alwco's  illustrioiis 
family,  or  some  regard  for  the  rites  of  hospitality  to  those 
foreigners  who  had  been  invited  into  the  country  undet  the 
royal  pledge  of  safety,    Alasco  and  his  congregation  had 
the  fair  warning  of  a  proclamation  which  ordered  all  fo- 
reigners to  depart  the  realm,  particularly  lieretics.     Ac- 
cordingly, about  one  hundred  and  seventy-five  persons, 
consisting  of  Poles,  Germans,  French,   Scotch,    Italians, 
and  Spaniards,    belonging  to   the  various  congfegations 
under  his  superintendance,  embarked  in  two  ships,  Sept. 
J  7,   1553,  with  Alasco  and  his  colleagues,  and  set  sail  for 
the  coast  of  Denmark.     Their  reception  here  has  been  very 
differently  represented.     It  has  been  said  that,  although 
known  to  be  Protestants,  yet  because  they  professed  the 
opinions  of  Zuin^lius  respecting  the  sacrament,  they  were 
not  suffered  to  disembark,  or  to  remain  at  anchor  mor^ 
than  two  days;  during  which  their  wives  and  children  were 
prohibited  from  landing.     Such  is  the  account  given  by 
Melchior  Adam,  and  bjf^  those  who  have  followed  him  with- 
out eitamintfig  other  writers.      According,    however,    to 
Hospinian,  who  may  be  the  more  easily  credited  as  he  wa$ 
imfriendly  to  the  Lutherans,  it  appears  that  the  landing 
was  not  opposed,  and  that  the  Lutherans  even  admitted  of 
a  conference  with  Alasco  and  one  of  his  colleagues,  Micro- 
nius;  but  in  the  end,  as  neither  party  would  give  way> 
Alasco  and  his  company  were  obliged  to  leave  the  kingdom 
in  the  depth  of  wintef,  and  were  refused  admittance,  with 
equal  inhumanity,  at   Lnbeck,  Wismar,  and    Hamburgh. 
After  thus  suffering  almost  incredible  hardships  at  sea, 
during  the  whole  of  a  very  severe  winter,  they  arrived  iit 
March,   1554,  atEmbien;  and  being  reefeived  with  kind- 
ness and  hospitality,  most  of  them  settled  there.     Anne, 
countess  dowager  of   Oldenburgh,    again  extended  her 
friendship  to  Alasco,  became  the  patroness  of  his  flock, 
and  procured  them  every  comfort  their  situation  required. 

In  1555,  Alasco  went  to  Franckfort  on  the  Maine,  where 
he  obtained  leave  of  the  senate  to  build  a  church  for  re- 
formed strangers,  and  particularly  for  those  of  the  Ne- 
therlands. VVhile  here,  he  wrote  a  defence  of  his  conduct 
to  Sigismond,  king  of  Poland,  against  the  aspersions  of 
Joachim  Westphale  (one  of  the  most  violent  controversial* 
writers  on  the  side  of  Luther),  Bugenhagen,  and  others. 
Jn  the  same  year,  with  the  consent,  if  not  at  the  desire  of 
jiie  duke  of  Wirtembarg,  he  maintained  a  disputation 

336  A  1  A  S  C  O. 

against  Brentius,  then  a  Lutheran^  upon  the  subject  of  the 
eucfaarist.  The  unfair  representation  Brentiiis  published 
of  this  controversy,  and  the  garbled  account  he  gave  of 
Alasco's  arguments,  obliged  the  latter  to  publish  an 
apology  for  himself  and  his  church,  in  1557  ;  in  which  he 
proved  that  their  doctrine  did  not  militate  with  the  Augs- 
burgh  confession  concerning  the  presence  of  Christ  in 
the  supper;  but  that,  if  they  had  differed  from  that  con- 
fession, it  did  not  follow  that  they  were  to  be  condemned, 
provided  they  could  justify  their  dissent  from  the  holy 
scriptures.  Westphale  was  yet  more  illiberal  than  Bren-» 
tins  in  his  censure  of  Alasco  and  his  flock ;  and  reviled 
them  with  a  virulence  that  would  have  better  become  their 
professed  persecutors. 

After  an  absence  of  nearly  twenty  years,  Alasco  re-» 
turned  to  his  native  country,  where  he  was  protected  from 
the  hostility  of  the  ecclesiastics,  by  the  king,  who  em- 
ployed him  in  various  important  affairs  ^  find  when  ad- 
dressed by  the  popish  clergy  to  remove  him,  answered 
that  ^^he  had  indeed  heard,  that  the  bishops  had  pro- 
nounced hioi  a  heretic,  but  the  senate  of  the  kingdom  had 
determined  no  such  matter ;  that  John  Alasco  was  ready 
to  prove  himself  untainted  .with  heretical  pravity,  and. 
sound  in  the  Cathplic  faith."  This  answer,  however,  so. 
unfavourable  to  their  remonstrances,  did  not  prevent  their 
more  secret  eflforts  to  injure  him ;  but  we  do  not  find  that 
these  w^re  effectual,  and  he  died  in  peace  at  Franckfort, 
Jan.  13}  1560,  after  ^  short  illness.  His  piety,  extensive 
learning,  liberality,  and  benevolence,  have  been  celebrated 
by  all  his  contemporaries,  and  the^  bigoted  part  of  the 
Lutherans  were  his  only  enemies ;  and  even  of  these  some 
could  not  bring  any  other  accusation  against  him  than  that 
he  differed  from  their  opinion  respecting  the  corporal  pre-? 
sence  in  the  sacrament;  a  subject  which  unfortunately 
split  the  early  reformers  into  parties,  when  they  shoul4 
have  united  against  the  common  enemy.  We  have  already 
quoted  Erasmus's  opinion  of  him  when  a  very  young  man  ; 
and  it  may  be  added  (from  ep.  iii.  lib.  28.)  that  he  pro- 
nounced him  *^  young,  but  grave  beyond  his  years  ;  and 
that  himself  was  happy  in  his  conversation  and  society^ 
and  even  became  better  by  it;  having  before  him,  in 
Alasco,  a  striking  example  of  sobriety^  moderation,  mo* 
desty,  and  integrity.**  In  another  lettei*  he  calls  himjs  "  a 
man  of  so  a:miable  a  disposition,   that  he  should  have 

A  L  A  S  C  O,  297 

ihotght  himself  sufficiently  happy  in  his  single  friendship.^ 
Nor  was  Melanchtbon  less  warm  in  his  praise.  On  the 
accession  of  queen  Elizabeth,  although  he  did  not  return 
to  England,  he  corresponded  with  her  on  affairs  of  the 
church ;  and  according  to  Zanchius,  bad  much  influence 
both  with  her,  and  the  leading  ministers  of  her  court.  It. 
may  here  be  noticed  th^t  the  congregation  he  had  settled 
in  Austin  Friars  were  tolerated  again  under  her  reign,  and 
that  bishop  Ghndall  was  appointed  superintendant  of  this 
foreign  church,  the  last  of  whom  we  have  any  account  as 
holding  that  office.  The  chuixh  is  to  this  day  vested  in 
.  a  congregation  of  Dutch  Calvinistic  protestants,  and  the 
library  belonging  to  it  contains  a  vast  collection  of  the 
manuscript  letters  and  memorials  of  the  reformers,  and 
particularly  of  Alasco,  whose  portrait  was  there  before  the 
fire  of  London. 

Alasco  was  twicfe  married :  his  first  wife  died  in 
1552,  and  the  second  survived  him;  he  appears  to  have 
bad  children  by  both.  It  was  probably  a  descendant  of 
bis,  Albertus  Alasco,  who  was  most  magnificently  enter- 
tained by  the  university  of  Oxford  in  1583,  by  special 
command  of  queen  Elizabeth.  ^*  Such  an  entertainment 
it  was,"  says  Wood,  "  that  the  like  before  or  since  was 
never  made  for  one  of  his  degree,  costing  the  university, 
with  the  colleges,  about  £350.  And,  indeed,  consider- 
ing the  worthiness  of  the  person  for  whom  it  was  chiefly 
made,  could  not  be  less.  He  was  one  tam  Marti  quam 
Merctirto :  a  very  good  soldier,  and  a  very  good  scholar, 
an  admirable  linguist,  philosopher,  and  mathematician." 

Of  his  works  we  have  a  catalogue  in  Melchior  Adam, 
Verheiden,  and  others,  but  mostly  without  ds^tes.  His 
book  on  the  sacrament,  already  noticed,  bore  this  title : 
**  Brevis  et  dilucida  de  Sacramentis  ecclesiae  Christi  trac- 
tatio  :  in  qua  fons  ipse  et  ratio  totius  sacramentarisB  nosti;i 
tfBmporis  controversiae,  paucis  exponitur,"  Lond.  1552,  8vo* 
Together  with  this,  says  Strype,  was  bound  up  a  tract, 
entitled  ^^  Consensio  mutua  in  re  Sacramentaria  ministro* 
rum  TigurinoB  ecclesise,  et  D.  Jo.  Calvini,  ministri  Gene- 
vensis  ecclesiae,  dataTiguri,  Aug.  30,  1S49."  The  whole 
was  introduced  by  an  epistle  dedicatory  to  king  Edward, 
which  Strype  has  given  at  large.  It  treats  chiefly  of  the 
controversy  respecting  the  habits,  and  was  reprinted  in 
1633,  .when  these  matters  were  considered  as  of  sufficient 
importance  to  hazard  the  existence  of  church  and  state. 

i9»  ,     A   L  A  S  C  O. 

Of  this  work  on  th«  «aerament^  an  abridgement  was  after- 
wards piibUsbed  under  the  title  "  Epistola  contineiis  in  se 
swinmam  controrersiae  de  coena  Domini  breviter  expUca"- 
lam."     His  other  works  are:    1-  "  Confessio  de  nostra 
euM  Christo  Domirre  communione,  et  corporis  item  siii  in 
eflc^na  exhibitione,  ad  ministros  ecclesiarnm  Frisii  orientalis.'* 
2.  **  Epistola  ad  Bremensis  Ecclesiae  ministros.*^    3.  "  Con- 
tra   Mennonem   catabaptistarom  principem."      4.    **  De 
Recta  Ecclesiaruin  instituendarum  ratio ne  Epistolae  tres.'* 
$.    ^  Epi^ola  ad   rcgem   Poloniae   Sigismundum,    &c.  in 
quadoctrinsB  ministerii  fidem,  ac  nominis  sui  existimatio- 
»eni,  contra  adversariorum  calnmnias  vindicat."     6.  **  Pur- 
ffatiovministrorum  in  ecclesiis  peregrinis  Francofurti,  qua 
<ftemon$trat  ipsornm  doctrinam  de  Christi  domini  in  coena 
Mia  praesentia  non  pngnare  cum  Angnstana  confessione^  at 
adversarii  eos  accusabant.'*     7.  "  Responsio  ad  virulentam, 
ealumniisque  et  mendaciis  consarcinatam,  Joachiufi  West- 
phali  Epistolam,  qna  purgationem  ecclesiarum  peregrina- 
fum  Francofurti  convellere  conatur.*'     8.  "  Forma  ac  ratio 
totius  Ecclesiastici  Ministerii  Edwardi  VI.  in  peregrinoram 
maxime  Germanoram   ecclesia."     He   also    published   a 
form  of  prayer  and  religious  service,  usied  in  the  church  at 
London,  of  whix;h  we  find  a  notice  of  a  translation  from 
Latin  into.  French,  printed  at  London  in  1556. ' 

ALAVA  ESQUIVEL  (Diego  m),  a  celebrated  Spanish 
bishop,  who  lived  in  the  sixteenth  century,  was  a  native  of 
Vitoria,  a  city  of  Alava  in  the  province  of  Biscay.  He 
studied  the  civil  and  canon  law  at  Salamanca,  and  made 
such  considerable  progress,  that  having  been  admitted  one 
•f  the  judges  in  several  courts  of  judicature,  he  was  at  last 
made  president  of  the  council  of  Grfetnada.  He  afterwards 
entered  into  holy  orders,  and  was  advanced  to  the  bishop- 
ric of  Astorga.  In  that  rank  he  assisted  at  the  fifth 
eonnt^il  of  Trent,  where  his  principal  endeavours  were  to 
restrain  pluralities.  On  his  return  he  was  made  bishop  of 
Avila,  and  afterwards  of  Cordova.  He  died  in  1562,  The 
only  work  he  has  left,  the  subject  of  which  is  general 

>  Melchior  Adam.---Verheiden,  EiBgies,  &c.-*Liid.  LavAie^.  io  hkt«  de  ortM 
&c.  controversial  sacramentariae.  —  Sieidep  in  Comment. -~Thuaau«. — Uos- 
pinian  Hist.  Sacrament  part  S,  p.  224. — Gerdesius  in  Hist  Evangelii  renovati, 
et  Fiorileg.  Ubr.  rar.  p.  2^26.  230, — Freytafi^  in  Analcctit  Litterarris,  p.  515, 
516.— S{rype»8  Craomer,  p.  195,  234,  246,  261,  290,  317;  App.  139,  141„ 
145.__Strype'8  Annals,  I.  119.— Strype's  Memorials,  vol.  II.  83,  224,  240, 
841,  255,  574.;  III.  SSC— Strype»s  Parker,  288.— Jortin's  Erasmus. — ^Bumct'ft 
Hiat  Tpl.  ill    Records,  p.  203. 

A  L  A  V  A.  299 

cfMAcils,  is  said  to  be  well  written :  "  De  Conciliis  uni-^ 
versalibus,  ac  de  his  qus  ad  religionis  et  reipublic^B  Christ, 
reformationem  iiistituenda  videntur,"  Granada,  1582,  fol. 
The  family  of  D*  Alava  produced  at  least  two  other  writers 
of  soaM3  eminence,  Diego  d' Alava  de  Beaumont,  the  son 
of  the  master  of  the  ordnance  to  the  king  of  Spain,  an  able 
engineer,  who  wrote  "  El  Perfecto  Capitan,  &c."  or  the 
Perfect  Captain  instructed  in  the  tailitary  science,  and  the 
art  of  fortification,  Madrid,  1590,  fol.  ;  and  Francis  Ruis 
de  Vergara  y  Alava,  who  wrote  the  history  of  the  college 
of  St.  Bartholomew,  in  the  university  of  Salamanca ;  and 
by  order  of  Philip  IV.  superintended  an  edition,  1655,  fol. 
af  the  Statutes  of  the  order  of  the  knights  of  St.  James. ' 

ALAYMO  (Marr  Anthony),  a  celebrated  physician  of 
Sicily,  was  born  in   1 590  at  Ragalbuto,  in  the  valley  of 
Pemona,  and  when  young  acquired  great  reputation  for 
fcis  proficiency  in  classical  learning,  and  in  the  study  of 
ptulosc^hy.     He  theo  made  choice  of  the  profession  of 
Biedicine,  and  received  his  doctor's  degree  at  Messitm  in 
16  lO.     In  16 1  ^  he  settled  at  Palermo,  where  he  practised 
with  uncommon  success,  his  advice  being  eagerly  sought 
M  borne  and  abroad,    by  persons  of  all  ranks  who  corre- 
sponded with  him  in  cases  where  his  visits  could  not  be  pro- 
cured.    His  fame  rose  highest,  however,  in    1624,  when 
he  practised  with  so  much  skill,  humanity,  and  success, 
duri-ng  the  rage  of  the  plague  in  Palermo  and  other  parts 
of  Sicily.     While  in  this  prosperous  career,  he  was  in  vain 
solicited  to  accept  a  professor's  chair  in  the  university  of 
Bologna^  and  the  office  of  first  physician  to  the  king  of 
Kaples.     Notb4ng  could  seduce  him  from  his  connexions 
in  Palermo,  where  he  had  the  principal  hand  in  founding 
the  medical  academy.     He  is  celebrated  also  for  his  piety 
and  munificence  towards  religious  institutions.     He  died 
August   29,    1662.      His  principal   works   are   in   Latin. 
i.  ^^  CoQ^tatio  pro  ulceris  Syriaci  nunc vagantis  curatione,'* 
l^lermo;   16S2,    4to.     2.  "  De  succedaneis  Medicamen- 
tis,*'  ibid.  1637,  4to.     3.  And  in  Italian,  *^  Discorso  in** 
torno  alia  preservatione  del  morbo  contagioso,  e  mortale, 
che  regna  al  presente  in  Palermo,  SacJ*^  ibid.  1625,  4tow 
4»  *^  Consigli  Medico*poIitici,''  also  relating  to  the  plague, 
jfbid.  1652,  4to.     He  left,  likewise,  some  works  in  nianu<* 
script,  on  the  treatment  of  malignant  fevers^  and  a  com^ 
mentary  on  the  epidemics  of  Hippocrates.  ^ 

1  Gen.  Diet. — Fra.  Paol.  Hist.  de-Concil.  de  Trent. — Nic.  Anton.  Bibl.  Hispan. 
3  MangeU  BibU  Script.  Med« 

300  A  L  B  A  N. 

ALBAN  (St.)  is  said  to  have  been  the  first  period  who 
suffered  martyrdom  for  Christianity  in  Britain ;  he  is  there- 
fore usually  styled  the  protomartyr  of  this  island.  He  was 
bora  at  Verulam*,  and  flourished  towards  the  end  of  the 
t)iird  Century.  In  his  youth  he  took  a  journey  to  Rome, 
in  company  with  Ampbibalus^  a  mopk  of  Caerleon,  and 
served  seven  years  as  a  soldier  under  the  emperpr  Diocle- 
tian. At  his  return  home  he  settled  in  Verulam;  and, 
through  the  example  and  instruction  of  Ampbibalus,  re- 
nounced the  errors  of  Paganism,  in  which  be  had  been 
educated,  and  became  a  convert  to  the  Cliristiau  religion. 
It  is  generally  agreed  that  Alban  suffered  martyrdom  du« 
ring  the  great  persecution  under  the  reign  of  Diocletian  ; 
but  authors  differ  as  to  the  year  when  it  happened  :  Bede 
and  others  fix  it  in  the  year  286,  some  refi^r  it  to  296,  but 
Usher  reckons  it  amongst  the  events  of  303.  His  death  is 
said  to  have  been  accompanied  with  several  miracles,  to 
which,  however,  it  is  impossible  to  give  credit.  Collier, 
only,  of  all  our  historians,  contends  for  their  credibility. 
Between  4O0  and  500  years  after  St.  Alban's  death,  Offa, 
king  of  the  Mercians,  built  a  very  large  s^nd  stately  mor 
nastery  to  his  memory ;  and  the  town  of  St.  Alban's  in 
Hertfordshire  takes  its  name  from  our  protomartyr.  * 

ALBANI  (Alexander),  an  eminent  virtuoso,  was  born 
at  Urbino,  Oct.  15,  1692,  and  promoted  to  the  rank  of 
cardinal  by  Innocent Xlll.  He  died  Dec.  2,  1779,  aged  87. 
He  showed  great  dignity  in  his  embassy  to  the  emperor ; 
and  displayed  much  learning  while  he  held  the  place  of 

*  This  town  was  ancientljr  called  it  was  esteemed  a  niunici|»ium,  or  a 

Werlamcest^r,  or  Watlingacester,  the  town  whose  inhabitants  enjoyed  the 

former  name  being  derived  from  the  rights  and  privileges  of  Roman  citizens, 

river  Warlame,  which  ran  on  the  east  It  was  entirely  ruined  by  the  Britons^ 

side ;  the  latter,  from  the  Roman  high-  during  the  war  between  the  Romans 

way  called  Watling-street,- which  lay  and  Boadicea,  queen  of  the  Iceni.    Af« 

to  the  west.  (Mat.  Westm.  Flor.  Hist,  terwards   Verulam    flourished    again, 

ann.  313.)    Tacitus  calls   it  Venila-  and  became  a  city  of  great  note.  About 

Baium ;  and  Ptolemy,  Urolium.    The  tbe  middle  of  the  fifth  century,  it  felt 

situation  of  this  place  was  close  by  the  into  the  bands  of  the  Saxons  $    bi|t 

<own  of  St.  Alban'Sj  in  Hertfordshire.  Uther  Pendragon,.   the  Briton,   reco- 

Tbere'is  nothing  now  remaining  of  old  vered  it  with  miich  difficulty,  after  n, 

.  Verulam  but  ruins  of  walls,  chequered  very  long  siege.    After  his  death,  Ve* 

pavements,,  and  Roman  coins,  which  rulam  fell  again  into  the  hands  ci  thp 

are  often  dug  up.    It  is  conjectured,  Saxpns ;  but  by  frequent  wars,  it  was 

from  fbe  situation,  that  this  was  the  at  last  entirely   ruined.      Camden's 

town  of   Cassivelaunus,    so  well  de-  Britannia,  by  bishop  GibsOD)  vol.  l« 

iended  by  woods  end  marshes,  which  col.  555, 
was  talien  by  CSssar.    In  Nero's  time 

I  Biog.'Brit. 

A  L  B  A  N  r.  sol 

librafian  of  the  Vatican.  He  had  great  taste  and  know- 
ledge of  antiquities^^  and  became  a  munificent  patron  of 
learning  artd  learned  men.  His  house,  known  by  the  name 
of  the  Villa  Albani,  was  decorated  with  valuable  statues 
and  other  treasures  of  the  fine  arts.  He  also  found  leisure 
from  his  political  engagements  to  write  some  historical  and 
literary  works,  which  are  held  in  much  esteem.  In  1762, 
his  collection  of  drawings,  consisting  of  three  hundred  vo- 
lumes, one  third  of  which  are  original  drawings  of  the  firsf: 
masters,  the  others,  collections  of  the  most  capital  en- 
gravings, were  sold  to  his  present  majesty  of  Great  Britain, 
for  1 4,000  crowns.  * 

ALBANI  (John  Francis),  nephew  to  the  preceding, 
and  heir  to  his  taste  and  munificence,  was  born  in  Rome, 
1720,  and  educated  for  the  church,  in  which  he  was 
speedily  promoted  to  the  highest  honours,  being  advanced 
to  the  purple,  soon  after  he  entered  the  priesthood,  in 
1747,  and  not  long .  afterwards  appointed  arch-priest  of 
the  Basilic  of  St.  Maria  Maggiore,  and  bishop  of  Porto, 
one  of  the  seven  suburban  sees  which  depend  on  the  pope 
as  on  their  immediate  metropolitan.  He  derived  more 
lustre,  however,  from  following  the  example  of  his  uncle 
in  patronizing  learning  and  learned  men,  and  in  adding  to 
those  rare  and  valuable  monuments  of  art,  which  so  long 
rendered  the.  villa  Albani  the  resort  of  the  virtuosi  of 

In  1767,  when  the  question  of  the  suppression  of  the 
Jesuits  was  agitated,  the  cardinal  took  an  active  part  at 
the  court  of  Rome  in  their  favour,  but  without  discovering 
the  principles  of  a  very  enlightened  mind.  He  dreaded  in 
this  suppression  the  commencement  of  the  downfall  of  the 
church,  and  considered  any  concession  to  those  monarchs 
who  were  for  the  measure,  as  a  dangerous  symptom  of  ser- 
vility on  the  part  of  the  church.  In  1775,  he  was  ap- 
pointed bishop  of  Ostia  and  Velletri,  and  consequently 
dean  of  the  sacred  college  ;  and  in  1779,  he  succeedetl  to 
his  uncle  Alexander  in  almost  all  the  charges  which  that 
prelate  had  long  possessed.  He  was  appointed  plenipo- 
tentiary of  the  house  of  Austria,  protector  of  the  kingdoni 
of  Poland^  of  the  order  of  Malta,  of  the  republic  of  Ra- 
gusa,  and  what  was  most  congenial  to  his  temper,  of  th^ 
tollege  of  La  Sapienza  in  Rome.     He  was  also  presented 

)  Aon.  Register,  176^  p.  112.— Diet  Uistorique. 

309  A  L  B  A  N  f, 

with  some  rich  abbey*  and  priories,  both  ki  tbe  RomiAII 
nod  in  the  Neapolitan  state. 

I'he  circumstances  of  his  being  almost*  set  apart  froni 
every  affair  of  government,  and  of  possessing  a  larg^  iir-* 
Gome,  were  a  source  of  reBned  gratifications  to  himself 
and  of  signal  benefit  to  all  the  literary  characters  in  Rom« 
who  had  gained  his  esteem.  He  renewed  towards  the 
close  of  the  century,  that  example  which  about  the  middle 
of  it  had  been  set  by  his  illustrious  uncle.  Besides 
bis  patronage  of  men  of  established  fame,  of  such  men  a9 
Visconti,  Fea,  Testa,  and  Piranesi,  whenever  among  the 
children  of  his  servants  and  dependants  he  discovered  % 
promising  genius,  he  took  upoti  himself  the  care  of  his 
education.  He  increased  the  valuable  librjury  of  his  uncle 
from  twenty-five  to  thirty  thousand  volumes  ;  and  in  the 
year  1793,  it  was  computed  that  the  villa  Albani  contained 
about  two  hundred  thousand  works  of  art,  and  specimen* 
of  antiquities. 

The  cardinal  was  now  in  his  seventy -seventh  year,  and 
in  all  probability  expected  to  close  his  life  in  the  full  en^ 
joyment  of  his  splendid  and  unrivalled  collections,  when 
the  French  took  possession  of  Rome.  The  depredations 
they  committed  in  the  Vatican  and  other  public  places  of 
Bome,  and  the  violences  offered  by  them  to  the  most  emi* 
nent  persons  in  that  metropolis,  may  be  easily  accounted 
for  from  their  characteristic  rapacity,,  and  the  hatred  whick 
they  then  professed  for  religion  under  any  shape.  But  ^ 
the  outrages  which  they  practised  on  the  family  of  Albani 
had  such  a  base  and  spiteful  motive,  as  to  brand  tlient 
with  eternal  infamy.  :Owing  to  the  successive  marriages 
of  the  two  last  princesses  of  Carrara  and  of  Modena,  the 
family  of  Albani  was  a  relative  to  the  imperial  house  of 
Austria  ;  and  the  French  tlK)ught  thei^  the  distress  and  hu- 
miliation of  the  oiie  would  be  commxmicated  to  tbe  othes. 
The  estates  were  confiscated,  tbe  magnificent  and  elegant: 
palace,  within  the  precincts  of  Rome,  was  saxsked,  and 
the  unrivalled  villa  was  plundered  and  destroyed.  "  This 
palace,*'-  9ays  Mr.  Dappa,  which  is  not  yet  razed  1x>  the 
ground,  nor  its  villa  made  an  absolute  heath,  now  re^ 
mains  (I7il8)  a  melancholy  monument  c^  the  Vandalisia 
of  the  eighteenth  century.  Every  statiiie^  every  bus^ 
every  column,  every  chimney<«piece,  every  piece  of 
marble  that  served  for  ornament  or  use,  was  torn  from  its 
situation,  and  was  either  sent  to  Paris>  or  became  the  perqui- 

A.  L  B  A  N  L  ^9Q» 

tite  of  c^rtMii  ^ngents  eoaployed  fay  the  Directory  to  *  see 
that  there  might  be  nothing  wanting  to, the  entire  ceoft* 
pletion  of  its  ruin :  even  the  shrubs  in  the  garden  weia 
rooted  up,  and  sold.'* 

During  this  devastation,  the  cardinal  took  refuge,  first, 
in  a   Qjimaldolese  convent    on    the   southern    frondecs 
of  the  Roman   state ;    but,    it  being  intimated  that  he 
could  not  be  safe  there,  he  went  to  Naples ;  and,  on  the 
approach  of  the  French,  to  Messina.     In   1800  he  was 
present  at  Venice,  at  the  election  of  the  reigning  pope ; 
and  when  the  Austrian  and  Neapolitan  troops  reconquered 
the  Roman  territory,  he  returned  to  Rome,  whcare  he  took 
private  lodgings,  but  never  had  strength  of  iniod  to  view 
either  his  palace  or  villa,  nor  could  they  be  mentioned  in 
bis  presence  without  throwing  him  into  the  deepest  sor^ 
row.     Here  he  died,  in   1803,  in  the  eighty-fourth  year 
of  his  age.     He  was  handsome  in  person,  sprightly  and 
eloquent ;  sincere,  cordial,  unassuming,  and  afl'able ;  and 
both  from  his  intellectual  and  moral  qualifications,  he  was 
jufitly  considered  as  one  of  the  most  accomplished  charac- 
ters of  the  age.  * 

ALBANI  (John  Jerome),  of  the  same  family  with  the 
preceding,  born  in  1504,  at  Bergamo,  was  the  sod  of 
count  Francis  Albani,  and  intended  by  his  father  for  the 
army,  but  preferred  the  study  of  the  civil  and  caAon  law, 
in  which,  as  well  as  in  polite  literature,  lie  attaiaed 
great  eminence..  At  first,  however,  he  bore  arms  in  the 
Venetian  army,  and  afterwards  went  into  the  churdi^ 
Pope  Pius  V.  was  no  sooner  raised  to  that  dignity,  thaa 
be  laade  Albani  a  cardinal,  in  1 57(9.  It  is  even  said  tisat 
after  the  death  of  Gregory  XIII.  the  conclave  would  haive 
elected  him  pope,  but  he  was  then  a  widower  and  had 
children,  a  curcumstance  which  interfered  with  their  ia^ 
tentioms.  He  died  April  ^5,  1591.  His  principal  works 
are :  l.  ^^  De  Immunitate  ecclesiarum,"  1553.  a«  <^  De 
pqtestate^  Papas  et  confiilii,''  Lyons,  155$;  Venice,  1561^ 
4tQ.  3.  *^  ]>e  Cardiiialibus,  et  de  donatioiieCQastwDilim»f 
1584,  foL  Morqri  gives  an  account  of  a  lawy^  «f  Ber«^ 
gaivio,  who  wrote  on  these  sulsgects,  and  \»  evideotlj  tfae 
«aine  person.  * 

1  Atbooarom,  vot.  ni.-^DQppa*s  Sabverslomof  the  Papal  GoTernmcDt,  p.  13(» 
«^t-.  1'799t  ltitT«mMrkablettmt  done  of  the  recentlf  pabliahed  French  biow 
f  raphies-  take  the  least  notioe  qf  Cardinal  Albanu 

s  Pict.,  l|iatoriqu«.«^iQ(rapihict  t^nWenielle. 

404  A  L  B  A  N  0. 

ALBANO,  or  ALBANI  (Francis),  a  celebrated  paintef^ 
born  at  Bologna,  March  17,  1578.     His  father  was  a  silk 
merchant^  and  intended  to  bring  up  his  son  to  that  busi^ 
ness  ;  but  Albano  having  a  strong  inclination  to  painting, 
when  liis^  father  died>  devoted  himself  entirely  to  that  art^ 
though  then   but  twelve  years  of  age.     He  first  studied 
under  Denys  Calvart ;  Guido  Rhehi  being  at  the  sam6 
time  under  this  master,  with  whom  Albano  contracted  k 
very  great  friendship.     Calvart  drew  but  ojie  profile  for 
Albano,  and  afterwards  left  him  entirely  to  the  care  of 
Guido ;  under  whom  he  made  great  improvement.     He 
followed  Guido  to  the  school  of  the  Caraiccis,  but  a  little 
after  their  friendship  for  each  other  began  to  cool ;  which 
was  owing  perhaps  to  the  pride  of  Albano,  who  could  not 
bear  to  see  Guido  surpass  him,  or  to  the  jealousy  of  Guido 
at  finding  Albano  make  so  swift  a  progress.     They  cer- 
tainly endeavoured  to  eclipses  one  another ;  for  when  Guido 
had  set  up  a  beautiful  altar-piece,  Albano  would  oppose 
to  it  some  fine  picture  of  his  :  and  yet  they  continued  to 
speak  of  each  other  with  the  highest  esteem.   Albano,  after 
having  greatly  improved  himself  under  the  Caraccis,  went 
to  Rome,  where  he  continued  many  years,  and  married 
in  that  city ;  but  his  wife  dying  in  childbed,  at  the  earnest 
request  of  his  relations,  he  returned  to  Bologna,  where  he 
entered  again  into  the  state  of  matrimony.     His  second 
wife  (Doralice)  was  well  descended,  but  had  very  little  for- 
tune ;  which  he  perfectly  disregarded,  so  strongly  was  be 
captivated  with  her  beauty  and  good  sense.     Besides  the 
satisfaction  of  possessing  an  accomplished  wife,  he  reaped 
likewise  the  advantage  of  having  a  most  beautiful  model ; 
so  that  be  had  now  no  occasion  for  any  other  woman  to 
sit  to  him  for  Venus,  the  Graces,  Nymphs,  and  other  dei- 
ties, whom  he  took  a  particular  delight  in  representing. 
His  wife  answered  this  purpose  admirably  well ;  for,  besides 
her  bloom  of  youth,  and  the  beauty  of  her  person,  he  dis- 
covered in  her  so  much  modesty,  so  many  graces  and  per- 
fections, so  well  adapted  to  painting,  that  it  was  impossible 
for  him  to  find  a  more  finished  woman.     She  afterwards 
brought  him    several  boy$;   all  extremely  beautiful  and 
finely  proportioned  ;   and  she  and  her  children  were  the 
originals  of  his  most  agreeable  and  graceful  compositions. 
It  was  from  them  too  that  the  famous  sculptors  Flamand, 
and  Algardi  modelled  their  little  cupids. 

Albano  was  well  versed  in  some  branches  of  politic  lite- 

A  t  B  A  N  0.  WS 


hklufe;  b-ttt,  not  understanding  Latin,  htf  ^rideavotii^^  to 
i^iipply  this  defeet  by  carefully  perusing  the  Italian  tranjsi 
lations  of  such  books  as  could  be  serviceable  to  him  in' his 
profession.  He  excelled  irt  all  parts  of  jpaintingj  but  xii^ai 
particularly  admired  for  his  small  pieces ;  though  he  him*-^ 
self  was  much,  dissatisfied  that  his  large  pieces,  m^iiy'  df 
which  he  painted  for  altars,  were  not  equally  applaud<^dj 
He  delighted  much  in  drawing  the  fair  sex,  whom  he  hal^  -tb^ 
presented  with  wonderful  beauty  ;  but  has  been  reckoriefdi 
Hot  so  happy  in  his  imitation  of  men.-  tie.  sometime^ 
represented  divine  stories,  but  his  compositions  on  love 
subjecl}S  were  most  eagerly  sought  after.-  "  H6  did  hcft^^* 
says  Malvasia,  "  feign  Cupid  heavy  and  sle^ng,  as  Guidd 
did,  but  .represented  him  seated  iiiajestioaUy  dn  a  thr6ne'^* 
now  dire<^ting  the  sportive  exercises  of  the  little* -LdVe* 
shooting  at  a  heart  fixed  on  a  trunk  of  •«.  tr^€! }  nfoW  p#^i' 
siding  over  their  sprightly  dances,  round  the  ntetble^imcW 
numeut  of.  Flora  crowned -with  a  chaplet  of  bidoming'' 
flowers ;  and  now  surveying  the  conquest  of  the  little  winged 
boys  over  the  rural  satyrs  and  fauns.  If  he  represented  a^ 
dead  Adonis,  he  always  introduced  a  band  of  loves,  som^ 
of  whom,  viewing  the  wound,  drew  back  in  the  utmost 
horror ;  while  others,  exasperated,  broke  to  pieces  their 
bows  and  arrows,  as  being  no  longer  of  use  to  them  since 
Adonis  was  no  more;  and  others,  again,  who,  running' 
behind  the  fierce  wild  boar,  brandished  their  darts  with  aa 
air  of  vengeance."  Albano  was  of  a  happy  temper  and 
ndi^position  ;his  paintings^  says  the  same  author,  breathing 
nothing  but  content  and  joy  ;  happy  in  a  force  of  mind' 
that  conquered  every  uneasiness,  his  poetxal  pencil  carried 
him  through  the  most  i  agreeable  gardens  to  Paphos  and 
Cytherea  :  those  delightful  scenes  brought  him  over  the- 
lo£ty  Parnassus  to  the  delicious  abodes  of  Apollo  and  tbe- 
Musas«  •  » 


,  Our  fiiountryman,  sir  Robert  Strange,  gives  this  cha- 
racter of  Albano's  paintings.:  *'.  The  pictures  of  Albant> 
ar^  es^ceedingly  agreeable.  His  subjects  are  in  general  of 
the  poetical  kind.  We  may  be  almost  sure  of  finding,  in  < 
apy  picture  of  this  master,  beautiful  figures  of  women ; 
an^  children^  who  seem  as  if  they  had  been  nourished  by 
the  Gifai^^A.  This  artist,  .bred.iu  the  school  of  the  Gan-acci, 
could  not  fail  being  an  agreeable  painter;  and  if  he  wa^s 
not  always  successful  in  expressing  the  stronger  passions 
of  the  soul,  he  knew  how  to  touch  and  flatter  the  senses^ 
Vol.  L  X 

^  A  L  K  A  N  Q. 

hf  off^iag  Ho,  his>  ${>QetaftGrs  tbe  moat  pleasiiig  axict  deKgbt^ 
CuJi  iois^es^ i  w^ere  i;^igA»  witU  daeevqy,  an  agreeable,  and 
it*  I.  nvay.  b€^  aliIow€4  the  expr^asion^  even  a  vohiptuous 
pl^$uiie.  Wbal  c^QliiibttleA  ibQ  Fosider  his  woaks  iiies-^ 
(uu^ble^  U  a  pencil  wboae  fsoshness  of  ccJouiB  and  delicacy 
^  toucU  i&  adwrable  :  \mt  h^  may  bid  reprehiSiuied  with 
ovj^rfi^i^biug  m^ny  of  his  pktureai'^  Thia  emineut  aitis^ 
ejagra^ved  tbcee  of  im  pi<:tures  :  ^  Tbe.  Thuee:  Martea  at  tba 
Igepulcb^e;  A  Hqly  Fapiily,  winb  Angah;  aad  anotbetf 
Holy  Fawly.'*'  Albani's  piouurea  of  tbe  "  Four  Ekenients/^ 
fonqevly  u>  the  paJace  of  the  king  of  SaGdim%  at  Turin, 
and  now'  in  Paris,,  avo  of  extraordinary  beauty,  and  wetl 
{tfe^^s^*  The  design  i^  evceilent^  tbe  drapeiies  per<^ 
£ect^  elegaiH,  tb^a  eolomuag  lovely,  and  die  «rhole  verj^ 
qpiy^^qt.  Tbe  i^omposiuoa  is  perhaps  a  liu£8  too-  drssipated, 
but.thai^  i$  a  circujiisitaoce  froqvketitly  oh&erred  ia  his  works. 
tJii^picttiir^Siwere  foMmeriy  in  coost  of  the  palaces  of  £u-^ 
vfifi^  b^dl  t^  gfeateat  assemblage,  we  believe,  is  now  ao 
^ajsis^  Att  Burghley  bOo^e^  are  somft  fine  tapestries  from- 
]^f^  (iesigas ;  and.  there  wece  probably  some  of  his  pictures 
i&;.king;  Chs^rlet;  the  First's  cbUeKiUioB^  a^  tliat  prince  once^ 
i^>vite4  him  to  EjUgland. 

Albany  died  Oct,  4,  1660,  and  lefb  a  heather,  iomt 
SapTJST  ALB4NO9  who  painted  much  in  the  style  of  hi» 
brother^  but  excelled  principally'  in  landscape. ' 

AJUBAT£GNl»  an  Arabic  prince  of  Batan  in  Mesopo-^ 
tiunia,  was  a.  eekbcated  asu-ooomer,  about  tbe  year  880, 
asai^eara  by  his  observations.     He  ia  also  oaliod  Afohan^- 
npiedi  bea  Qeber  Aibatalii  (Mahome^  the  son  of  Geher) 
and  Muhai»ed(iii  Aracten^s.     He  made  astronomieal'  ob^- 
servation^  at'A«iii9€fa>  and  at  Racah  or  Acacta,  ato«n>o<P 
Qhaldem  wbii::b  some  authoBs^call  a  towsn  o<^  Syria  ot  oP 
Mesofpotamia.     He  is  highly,  spoken  of  by  Dr.  Raltey,  a^ 
a  man  of  great  acuteness,  and  accuracy  in  making  obaerva*- 
tiooft*     Finding  that  the  tables  of  Ptdleuyf  wer^  imperfect^ 
hA<;0>iiputedoew  ones,  which  were  long  used  as  the  best 
among- ^boAjraiiia.:  tbi^  wera  adapted  to  tbe^  meridian  or 
Ar^Qtti  or  Kac»lt     H»  composed}  in  Aitabic  a  wofik  «nd^ 
ti^o  tijble  ofi  ^^  Tbe  IScsience  ot  tln^  Stars,"  comprifziog  alt- 
pailtloC  a0twfiQmy9  iie<x>rding  to  hie  own- obverrations  and 
those. of; if totemyi     The>origiiiat' of*  this>  wilich  has  never' 

I  Gen.  Diet. — D'ArgcBvillo.. — Pilltii^gtw! s, Dictionary .—BJof^UaiwrB^ttBif**- 
S9nnge*a  Dtscriptivc  Citalc>£:ue«-*MeDi.  of'LiteratHie,  vol.  I.  p.  9^0« 

•  -•         /► 

A  L  B  A  t  E  (^N"  f.  iof 

been  ][)iiblisl>ell,  is  in  the  libfary  o^  the  Vatican*,  tt  was 
ti'anslated  into  Latin  by  Ptato  of  Tibilf,  and  was  published  at 
Nuremberg  in  1537j  with  soAtie  adJitioris  and  demonstra^ 
fions  of  Regiomontanus ;  dnd  the  same  was  reprinted  at 
Bologna  in  16-45,  with  this  autbor's  notes.  Dr.  Hallej  de* 
tected  many  faults  in  these  editions.  (Philos.  Trans;  for- 
1693,  No.  !y04.)  In  this  work  Albategni  gives  the  idotioiv 
of  the  sun^s  apogee  since  Ptolemy's  time ;  as  well  as  the* 
itiotion  of  the  sta^s,  which  he  makes  one  degree  in  seventy,. 
f^wts.  He  made  the  longitude  of  the  first  scat  of  Aries  ta 
Be  18*  ^ ;  and  the  obliquity  of  the  ecliptic  23*  35' ;  anc^ 
upon  bis  observations  were  founded  the  Alphonsine  tableS: 
6f  the  moon^s  motion. » 


ALBENAS  (John  Poldo  r>'),  a  lawyer  and  antiquary, 
i^as  born  at  Nism^s,  and  not  at  Vivar^is,  as  Castel  assena 
ifi  his  history  of  LangUedoc.  His  family  was  noble,  but 
ihore  famous  for  the  talents  of  Poldo,  ana  his  father  J  ameir. 
He  originally  studied  with  a  view  to  practice  at  the  bar^ 
but  Nismes  becoming,  in  1552,  the  seat  of  the  presidiat 
court,  he  was  appointed  to  the  omce  of  counsellor^  which 
he  h^td  during  life  \Vith  much  reputation,  and  employed 
his  leisure  hours  in  the  cultivation  of  .i-urisprudence  and 
polite  literature.  His  first  work  was  a  French  translation 
cff  St.  Julian,  archbishop  of  Toledo,  on  death,  and  a  fu* 
ture  state.  This  was  followed  by  a  translation,  from  the^ 
Eatin  of  ^neas  Sylvius  (Pius  IL)  of  a  history  of  the  Ta-* 
Horit'es  of  Bbfiemia;  but  his  most  curious  work  is  hits^ 
**  History  of  Nismes,"  fol.  1557,  illustrated  with  many 
cutious  views  and  monuments  engraven  in  wood,  and  very, 
singular  specimens  of  the  art  at  that  time.  D'Albenas  waa 
attldng  the  first  who  enibraced  the  reformed  religion^  atui ' 
contributed  not  a  little  to  the  extension  of  it.  Before  his 
death,  in  1563^  the  grestter  part  of  the  inhabitants  of 
Nismes,  and  its  neighbourhood,  professed  Calvinism.  ^ 

A  LB  ERG  ATI  (Fabio),  a  native  of  Bologna,  flourisbed  • 
ill  the  middle  of  the  sixteenth  century.     He  was  the  author 
of  ai  work  eiititled  <^  £1  Cardinale,'^  Bologna,  1599,  4tQ. 
and  of  ^*  Traftato  del  modi  di  ridurre  a  pace  V  inimicitie ; 
private,"  .Venice,  8vo,  1614;  a.  i^bject  whioh  ha»  been 

1  Hutton's  Mathematical  Dictionalry. — Vossius  de  Sclent  Math.— •D'lierbelft 
BibW  Ot{M.'*-^Uit  UiXhrettislIe.  ^  Moreti.— ITiq^:  Cnivers«Il«. 

X  2 

SOS  A  L  B  E  R  G  A  T  1, 

treated  by  J.  B.  Olevano.     In  1573,  Zanetti  published  ttt 
Rome  six  volumes  of  Albergati's  moral  Works. » 

ALBERGOTTI  (Francis),  an  Italian  lawyer,  the  son 
of  Alberic  Rosiati  of  Bergamo,  one  of  the  most  learned 
men  of  his  time,  was  born  at  Arezzo,  near  Florence,  in 
the  fourteenth  century.  He  studied  under  the  celebrated 
Baldi,  and  made  a  rapid  progress  in  philosophy,  law,  his- 
tory, &c.  He  afterwards  became  an  advocate  at  Arezzo, 
but  went  to  Florence  in  1349.  Here  his  learning,  talents, 
and  integrity,  procured  him  one  of  those  titles  which  were 
frequently  bestowed  at  that  time  on  men  of  celebrity.  He 
was  called  doctor  solida  verifatis.  By  the  republic  of  Flo- 
rence he  was  entrusted  to  negociate  several  very  important 
affairs,  particularly  with  the  Bolognese  in  1558;  and  as 
the  recompense  of  his  services,  he  was  ennobled.  He  died 
at  Florence  in  1376,  leaving  three  sons;  two  eminent  in. 
the  church,  and  one  as  a  lawyer.  His  works  are  principally 
"  Commentaries  on  the  Digest,"  on  "  some  books  of  the 
Givil  Code,"  and  consultations,  much  praised  by  Bar- 
tboli. — His  father,  mentioned  above,  wrote  on  the  sixth 
book  of  the  Decretals,  a  work  much  esteenied  and  often 
reprinted,  and  a  Dictionary  of  Law,  with  other  profes- 
sional treatises.  * 

ALBERIC,  a  historian  and  monk  of  the  Cistertian  order,. 
in  the  monastery  of  Trois- Fontaines,  in  the  diocese  of 
Chalons-sur-Marne,  was  born  near  that  place,  in  the  be- 
ginning of  the  thirteenth, century.  He  is  the  author  of  a 
**  Chronicle"  containing:  the  remarkable  events  from  the 
creation  to  1241.  Leibnitz  and  Menckenius  have  printed, 
it,  the  first  in  vol.  II.  of  his.  "  Accessiones  Historicae,", 
Leipsic,  1698,  4to ;  and  the  second  in  vol.  I.  of"  Scrip- 
tores  renlm  Germanicarum  et  Saxonic.'*  ibid.  1728,  fol. 
This  chronicle,  of  which  the  imperial  library  at  Paris  pos- 
siesses  a  more  complete  manuscript  than  those  used  by  the 
above  editors,  is  valued  on  account  of  the  cua'ious  parti- 
culars it  contains,  although  it  is  not  very  exact  in  chro- 
nological points,  particularly  in  the  very  ancient  periods. 
Alberic  wrote  also  several  poetical  pieces,  of  which 
mention  is  made  iu  father  du  Visch*&  "  Bibl.  ordiu.  Cis- 
terc." » 
■  ALBERIC,  or  ALBERT.     See  ALBERT  of  Aix. 

'  Diet.  Ilistorique. — Biog.  Universelle.  2  Moreri. — Bio$.  UaiTorsdle* 

3  Care,  wl.  li.— Fabricii  Bibi.  Lat.  Med.— Biog.  Universelle, 



ALB  E  R  ONI.  309 

ALBERONI  (Jdlius),  an  eminent  Spanish  statesman,  and 
cardinal,  was  born  May  1 5,  1 664.  His  birth  and  early  em- 
ployments afforded  no  presage  of  his  future  ambition  and 
lanie.  He  was  the  son  of  a  gardener  near  Parma,  and  when 
a  boy,  officiated  as  belUringer,  and  attended  upon  the  pa- 
rish church  of  his  village.  The  rector,  finding  him  a 
shrewd  youth,  taug-ht  him  Latin.  Alberoni  afterwards  took 
orders,  and  had  a  small  living,  on  which  he  resided.  While 
here,  M.  Campistron,  a  Frenchman,  secretary  to  the  duke  of 
Vendome,  who  commanded  Louis  XI  V's  armies  in  Italy,  was 
robbed,  and  stripped  of  his  clothes  and  money,  by  some  ruf- 
fians near  A Iberoni's  village.  Alberoni,  hearing  of  his  mis- 
fortune, took  him  into  his  bouse,  furnished  him  with  clothes, 
and  gave  him  as  much  money  as  he  could  spare,  for  his 
travelling  expences.  Campistron,  no  less  impressed  with 
the  strength  of  hi«  understanding  than  with  the  warmth  of' 
his  benevolence,  took  him  to  the  head  quarters,  and  pre- 
sented him  to  his  general,  as  a  man  to  whom  he  had  very 
great  obligations. 

M.  de  Vendome  first  employed  him  in  discovering  where 
the  people  in  his  neighbourhood  had  concealed  their 
grain ;  an  undertaking  which  rendered  Alberoni's  depar- 
ture for  Spain,  with  Vettdome,  as  prudent  as  it  turned  out 
to  be  advantageous.  By  degrees  he  obtained  the  marshal's 
confidence,  and  ventured  to  propose  the  daughter  of  his 
sovereign,  the  duke  of  Parmd,  to  him,  as  a  fit  match  for  the 
king  of  Spain.  Alberoni's  proposal  was  attended  to,  and 
the  princess  was  demanded  in  marriage  by  that  monarchy 
then  Philip  V.  The  duke  of  Parma  consented  with  great 
readiness  to  a  match  that  was  to  procure  for  his  daughter 
the  sovereignty  of  so  great  a  kingdom  as  that  of  Spain. 
When  every  thing  was  settled,  and  immediately  before  the 
princess  was  to  set  out  for  her  new  dominions,  the  ministers 
of  Spain  had  heard  that  she  was  a  young  woman  of  a 
haughty  imperious  temper,  and  extremely  intriguing  and 
ambitious.  They  therefore  prevailed  upon  the  king  to 
write  to  the  duke,  requesting  another  of  his  daughters  in 
marriage,  to  whose  quiet  disposition  they  could  not  possi- 
bly have  any  objections.  The  king  did  as  he  was  desired, 
and  sent  his  letter  by  a  special  messenger.  Alberoni,  who 
was  then  at  Parma,  hearing  of  this,  and  afraid  that  all  his 
projects  of  ambition  would  come  to  nothing,  unless  the 
princess  whom  he  recommended^  and  who  of  course  woiild 
011  nk  herself  highly  obliged  to  him  for  het  exalted  sit^k'* 

919  A  L:B  E  R  O  N  I. 

evinced  by  three  letters  of  his  to  lord  Mclcatnbe,   which 
Mr.  Sewiard  has  published. 

From  the  game  authority,  we  shall  conclude  this  ^rticla 
with  two  jinecdotes,  which,  although  difl'erent  in  their  kind, 
?ire  highly  characteristic  of  th^  humorous  pride  and  turbu-r 
Jent  spirit  of  this  statesman.  When  the  marshal  de  Maille- 
bois  commanded  the  French  troops  at  Parma,  in  1746, 
^Iberoni  waited  upon  hiui  concerning  some  business,  but 
was  refused  admittance  to  him  by  his  secretary,  who  told 
him  the  marshal  was  engaged  in  some  affairs  of  import- 
ance, and  could  not  see  him.  "  Mou  ami,"  replied  thei 
cardinal,  very  indignantly,  and  opening  the  door  of  the 
piarshaPs  apartment  at  the  same  time,  ^^  sachet  que  M,  de 
Vendome  me  recevoit  sur  la  chaise  perc^e," 

When  he  was  legate  of  Romagna,  and  at  the  age  of  seventy, 
he  endeavoured  to  bring  the  little  republic  of  San  Marino, 
which  was  near  his  government,  under  the  dominion  of  the 
pope.     He  had  intrigued  so  successfully  with  some  of  the 
principal  inhabitants,  that  the  day  was  fixed  on  which  these 
republicaiis  were  to  swear  allegiance  to  the  sovereign  under 
whosp  protection  they  had  put  themselves.     On  the  day 
^appointec^,  Alberoni  rode  up  to  the  mountain  with   hisi 
suite,  and  was  received  at  the  door  of  the  principal  church 
by  the  priests  and  the  chief  inhabitants  of  the  place,  and 
conducted  to  his  seat  under  a  canopy,  to  hear  high  mass 
and  Te  Deum  sung   (a  ceremony  usual  in  all  Catholic 
countries  upon  simria,r  occasions).      Unluckily,  however, 
for  him,  the  niass  began,  as  probably  is  usual  in  that  re- 
public,   with  the   word  Libertas    (liberty).      This   word 
had  such  an  effect  upon  the  minds  of  the  he^r^rs,  wbo/  be-? 
gan  then,  for  the  first  time  perhaps,  to  recollect  that  they 
were  about  to  lose  the  thing  itself,  that  they  fell  upon  the 
cardinal  and  his  attendants,  drove  them  out  of  the  church, 
sii^d  made  them  descend  the  very  steep  mountain  of  San 
Marino  with  great  rapidity ;  and  the  popes  ever  after  left 
the  inhabitants  of  San  Marino  to  their  old  form  of  goveru- 
ment.     This  singular  event  took  place  in   the  year   1740, 
fSLnd  was  communicated  to  Mr.  Seward  by  general  Paoli, 
A  bon  Vfiot  of  Benedict  XIV.  on  the  occasion  was  current 
in  pvery  mouth.     **  Alberoni  is  like  a  glutton,  who,  after 
having  .^aten  a  large  salmon,  cannot  help  casting  a  wistful 
eye  at  a  minnow."     The   "  Testament  Politique"  of  cj^r- 
dinal  Alberoni,  collected  from  his  memoirs  and  letters,  was 
published  at  Lausanne  in  1753,  but  is  a  compilation  of  no 

A  I.  B  E  R  O  N  I.  31$ 

authority,  and  was  written  by  Maubert  de  Gouvest.  His 
life,  to  the  year  1719,  was  published  by  John  Rousset, 
translated  from  the  Spanish  into  French,  and  in  the  same 
year  was  translated  into  English,  and  published  in  London. 

M.  Beauchamp,  his  latest  biographer,  observes,  that  it 
has  been  said  he  was  rather  an  intriguer  than  a  politician; 
that  he  was  as  ambitious  as  Richelieu,  and  as  supple  as 
Mazarine,  but  had  less  forecast  and  less  depth  than  either. 
Such  is  the  character,  ^dds  M.  Beauchamp,  which  most 
French  writers  have  given  of  Alberoni,  either  from  judging 
of  events  after  they  happened,  or  from  prejudice  against 
him,  because  he  showed  himself  the  enemy  of  France.  But 
if  we  reflect,  that  within  a  very  few  years  Alberoni  retrieved 
a  considerable  part  of  the  ancient  glory  of  the  Spanish 
monarchy ;  that  in  midst  of  his  complicated  and  extensive 
designs,  his  genius,  which  comprehended  every  branch  of 
public  administration,  established  regulations  favourable  to 
agriculture,  arts,  and  commerce;  that  he  neglected  no 
endeavours  which  might  inspire  the  Spaniards  with  a  love 
of  industry,  while  he  prompted  them  to  display  their  an- 
cient valour;  and  if  we  lastly  consider,  that  the  failure  of 
his  projects  was  owing  to  the  indiscretion  of  his  agents,  it 
may  probably  appear,  that  he  wanted  nothing  to  place  him 
in  a  rank  vtdth  Ximenes  or  Richelieu,  but  that  success 
which  justifies  every  thing,  and  which  oftener  depends  on 
chance  than  on  genius. ' 

ALBERT,  or  ALBERIC,  canon  and  guardian  of  the 
church  of  Aix  in  Provence,  his  country,  and  where  he  died, 
about  the  year  1 120,  in  his  sixtieth  year,  is  the  author  of  a 
^*  History  of  the  First  Crusade,"  from  the  year  1095  to 
1J20,  the  second  year  of  the  reign  of  Baldwin  IL  king  of 
Jerusalem.  Albert  was  not  a  witness  of  the  exploits  he  re- 
cords, but  appears  to  have  had  recourse  to  the  best  infor* 
mation  for  his  facts.  Like  most  of  bi^  contemporaries, 
however,  he  abounds  in  the  marvellous,  and  often  disfigures 
the  names  of  persons  and  places.  Rhener  Reinech  printed 
this  work,  fox*  the  first  time,  in  1584,  at  Helmstadt,  2  vols. 
4to,  under  the  title  of  "  Chronicon  Hierosolimitanum," 
with  notes  by  the  editor,  and  by  Matthew  Dresser^  and 
Bpugar  reprinted  it  in  the  first  volume  of  his  "  Gesta  Dei 
per  Francos."     Some  late  compilers  of  biography  have  di- 

}  Se«ar4'8  Anecdotei,  Tot.  IlL-^Dictionnaire  Historique.— Rapines  History, 
yol.  v.  fol.-— Biographie  Universelie.—- Moreri. 

II*  A  L  B  E  R  T. 

vided  Albert  into  two  persons,  Albert  find  Alberic,  Votih  of 
^om  wrote  the  above  chronicle;  but  Albert  went  to  the 
cmsadei  and  Alberic  staid  at  home.  * 

ALBERT  (Eiusi«us),  a  Lutherao  divine,  born,  accord- 
ing to  soine,  in  Weteraw,  or,  according  to  others,  at  a  small 
\iU«ge  near  Francfort  on  the  Main,  studied  divinity  at 
Wittem^rg,  and  became  one  of  the  most  zealous  adherents 
of  Luther,  who  had  a  great  friendship  for  him.  He  was  for 
aoote  thne  preacher  to  Joachim  IL  elector  of  Brandenburgh, 
btit  on  a  dispute  respecting  tlie  revenues  of  the  clei'gy,  he 
kfit  that  shuartion,  and^travelled  itito  various  placed,  main* 
taiuing  tbe  doctrines  of  the  reformation.  In  1 548  he  was 
a  preacher  at  Magdeburgh ;  but  the  Interim,  proposed  by 
Cltarles  V*  and  fatal  to  so  many  of  tbe  Protestant  clergy, 
obliged  kka  to  leave  that  place,  and  reside  in  a  private  sta- 
tion at  Hamburgh.  He  was  afterwards  appointed  super- 
intendant-geaeral  of  New  Brandenborgb,  in  Mecklenburgh^ 
where  be  died  May  1,  1553.  He  collected  from  the  book, 
wrioen  by  Albizzi  (See  Albizzi),  of  the  conformities  of 
St.  Francis  with  Jesus  Christ,  the  most  rentarkafale  ab- 
surdities and  follies,  ami  published  them  under  the  title  of 
tbe  ^^  Alcoran  of  the  Cordeliers.*'  He  printed  this  collecr- 
tion  in  German,  in  the  year  1531,  without  name  of  place  or 
printer ;  and  again  in  Latin  at  Wittemberg,  in  1 542-^4, 
.  and  called  the  Alcoran,  because  the  Franci^ans  of  his  time 
paid  as  much  veneration  to  the  conformitied  as  the  Turks 
do  to  their  alopran.  Luther  botMured  the  compilation  of ' 
his  disciple  with  a  preface.  Conrad  Baudtus  augmented  it 
witb  a  second  book,  translated  it  into  French,  and  pub- 
lished it  in  1556,  one  vol.  12mo;  afterwards  at  Genera,  in 
1560,  in  2  vols.  12mo.  Tbe  last  edition  of  this  satirical 
work  is  that  of  Amsterdam  in  1734,  in  3  voh.  12mo,  with 
copper^plates.  There  i&  also  of  this  Albert,  *^  Judicium 
do  Spongift  Erasmi,  Roterodami  ;**  and  several  other  pieces 
iu  Latin  and  German,  particularly  a  collection  of  forty-nine 
fables,  called  "  The  book  of  Wisdom  and  Virtue,'*  Franc- 
fort,  1579,  8vo,  in  German  verse.  His  satirical  turn  per- 
vades all  his  writings.  < 

ALBERT  (Louis  Joseph  D'),  grandson  of  the  constable 
de  Luynes,  was  the  ninth  child  of  Louis- Charles,  duke  de 
Luynes,  grand  almoner  of  France.     He  was  born  in  167^, 

"^  Vossias  de  Hist  Lat.F— Cave,  vol.  II.  p.  306.— Moreri."*-Bio^.  UDivers^^le.-* 

Saxii  Onomasticon.  ,  .       ' 

*  Diet.  Ulster— Biog.  Universelle. 

A  I-  B  E  R  T*  9t5 

•J)d  b^d  ID  Uis  youth  the  titla  of  the  chevalier  d' Albart    la 
iCS3,  be  served  as  a  VQluxjteer  at  th£  siege  of  PhiJipsburgb; 
in  1690  be  was  twix;re  wounded  in  the  battle  of  Fleuras ;  and 
i/ci  1693,  commanded  the  Dauphin  regiment  of  dragoons  at 
$teinldd^9  wb-erehe  was  again  wounded.     In  1703,  be  ac« 
i;ompanie<i  marshal  Villars  into  Bavaria,  where  the  elector 
promoted  him  to  the  ranl^  of  lieuteoavtt«genera].     He  W4s 
iJDj&n.  known  by  the  title  of  coDnt  d' Albert,  and  ,was  mt^ 
^.easively  chamberlain,  master  of  the  horse»  ministery  and 
colonel  of  the  Bavarian  guar^st   The  elector  having  arrived 
at  the  throne  in  1742^  by  the  royal  title  of  Chajdes  VIL 
Ap|xointed  cou^t  d' Albert  field  marshaf,  and  sent  hio^  ta 
F]:ance  a$  amb^sador  extraordinary;    The  same  yepr  tbfi 
emperor  created  him  &  prince  of  the  holy  Romau  empire^ 
by  the  title  of  prii^c^  of  Grimbergben}  taken  from  the  ricU 
domains  he  acquired  by  marrying  a  prioce/i^s  of  Bergbeo, 
He  died  Nov.   10,   1758,  aged  eighty-seven.     Amidst  all 
bi^  jcam|)f»igii3  and  poUtical  engagements,  he  cultivated  a 
taste  fioir  literature.     Hi$  works  are  ^'  Le  Songe  d'Alci^ 
blade/'  a  supposed  translation  from  the  Greek,  Paris,  1735, 
l2mo,  reprinted  with  '^  Timandre  instruit  par  son  genie/' 
9ii4  other  pieoes,  published  at  Amsterdam,  JL7399   12mo» 
yndiec  the  title  "  lie^^ueil  de  diderentes  pieces  de  litterai* 
ture." ' 

ALBERT  (x>E  Stade),  an  abb6  of  the  cloister  of  St, 
lyiary  at  Stade,  io  the  thirteenth  century,  ai¥l  supposed  to 
be  an  Italian  by  those  writers  who  have  mistaken  him  fo« 
Albert  of  Pisa.  The  monks  of  Stade  living-  io  great  diii»» 
prder,  their  abb6  went  to  Rome,  and  obtained  a  bullagaiQ$t 
them ;  but  this  not  producing  any  good  effect,  he  joined 
the  order  of  the  Fraiuuscaas.  He  wrote  in  Latin,  a  ^<  Chro^ 
idcle,'*  from  the  creation  to  the  year  1256,  to  whii^h  Andra 
fJoier  added  a  saipplement,  bringing  it  down  to  the  year 
}316.  It  was  published  at  Helmstadt,  in  1587,  4to,  by 
^.eioer  Beineck,  with  notes,  * 

ALBERT  (OF  Strasburgh),  sometimes  called  Argenr 
^npnsls,  \v9ed  in  the  fourteenth  century,  and  wrote  a  his- 
8ory,  or  chronicle,  frona  the  time  of  the  emperor  Rodolphua 
L  to  that  of  Charles  IV.  or  from  the  year  1270  to  137K. 
Cluspiuian  quotes,  him  often,  and  has  given  a  fragment  of 
(bi^  work;  and  Ursticius  ha»  published  the  whole  in  bia 

»  Diet.  Hist,— Biog.  Univcrselle.  ,   ,,     «  u  ^ci  t  *  %ji^ 

*  Broj.UniverteUe.*^Vw»ti»  de  Hi^BU  Lat^^Cave,  vol.  IIv-^Fab,  BiW.  W.  Wtci. 

316  ALBERT. 

Collection  of  German  historians.  There  is  usually  joined 
to  it,  the  fragment  of  a  chronicle,  from  the  jear  631  to 
1 267.  His  other  works  are  enumerated  in  Du  Pin*s  Bibfio- 
cheque  for  the  fourteenth  century.* 

-   ALBKRTANO   (of  Brescia)    lived  in   the  thirteenth 
century,  in  the  reign  of  the  emperor  Frederic  II.     While 
he  wiis  judg^  2ind  governor  of  Gavardo,  he  was  taken  pri- 
soiier,  and  in  confinenjent  wrote  a  treatise,  entitled  "  De 
dilectiotie  Dei  et  proximi,  de  formula  vitae  honestte.*'     He 
ifterwards  wrote  two  others,  ^  De  consolatione  et  consilio," 
and  "  De  doctrina  ^oquendi  ettacendi."    Bastian  de  Rossi,    ' 
<iallled  in  the  academy  of  De  la  Crusca  I'lnferiguo,  pub- 
lished an  Italian  edition^  compared  with  several  manuscripts, 
under  the  title  of  *'  Trattati  di  Albertano,  &c.'*  Florence, 
1610,  4to,  a  veiy  rare  book.     There  was  a  second  edition, 
finely  printed,  at  Mantua,  1732,  4to.* 
'    ALBERTET,  a  mathematician  and  poet,  of  the  thir- 
teenth century,  was  a  gentleman  of  Provence,  and  born  in 
the  environs  of  Gap,  from  which  cir<;umstance  he  was  sur- 
named   Gapengois.     He  resided  a  long  time  at  Sisteron, 
where  he  died.     Others  writers  say,  that  he  was  of  Taras- 
con,  of  the  family  of  Malettjine;  bnt  perhaps  he  only  lived 
in  the  latter  of  these  towns.     He  was  equally  devoted  to 
polite  literature  and  to  the  fair  sex,  and  composed  several 
poems  in  honour  of  his  platonic  mistress,  the  marchioness 
of  Malespine,  who  was  the  most  accomplished  lady  of  Pro- 
vence in  that  age.     He  wrote  also  some  treatises  on  mathe- 
matical subjects.     It  is  said  that  he  died  of  grief,  and  that 
fie  delivered'-his  poems  to  a  friend,  in  order  to  be  presented 
to  his  favourite  marchioness;  but  this  friend  sold  them  to 
Faber  d^'Uzes,  a  lyric  poet,  who  published  them  as  his  own. 
When  the  fraud  was  discovered,  d*(Jzes  was  seized,  and 
underwent  the  punishment  of  whipping  for  his  plagiarism, 
agreeably  to  the  law  established  by  the  emperors  against 
that  crime,  but  which,  unfortunately  for  authors,  has  been 
r^j>caled  in  all  countries.* 

ALBERl'I-ARISTOTILE,  otherwise  called  Ridolfo  Fi- 
oraventi,  a  'celebrated  mechanic,  born  at  Bologna,  lived 
mtbe  1.5th  century.  Astonishing  performanoes  are  as- 
cribed to  this  artist.  In  1455  he  transported,  at  Bologna, 
the  campanile  of  St.  Mary  del  Tempis,  with  all  its  bells, 

'  Vossius  de  Hist.  Lat. — Moreri.  j 

9  Biographie  Universelle. — Haym*s  fiiblioteca  Italiana,  Vol.  IIL 
3  Gen.  Diet.— 'Biog.  UuiTerselle. 



to  the  distance  of  35  paces.  In  the  town  of  Cento  he 
righted  that  of  tl^e  church  of  St.  Blaise,  which  was  got 
five  feet  and  a  half  out  of  its  perpendicular.  Being  ia* 
vited  tQ  Hungary,  he  rebuilt  several  bridges  on  the  Dan^ibe^ 
and  cpnstructied  many. other  work&^  with  which  the  reign- 
ing sovereign  was  so  highly  satisfied,  that  he  created  him 
a  chevalier,  and  allow^ed  him  to  coin  money  with  the  im- 
press of  his  own  bust..  He  was  likewise  employed  by  Ivan 
Vassillievitch,  grand  duke  of  Russia,  in  the  construction 
of  several  churches.  * 

ALBERTI  (Gherubino,  Borghegiano),   a  painter  of 
some  distinction,  but  whose  reputation  is  chiefly  established 
by  his  engravings,  was  born  in  lo52  atBorgo  S.  Sepolcbro,. 
from  which  he  derived  one  of  his  names.     From  hi>  father^ 
Michele  Alberti,  he  learned  the  first  rudiments  of  historic 
cal  painting,  in  which  art  he  made  very  considerable  pro* 
gress.     His  greatest  works  are  in  fresco  at  Rome ;  and  jhe? 
also  painted  in  oil,  and  combined  some  thought  with  much 
practice.     From  whose  instructions  he  became  an  engraver 
is  uncertain^  but  his  best  style  of  execution* seems  evidently- 
to  have  been  founded  on  the  prints  of  C.  Cort  and  Agos- 
tino  Caracci,  though  in  his  friezejf  and  other  slighter  plates 
he  owed  much  to  the  works  of  Francesco  Villemena.     The- 
engravings  of  Alberti  are  never  very  highly  finished,,  or. 
powerful  in  effect.     The  lights  are  scattered  and.lett  nn*,; 
tinted,  as  well  upon  the  distances,  as  upon  the  priacipal 
figures  of  the  fore-ground,  which  destroys  the  hannQuy,  a«d* 
prevents  the  proper  gradation  of  the  objects.     The  drawing : 
of  the  naked  parts  of  the  6gure,  in  the. works  of  thisarttisty: 
is  rarely  incorrect;  the  extremities  are  well  marked^  ando 
the  characters  of  the  heads  generally  very  expressive-  but-r 
his  draperies  are  apt  to  be  rather  stitFand  hard..  His  p^iiit^- 
may  be  considered  as  very  extraordinary  efforts  of  a  g^oaio 
genius,  whilst  the  art  was  as  yet  at  some  considerably  di$c*.> 
tdnce  from  perfegtion.     The  number  of  plates,  great. find'' 
small,  engraved  ty  tlxis  artist,  amounts  to  nearly  one/^*>f|y,. 
dVed  and  eighty,  of  which  seventy-five  are  from  hia^.i^swi  . 
compositions,  the  rest  from  Michael  Angelo   Buoiiajrott^* 
Raphael,  Polidoro,  An^drea  del  Sarto,  &c.    The  "  Mirage  . 
of  St.  Philip  Benizzo"  is  one  of  the  most  excellen,^. .  :>^4-^-. 
b^rti  died  in  1615.  V  ■       ') 

'  ALBERTI  (Giovanni),  brother  of  the  above^  waS;bQ,rn:J 
near  Florence  m  1558,  and  received  his  early  instruction 

1  Bloff.  Uoiverieile.-^Dict  Hist.        >  Strutt  a^d  PiULin^u*8  0ietionarM4.  ' 

Sltf  A  L  fl  I:  R  T  t. 

from  his  fathet,  biit  aft^rwawb  went  ta  Rdttftf,  where  hrf 
studied  geometry f  and  also  the  works  of  Buonatoti,  and 
other  great  itiastets.  He  devoted  his  principal  attention 
to  perspective,  in  which  bra'nch  he  arrived  at  eminence/ 
and  gave  a  demonstrative  proof  of  his  great  abilities  in  one 
of  dae  pope's  palaces,  having  painted  a  design  in  that  style 
which  procured  him  much  fame.  The  chief  nobilitj^  at 
Bome  were  solicitous  to  employ  him,  and  he  worked  in 
mai^y  of  th«  chapels  and  convents  with  general  approba- 
tion, for  he  recommended  himself  to  all  persons  of  taste* 
by  the  elegance  of  his  composition,  the  firmness  and  deli- 
cacy of  his  pencil,  the  grandeur  of  his  thoughts,  the  ju- 
dicious distribution  of  the  parts^  and  by  the  spirit  visible 
throughout  the  whole.  ■ 

ALBERTI  (George  William),  a  preacher  at  Tundern 
in  Hanover,  was  born' in  1725,  and  having  finished  his 
edueation,  spent  some  years  in  England,  where,  after  he 
had  acquired  the  language,  he  wrote  "  Thoughts  on  Hume's 
Essays  on  Natural  Religion,"  and  on  this  occasion  dis- 
guised hinwelf  under  the  name  of  Alethophilus  Gottin- 
gensis.  On  his  return  to  Germany,  he  published  "  Letters 
on  the  state  of  Religion  and  the  Sciences  in  Great  Britain,'* 
Hanover,  1752-— 54*,  and  "An  Essay  on  the  religion,  wor- 
sfaip^  manners  and  customs  of  the  Quakers,'*  1750.  He 

ALBERTI  (JoHK),  a  German  lawyer  <>f  the  16th  cen- 
tury, born  at  Widmanstadt,  deeply  learned  in  the  Oriental 
languages,  gave  an  abridgment  of  the  Koran,  with  critical ; 
notes^  1-543,  4to ;  a  work  which  proctired  him  the  title  of 
chancellor  of  Austria,  and  chevalier  of  St.  James.  He 
jAlblished  in  4to,  inl566,  a  New  Testament  in  Syrlac, 
ffom  the  manuscript  used  by  the  Jacobites,  at  the  expence 
of  the  emper6r  Ferdinand  I.  It  cdtitiains  neither  the  Se- 
conal epistle  of  Peter,  nor  the  second  and  third  of  John,  ^ 
nbrthac  olJ«de,  nor  the  Apocahjrpse.  Only  1000  copies 
w6f»  printed,  of  which  five  himdred  remained  in  Gerniany,» 
and  ^e  rest  were- sent  to  the  Levant.  It  is  impoissibte  for 
aay  Aing'  to  be  more  elegant,  or  better  proportioned,  saya 
pew  Simon,  than  the  characters  of  tbifi?  editibii.  Some 
cejffes  hs^ve  the  date' of  1562.  tfe  also'  compbsed  a  Syrlac 
erammar,  to  which  is  prefixed  a  very  currous  pr^jE^^^e.    !Sc 


■»  ♦    .  ■         "•  .       . 

•  /  .  ■  •■  . 

1  Pilkington'8  Diet  «  Biog.  UnireneHe, 

i.  L  B  £  H  T  1  Si» 

'  ALBERT!  (John),  pfofessor'of  Divinity  in  the  liiriver*- 
Aty    of    L^yden,   was  born*  l€d8,  at  As^e   i»  Holland. 
Afteir  the  examp^  of  Eisner,  Raphdius,  and  ifhe  cele>- 
hrated  Lambert  Bos,  wko  had  been  bis  tutors  at  the  uni- 
revsity  of  Franeker,  and  of  soaie  other  divines  who  have 
been  calied  sacred  pfailologiaavs,  he  collected  from  prophane 
autho4rg  aH  the  parallel  passages  in  fevour  of  the  Greek 
j>hras€$s  in  the  New  Testament,  with  a  view  to  defend  tl»e 
«tyle  of  the  evangelists  and  apostles  ag^amst  those  critics 
who  maiiitain  that  it  is  barbarous  and  lull  of  Hebraismsi 
The  result  of  his  labours  be  published  in  1725,  under  the 
tkle  of  "  Gbserva^tiones  PbiloJogieae  in  sacros  Novi  Peederrs 
libros,'*  8vo,  Leyden  ;  and  encouraged  by  the  reputatiort 
he  derived  from  this  work,  be  next  ptiblfshed  "  Perictr- 
kiHi  criticum  in  quo  loca  qusedam  cum  Yi  are  N.  T.  tnnt 
Hesycbii  et  aliorum,illu6tirantury  vindicantur,  emehdatitur,'' 
Leyden,  1727,  8vo.     In  this  be  displayed  an  uncommon 
acquaintance  with  the  Greek  lexicograpbeps  and  gram-i 
B^arians,  and  some  ye%rs  after  conceived  adesignof  %  nevt 
edition  of  Hesyehius.     While  making  collections  for  tfci* 
undertaking,  Fabrieius  sent  him  an  unpublished  g!ossai*j^ 
of  the  words  of  the  New  Testament,  which  he  tbougfaie 
worthy  of  publication  by  itself,  with  a  comment  and  some 
aritical  pieces.     It  appeared  aiccordingly  in  ITS-S,  under 
Ac  tide  ^  Glossarium  Graecum  in  saeros  N.  T.  libros.   Ac- 
oedqnt   miscelianea   critica  in  glossas   nomicas,    Sutdamji 
Hesychium,  et  index  auctorum  ex  Photii  lexico  inedito,'" 
Leyden^  8vo,     Ten  years  after,  in  1746,  the  first  volume* 
of  his  edition  of  Hesychiu»made  its  appearance^  and  fofly 
gratiftedthe  expectations  of  the  learned  world.     He  bail 
surrivod  at  the  letter  K  in  the  second  volume,  when  he  waor 
attacked  by  the  cholic  of'Poitou,  and  although  nestoiedhy' 
sdme  measure  by  the  waters  of  Aix-la-Chapelle,  he  waf 
cjbliged  to  desist  from*  km  labours  for  about  throe  yesrsL* 
He*  than  resumed  them,  hnt  the  manuscript?  was- (eft  un^ 
ftnisbed  at .  kiis  death,  which  waa  occasietied*  by  the  erysi^ 
pe)a0,  Aug.    13,    1762.     The   i£esychius'  was  aftterwardar 
CDmptet^d  b>]^  Rbunheni^s^  Leyden,.  1766.     This  is  tfeeK 
bests  edition,  and  ie.  thought  by  some  cmics  to  be  one  oT 
the  b«ttt  edited  books  the  teamed  world  can  boast.  ^ 

▲LBERTL  (4ban{>«»>)  ^  dbininzcan  and  provinciafof  Imi 
o^rder,  was  born  at  Bologna  in  1479,  and  died  in   ld^0«' 

Dictionarjr*— 'S^ii  Oaomasticon» 

820  Albert!. 

He  wrote  in  Italian,  1.  "  Historic  di  Bologna,  decipWma, 
e  libro  prio^o  deca  secunda  sino  all'  aano  1253,"  Baiogna^ 
.1541,  4 to.  The  se^^ond  and  third  books  were  not  published 
.until  long  after  his  death,  by  F,  Lucio  Caccianemici,  who 
added  two  supplements,  1590  and  1591,  4to.  2.  "Cronica 
delle  principaii  FaroiglieBolognesi,.  &c."  Vincenaa,  1592, 
4to.  3.  ** Descrizione  di  tutta  I'ltalia,**  printed  at  Bologna 
ia  his  life- time,  fol.  1550,  and  reprinted,  Venice,  1551 
and  1553,  1561,  1581,  and  1588.  This  work,  so  often 
published,  is  replete  with  curious  facts,  but  the  author  has 
shewn  less  judgment  in  adopting  the  fables  of  Annius  of 
Viterbo.  4.  In  Latin,  "  De  Viris  illustribus  ordinis  prsBdi- 
catorum,  libri  sex  in  unum  oongesti,"  Bologna,  1517,  foL 
5.  "  Diatriba  de  incrementis  Domini  Venetae,"  and  "  De 
Claris  viris  reipublicsB  Venetae,"  which  are  printed  in  Con- 
tarini's  Venetian  Republic,  ed.  2,  Leiden,  1628.  * 

ALBERTI  (Leon  Baptista),  an  eminent  Italian  artist, 
and  one  of  the  earliest  scholars  that  appeared  in  the.  revival 
of  letters,  was  of  a  noble  and  very  ancient  fatnily^at  Flo- 
rence, but  was  born  at  Venice  in  tlie  end  of  the  fourteenth, 
or  beginning  of  the  fifteenth  century.  Various,  authors 
Lave  given  1398,  1400,  and  1404,  as  the  date  of  his  birth. 
In  his  youth  he  was  remarkable  for  his  agility,  strength, 
and  skill  in  bodily  exercises,  and  an  unquenchable  thirst  of 
l^nowledge  possessed  him  from  his  earliest  years.  In  the 
learned  languages  he  made  a  speedy  and  uncommon  ,pre« 
ficiency.  At  the  age  of  twenty,  he  first  distinguished  him- 
self by  his  Latin  comedy  entitled.  -'  Philodoxius,"  copies  of 
which  he  distributed  among  his  friends,  as .  the  work  of 
Lepidus,  an  ancient  poet.  The  literati  were  completely 
deceived,  and  bestowed  the  highesjt  applausies  .on  a  piece 
which-  they  conceived  to  be  a  precious  remnant  of  anti-^ 
quity.  It  was  written  by  him  during  the  confiueinent  of 
sickness,  occasijoned  by  tpo  close  an.  application  .to  study,- 
i^nd  appeared  first  about  the  year  1425,  when  the  rage  for 
i^ncient  manuscripts  was  at  its  height,  and  Lepidus  for  a* 
while  took  his  rank  with.  Plautus  and  Terence.  .  Even  iti 
the  following  centui^y,.  the  younger  Aldus  Manutius  having 
xaet  manuscript,  and  alike  ignorant  of  its  former 
appearance,  and  the  purpose  it;  was  intended  to  serve, 
printed  it  at  Luoca,  158^^  aa  a  precious  remn;  of  anti- 
quity,     :    , 

X  Moreri.«~Btpg.  UaiverseUe.<^Vo9sras  4^  Hist*  L«U<«-C|ia«£9picu— Haym, 
Bibl.  Italian,  yol.  I. 

A.  L  B  £  H  T  L  331 

Albert!  toolt  orders  afterwards  in  order  to  have  leisuie 
to  prosecute  his  studies.  In  1447  he  was  a  canon  of  the 
metropolitan  church  of  Florence,  and  abb£  of  St.  Savino, 
or  of  St.  Ermete  of  Pisa.  Although  he  became  known  to 
the  world  as  a  scholar,  a  painter,  a  sculptor,  and  an  arch!'* 
tect,  it  is  to  his  works  of  architecture  that  he  owes  his  prin- 
cipal fame.  He  may  be  regarded  as  one  of  the  restorers 
of  that  art,  of  which  he  understood  both  the  theory  and 
practice,  and  which  he  improved  by  his  labours  as  well  as 
bis  writings.  Succeeding  to  Brunelleschi,  he  introduced 
more  graceful  forms  in  the  art;  but  Some  consider  him  not« 
withstanding  as  inferior  to  that  celebrated  architect.  AU 
berti  studied  very  carefully  the  remains  of  ancient  archi«» 
tecture,  which  he  measured  himself  at  Rome  and  otber 
parts  of  Italy,  and  has  left  many  excellent  specimens  of  his 
talents.  At  Florence,  he  completed  the  Pitti  palace,  and 
built  that  of  Ruccellai,  and  the  chapel  of  the  same  family 
in  the  church  of  St.  Pancras ;  the  facade  of  the  church  of 
Santa  Maria  Novella,  and  the  choir  of  the  church  of  Nun* 
ziata.  Being  invited  to  Rome  by  Nicholas  V.  he'  was  em-* 
ployed  on  the  aqueduct  of  TAqua  Vergine,  and  to  raise 
the  fountain  of  Trevi ;  but  this  having  since  been  recon-» 
structed  by  Clement  XII.  from  the  designs  of  Nicholas 
Salvi,  no  traces  of  Alberti's  work  remain.  At  Mantua,  he 
constructed  several  buildings,  by  order  of  Louis  of  Gon** 
zaga,  of  which  the  most  distinguished  are  the  churches  of 
St.  Sebastian,  and  that  of  St.  Andrew :  the  latter,  from  the 
grandeur  and  beauty  of  its  proportions,  is  esteemed  a  model 
for  ecclesiastical  structures.  But  his  principal  work  is  ge- 
nerally acknowledged  to  be  the  church  of  St.  Francis  at 

As  a  writer,  Alberti  was  not  less  esteemed.  He  was  well 
acquainted  with  philosophy,  mathematics,  antiquities,  and 
poetry,  and  enjoyed  the  intimacy  of  Lorenzo  de  Medici. 
On  one  occasion  this  Maecenas  of  his  age,  with  a  view  to 
pass  the  sultry  season  more  agreeably,  assembled  some  of 
the  most  eminent  literary  q^en  in  the  grove  of  Camaldoli, 
amongst  whom  were  Marsilio  Ficino,  Donato  Acciajuoli, 
Alamanno  Rinuccini,  Christoforo  Landino,  and  our  Al- 
berti. The  subjects  of  their  conversations,  in  which 
Alberti  took  a  distinguished  part,  were  published  by  Lan* 
dino^  in  his  "  Disputationes  Camaldulenses,''  and  a  shqrt 
sketch  has  been  given  by  Mr.  Roscoe  in  his  life  of  Lorenzo. 

Among  the  mond  works  of  Alberti,  written  in  Latin,  are; 
Vol.  L  Y 

322  A  L  B  E  R  T  I. 

1.  his  dialogue)  entitled,  "  Momus,  de  Principe,"  of  which 
there  were  two  editions  at  Rome  in  1520.  '2.  "Trivia, 
sive  de  causis  senatoriii^,  &c."  Basil,   1538,  4to.     Cosimo 
Bartoli,  who  translated  into  Italian  most  of  the  works  of 
Alberti,  has  made  the  fifth  aiid  sixth  books  of  the  Momus 
from  his  treatise  "  De  Jure,"  or  On  the  administration  of 
justice.     He  composed  an  hundred  "  Fables,"  or  Apolo* 
gues,  and  a  poem,  entitled  "  Hecatomphile,"  on  the  art  of 
love,  which  was  translated  by  Bartoli  into  Italian,  1568, 
and  into  French  in   1534   and  1584.     There  are   extant 
many  other  writings  by  Alberti  on  philosophy,  mathematics^ 
perspective,  and  antiquities.     He  also  wrote  some  Italian 
poems,  in  which  he  wished  to  introduce  the  Latin  rythm, 
but  in  this  he  has  not  been  successful.     His  writings,  how- 
ever, on  the  arts,  are  in  highest  estimation.     He  wrote  a 
treatise  on  sculpture,  and  another  on  painting  "  De  Pic- 
tura,   prestantissima  et  nunquam  satis  laudata  arte,    &c/' 
Basil,  1 540  ;  printed  likewise  at  Leyden  by  the  Elzevirs,  in 
1649.     The  work  from  which  he  derives  most  reputation  is 
his  treatise  on  architecture,  "  De  re  sedificatoria,"  in  ten 
books,  which  was  not  published  until  after  his  deaths  in  1485, 
by  his  brother  Bernard.     It  was  translated  into  Italian  by 
Peter  Lauro,  Venice,  1549,  and  in  1550  by  Bartoli,  with 
wood-cuts.      A    beautiful  edition   was  also  published  in 
London,  1726,  3  vols.  fol.  by  James  Leoni,  in  Italian  and 
English,  with  fine  copper-plates.     The  last  edition,  that  of 
Bologna,  1782,  fol.  contains  the  treatise  before  mentioned. 
Alberti  died  probably  in  1485,  or  as  Tiraboschi  thinks,  in 
1472 ;  and  was  buried  in  his  family- vault  in  the  church  of 
St.  Croix.     He  was  indefatigable  in  study  and  business  ;  in 
his  temper  amiable  and  conciliating,  and  extremely  liberal 
to  the  merits  of  other  artists.     Politian,  in  the  dedication 
of  his  work  on  architecture  to  Lorenzo  de  Medici,  bestows 
the  highest  encomiums  on,  him,  and  attributes  to  him  the 
discovery  of  a  great  variety  of  curious  mechanical  inven- 
tions ;  and  Vasari  gives  him  the  invention  of  the  camera 
obscura ;  but  it  is  more  certain  that  we  owe  to  him  the 
optical  machine  for  exhibiting  drawings  so  as  to  imitate 
nature.  * 

,    ALBERTI  (Michael),  avery  eminent  German  physician 
and  one  of  the  ablest  scholars,  and  supporters  of  the  opinions 

1  Life  prefixed  to  Leoni's  Architecture. — Life  by  Vasari.— Biog.  Universelle» 
-«-R«8coe's  Lorenzo  de  MedicK—^lresswell's  Memoirs  of  Pelitianus,  &c»«<* 
Haym  9ibL  Itai 

ALBERT!.  823 

if  Stahl,  was  bom  at  Nuremberg,  Nov.  13)  16^2.    He  be- 
came professor  of  medicine  at  Hall,  and,  an  author  of  great 
celebrity.'    The  object  of  the  principal  part  of  his  works  is 
to  oppose  the  system  of  the  mechanicians,  and  to  establi^sh 
that  of  Stahl ;  and  although  he  may  not  be  completely  sue* 
cessful  in  this,  it  is  generally  agreed  that  his  works  contri- 
buted to  throw  great  light  on  the  sound  practice  of  physic. 
Haller  has  given  a  copious  list  of  his  works,  as  well  as  of 
the  disputations  he  maintained.     Those  which  have  con- 
tributed most  to  his  fame,  are,  1.  "  Introductio  in  univer- 
sam  m^dicinam,"  3  vols.  4to,  Hall,  1718,  1719,  1721.     In 
this  he  maintains  the  power  of  nature  m  the  cure  of  dis- 
eases, and  the  danger  of  interfering  with  her  operations. 
2.  "  Systema  Jurisprudentiae  Medicae,^'  1725 — 47,  6  vols, 
4to,  a  work  which  embraces  every  possible  case  in  which 
the  opinion  of  the  physician  may  be  necessary  in  the  deci- 
sions of  law.     3.  "  Specimen  medicsB  Theologicae,"  Hall, 
1726,  8vo.     4v  "  Tentamen  lexici  medici  realis,'*'  2  vols* 
4to,  1727 — 1731,  ibid.     5.  "  De   Sectarum  in  medicina 
noxia  instauratione,''   1730,  4to. ,    6.  ^^  Commentatio  ad 
constitutionem  criminalem  Caroli  V."  1739,  4to.     In  most 
'  of  these  works  the  subjects  are  treated  in  a  philosophical 
as  well  as  practical  manner. — Albert!  died  at  Hallj   1757, 
aged  seventy-four. » 

ALBERTI  (Solomon),  the  pupil  of  Jerome  Fabricius  at 
Padua,  was  bom  at  Nuremberg,  in  1540,  and  became  pro-* 
fessor  of  medicine  at  Wittemberg.  He  may  be  joined  with 
Vesalius,  Eustachius,  and  others  who  founded  the  new 
school  of  anatomy,  and  himself  made  several  important  dis- 
coveries in  the  structure  of  the  ear,  the  eye,  &c.  His  ^'  His- 
toria  plerarumque  humani  corporis  partium  membratim 
scripta,"  Wittemberg,  1583,  8vo,  and  his  "Tres  Ora- 
tiones,"  Norimberg,  1585,  Bvo,  are  still  in  considerable 
estimation,  on  account  of  the  many  excellent  observations 
they  contain  on  questions  of  physiology  and  the  materia 
medica.     He  died  at  Dresden  in  1 600.  * 

ALBERTI  (Valentine),  prpfessor  of  divinity  at  Leip- 
sic,  was  born  in  1635,  at  Lehna  in  Silesia,  and  died  at 
Leipsic' in  1697.  He  wrote  a  great  many  controversial 
treatises  against  Puffendorf,  Thomasius,  the  Cartesians, 
Cocceians,  and  the  adversaries  of  the  Augsburgh  commu- 

1  Haller  Bibl.  Med.  Pract^-Manget  Bibl.— Biog.  UaiTerselle. 
•  Haller  Bibl.  Med.  Pract.— -Maoget— Biographie  UiUTerselle.— Diet  His- 

Y  2 

Hi  A  L  B  £  R  T  L 

oioPy  especially  Bossuet  and  count  Leopold  de  Collooitsdby 
bishop  of  Wienerisch-Neustadt.  Albert!  attacked  also  thd 
orthodoxy  of  the  pious  Spener,  the  Fenelon  of  the  Lu- 
theran church,  but  who  has  been  censured  for  his  leaning 
too  much  to  the  pietiMs  and  mystics.  Among  his  writings^ 
which  have  been  most  favourably  received  and  frequently 
ireprinted,  we  may  notice  his  "  Compendium  Juris  naturae,** 
against  Puffendorff,  and  his  '^  Interess'e  prsBcipuarum  reU- 
gionum  Christian.*'  He  also  wrote  two  curious  dissertar 
tions,  ^^  De  fide  hasreticis  servanda/*  Ltipsic,  1662,  4to.  - 
Adelung,  who  has  given  a  list  of  his  works,  says  tJiat  hi« 
German  poems  are  not  bad,  if  we  consider  the  imperfec* 
lions  of  that  language,  and  the  false  taste  which  prevailed 
in  his  time. ' 

ALBERTI  Di  VILLANOVA  (Francis  d*),  author  of 
the  best  French  and  Italian,  and  Italian  and  French  Dic- 
tionary we  have,  was  born  at  Nice,  1737.  The  success  of 
the  first  three  editions  of  this  work  encouraged  him  to  pub- 
lish a  fourth,  enlarged  and  corrected,  Marseilles,  1796,  2 
vols.  4to.  His  ^*  Dizionario  universale  critico  enciclope- 
dico  della  lineua  Italiana,*'  printed  at  Lucca,  1797,  is 
much  esteemea,  and  tb  foreigners  may  supply  the  place  of 
the  dictionary  de  la  Crusca.  Alberti  was  employed  on  a 
new  edition,  when  he  died  at  Lucca  in  1 800.  The  abb6 
Francis  Federighi,  his*  assistant  in  the  work,  was  requested 
to  complete  it,  and  it  was  accordingly  published  in  1803, 
Lucca,  6  vols.  4to.' 

ALBERTINI  (Francis),  an  ecclesiastic  of  Florence, 
and  an  able  antiquary,  flourished  in  the  beginning  of  the 
sixteenth  century.  He  published,  1.  <<  De  mirabilibus  no- 
vae etveterisurbisRomsB,*'  a  work  divided  into  three  books, 
and  dedicated  to  pope  Julius  II.  Rome,  1 505,  4to ;  re- 
printed 1510,  1515,  1519,  and  1520;  and  although  more 
able  works  have  been  published  on  the  same  subject  since, 
this  of  Albertini  still  enjoys  its  reputation.  2.  "  Tractatus 
brevis  de  laudibus  Florentise  et  Saonae,'*  written  in  1 509j 
and  added  to  the  third  edition  of  the  preceding.  3.  In 
Italian,  <<  Memoriale  di  molte  Statue,  e  Picture  sono  melP 
indita  Cipta  di  Florentia  per  mano  di  Sculptori,  et  Pictorl 
excellenti  moderni,  ed  antiqui."  Florence,  1510,  4to.' 

J  Bioi^niphie  Uoirewelle.  t  Ibid,-.Dict  Historiwc. 

>  fiiographic  Unimselle.— faxii  OuoHiuticoa. 

A  L  B  E  R  T  I  N  I.  i28 

*  ALBERTINI  (Paul),  a  celebrated  divine  and  politic 
ciao  of  Venice^  was  born  there  in  1430,  and  at  the  age  of 
ten,  entered  into  the  religious  order  of  the  Servites,  where 
he  made  profession  for  six  years.  He  afterwards  taught 
philosophy,  and  became  a  popular  preacher,  and  his  zeal 
and  talents  pointed  him  out  as  the  proper  person  to  sue-* 
eeed  to  the  vacant  bishopric  of  Torcello,  which,  however, 
was  given  to  another.  The  republic  of  Venice  employed 
him  in  many  affaii s  of  state,  and  even  sent  him  as  ambassa 
dor  to  Turkey,  '^^fle  died  in  the  pyime  of  life  in  1475, 
when  hisn'eputation  was  such,  that  a  medal  was  struck  in 
honour  of  his  memory,  ile  left,  according  to  Sansovino, 
several  works  in  Latin,  on  the  knowledge  of  God,  the  his* 
tory  of  the  Servites,  and  other  theological  subjects,  and  an 
explanation  of  some  passages  in  Dante.  Possevin,  iii  his 
^'  Sacred  Apparatus,"  improperly  attributes  the  two  first* 
mentioned  works  to  Paul  Nicoletti. ' 

ALBERTUS  MAGNUS,  called  also  Albertus  Teuto- 
Mcus,  Frater  Albertus  de  Colonia,  Albertus  Ratis- 
lONENSis,  and  Albertus  Grotus,  of